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Dr. Nitin V Solanki (M.D.) Assistant Professor Department of Community Medicine, Gujarat Adani Institute Of Medical Sciences, Bhuj Immunization and Vaccination

Introduction to Immunizations:

Introduction to Immunizations


Immunizations Two artificial methods to make an individual immune to a disease Active immunization-administration of a vaccine response Passive immunization-individual acquires immunity through the transfer of antibodies formed by an immune individual or animal

History of Immunization :

History of Immunization Edward Jenner - cowpox- vaccination mild disease Louis Pasteur developed a vaccine against Pasteurella multocida Transferring protective antibodies

Vaccination Problems :

Vaccination Problems 􀂃 Socioeconomic and political problems 􀂃 Inability to develop effective vaccines for some pathogens 􀂃 Vaccine-associated risks discourage investment in developing new vaccines

􀂃 Vaccine Types :

􀂃 Vaccine Types 􀂃 Three general types of vaccines: 􀂃 Attenuated (live) 􀂃 Killed (inactivated) 􀂃 Toxoid

Attenuated Vaccines:

Attenuated Vaccines 􀂃 􀂃 Uses pathogens that are active but have reduced virulence so they don’t cause disease 􀂃 Attenuation is the process of reducing virulence 􀂃 Viruses often attenuated by raising them in tissue culture cells for which they aren’t adapted until they lose the ability to produce disease 􀂃 Bacteria can be made avirulent by culturing under unusual conditions or through genetic manipulation

Attenuated Vaccines:

Attenuated Vaccines 􀂃 Can result in mild infections but no disease 􀂃 Contain replicating microbes that can stimulate a strong immune response due to the large number of antigen molecules Vaccinated individuals can infect those around them, providing herd immunity

Problems with Attenuated Vaccines :

Problems with Attenuated Vaccines 􀂃 Attenuated microbes may retain enough virulence to cause disease, especially in immunosuppressed individuals 􀂃 Pregnant women should not receive live vaccines due to the risk of the modified pathogen crossing the placenta 􀂃 Modified viruses may occasionally revert to wild type or mutate to a virulent form

Inactivated Vaccines:

Inactivated Vaccines Can be either whole agent vaccines produced with deactivated but whole microbes, or subunit vaccines 􀂃 safer than live vaccines When microbes are killed must not alter the antigens responsible for stimulating protective immunity Formaldehyde is commonly used to inactivate microbes 􀂃

Problems with Inactivated Vaccines :

Problems with Inactivated Vaccines 􀂃 Do not stimulate herd immunity 􀂃 Whole agent vaccines may stimulate a inflammatory response due to nonantigenic portions of the microbe 􀂃 Antigenically weak since the microbes don’t reproduce and don’t provide many antigenic molecules to stimulate the immune response

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Administration in high or multiple doses, or the incorporation of an adjuvant, can make the vaccine more effective 􀂃 Adjuvants are substances that increase the antigenicity of the vaccine 􀂃 Adjuvants may also stimulate local inflammation 􀂃 High and multiple vaccine doses may produce allergic reactions

Toxoid Vaccines:

Toxoid Vaccines 􀂃 Chemically or thermally modified toxins used to stimulate active immunity 􀂃 Useful for some bacterial diseases 􀂃 Stimulate antibody-mediated immunity 􀂃 Require multiple doses because they possess few antigenic determinants

Vaccine Safety:

Vaccine Safety 􀂃 Problems associated with immunization 􀂃 Mild toxicity is the most common problem May cause pain at the injection site can cause general malaise or fever high enough to induce seizures 􀂃 Anaphylactic shock Is an allergic reaction that may develop to a component of the vaccine

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Residual virulence 􀂃 Attenuated viruses occasionally cause disease in healthy children or adults 􀂃 Allegations that certain vaccines against childhood diseases cause or trigger autism, diabetes, and asthma 􀂃 Research has not substantiated these allegations

Passive Immunity :

Passive Immunity 􀂃Administration of preformed antibodies 􀂃 Used when protection against a recent infection or an ongoing disease 􀂃 the serum from human or animal donors that have been infected or immunized 􀂃 Serum used for passive immunizations is called antiserum

Passive vs. Active Immunization:

Passive vs. Active Immunization

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Social mobilization is critical for ensuring utilization of health and nutrition services

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