Mosquito borne disease

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Mosquito borne disease:

Mosquito borne disease Dr. Nitin V Solanki (M.D.) Assistant Professor Department of Community Medicine, Gujarat Adani Institute Of Medical Sciences, Bhuj

Mosquito borne disease:

2 Mosquito borne disease Anopheles: Malaria Filaria Culex: Filaria JE West nile fever Viral arthrities Aedes: Yellow fever Dengue Chickungunya fever Rift vally fever filaria Mansonia: Filaria Chickungunya fever

Control measures::

3 Control measures: Antilarval measures: Environmental control: “source reduction” Chemical control: Mineral oils: MLO, fuel oil, kerosene. Peris green Synthetic pyrethroids: abate, malathion, fenthion, chlorpyrifos. Biolarvicide: Bacillus thuringiensis iserailensis (Bti)-Endotoxin Biological control: Larvivorous fish Gambusia affinis Lebister reticulatus

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4 Anti-adult measures: Residual spray: malathion, propoxur Space spray: pyrethrum, ULV spray of fenithrothion & malathion Genetic control

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5 Protection against mosquito-bite: Mosquito net: ITBN treated with Deltamethrin Screening: of windows, not >0.0475 inch in any diameter. Repellants : DEET, indalone , diethyl benzamide , dimethyl phathalate .

Insecticide Treated Bed Nets:

Insecticide Treated Bed Nets Specific Objectives Reduce human contact with the vector mosquitoes. Reduce morbidity due to malaria in the selected(vulnerable) population. Prevent deaths due to malaria. Promote concept of community participation in malaria control through NGOs, CBOs etc. Modalities through social marketing by public private partnership.

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Requirement State Programme officer- who make assessment by rapid surveys, size of nets & number of nets according to size Synthetic pyrethroids -(1) Deltamethrin (2.5%) at a dose of 25mg/ mt square (2) cyfluthrin (5%) at 50mg/ mt square Other may be used are pyrethrin 10%, Etofenprox 10% & alpha- cypermethrin

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The optimal effectiveness of insectides range 6-12 months, but 6 months is accepted for retreatment. This activity has been introduced by the government (NVBDCP 2007). Insecticide treatment procedure Step-1 –surface area of net determined by following formula surface area=2( a+b )+c, a=length*height, b=height*width, c=length*width

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Step-2 - The amount of formulation of insecticide for target dose of 25mg/ mt square of deltamethrin is calculated as: weight required(gm)=surface area in mt square* 0.025 Step-3- The volume of formulation required is determined by: volume required = weight(gm)*100 ml % formulation of insecticide

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For example to treat a mosquito net of 10 mt square using 2.5% formulation the volume of formulation required would be (10* 0.025)* 100 =10 ml 2.5 Step-4- Cold water must used always for this. The absorption capacity of net may be determine : It is done by immersing a net in a given quantity of water & allowing the net to absorb water. The left over water should be measured. This amount should be minus with the total amount will give the absorption capacity of water of the net.

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Step-5 – Use the tray for mixing the water & insecticide & wear the gloves for mixing & handling. Step-6 – Always dry the net in shades. Drying should never be done under the sun. Step-7 – Never throw the left over insecticide in any water body or drinking water source. It should be poured into a specially dug hole in dry ground where it would be absorbed quickly. It can be discharged into sewage drain or latrine. Synthetic nets are better than cotton as cost effective & effect of insecticide is last longer

Humen Lice :

Humen Lice Human lice are true ecto -parasites of man. There are three species of human lice viz. Pediculus capitis (head louse ), Pediculus humanus (body louse) and Phthirus pubis (crab or pubic louse). Adults (both female & male) as well as nymphs are haematophagous, however, only body louse has been incriminated as vector.

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The head louse infests the hair on the head and may be found in the neck region and behind the ears. The body louse infests the hairs of chest and axilla , seams of clothing in contact with the body and sometimes linen. The crab louse infests the hair of the pubic region and occasionally invades eyelashes and eyebrows .

Life history of Lice:

Life history of Lice

Following factors are responsible for the dissemination of lice. :

Following factors are responsible for the dissemination of lice. ( a) Close contact with lousy persons; sharing the same bed and clothing etc. In fact any prolonged crowding of human beings in unsanitary surroundings will spread lousiness. Hence lice and louse borne diseases are closely associated with wars and disasters among prisoners and refugees. (b) Indirect contact - for example exchange of beddings, clothing , blankets, towels, hats , combs and brushes. (c) Hair bearing eggs from lousy persons scattered in public conveyance are picked up from the seats and cushions of railway carriages and buses etc. (d) Head lice easily pass from one child to another in school by close contact while playing and also by sharing of combs . ( e) The pubic or crab lice spread through sexual contact and sometimes from toilet seats, beds and by close personal contact . Small children may become infested with crab lice on their eyebrows and eyelashes from their mothers or other close contact.

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Body lice : Rickettsia prowazeki , causing Epidemic typhus , Bartonella quintana causing Trench fever, and Borrelia recurrentis causing Relapsing fever. The presence of lice on any part of the body is termed ‘ pediculosis ’ which causes irritation with loss of sleep and scratching which may lead to secondary infections. The skin of a heavily louse infested person becomes hardened and deeply pigmented and results in a condition known as ‘ Vagabonds’ disease or Melanoderma .

Prevention and Control:

Prevention and Control Regular washing of hair with soap and warm water and combing with lice comb may prevent/reduce head lice infestation. Similarly , regular washing of clothes with hot water ( more than 60°C) and ironing and changing of clothes prevents body louse infestations. Currently, the insecticides of choice are Permethrin dust (0.5%), Propoxur dust (1.0%); for mass treatments against body louse.

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Shampoo formulations like Phenothrin (0.2-0.4%), Permethrin (1 %) and Malathion (5%) lotion are ideally used for head lice infestation. The insecticidal shampoo is thoroughly massaged on the head and left for minimum 10 min. Thereafter, the shampoo is rinsed off from the hair, hair is towel dried and combed with lice comb to remove dead/ stunned lice.

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