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Solid waste includes rubbish or materials that are not economically useful, present in solid, liquid or gaseous form, which originates from wide range of human operation, such commerce, transport, agriculture, medicine and domestic activities. It contains food waste, demolition products, dead animals, manure and other discarded material but should not contain night soil.PowerPoint Presentation: In most of the countries the per capita daily solid waste produced is between 0.25 to 2.5 Kg The output depends on the degree of urbanization, dietary habits, lifestyles and living standardsEnvironmental impact of solid waste disposal: Environmental impact of solid waste disposal Contamination of ground water and Surface water It favors fly breeding, attracts rodents and pests It is aesthetically unpleasant and generates foul odor Generation of methane and green house gases inside the waste dump Bird menace on the dump, which affect the flight of aircraft Transmission of disease through pests, stray animals and cattleOpen waste dumps : Open waste dumps Abandoned piles of household garbage, bags of yard waste, appliances, old barrels, used tires, and debris such as lumber, shingles, pipes and asbestos can threaten the health of humans, wildlife, and the environment.Open waste dumps – demerits: Open waste dumps – demerits Open dumps create a public nuisance, divert land from more productive uses, and depress the value of surrounding land . Open dumps have become the feeding grounds for children from poor homesClassification of Solid wastes: Classification of Solid wastes Refuse: Rubbish Garbage AshRefuse: Refuse Generated from street sweepings, markets, stable litter comprising of animal droppings and left-over feeds, Industrial refuse ranging from inert to toxic and explosive compounds Commercial refuse from retail stores, hotels, warehouses and offices.Rubbish: Rubbish A general term applied to solid wastes originating in houses, commercial establishments and institutions, excluding garbage and ash It includes paper, clothing, bits of wood, metal, glass, dust and dirtGarbage: Garbage A term used to describe animal and vegetable wastes resulting from the handling, storage, sale, preparation, cooking and serving of food It contains organic matter, which decomposes to emit foul odor and hence requires urgent disposal.Ash: Ash The residue from burning of wood, coal, charcoal, coke and other combustible materials used for cooking and heating purposes in domestic, commercial and industrial establishments Ashes consist of a fine powdery residue, cinders often mixed with small pieces of metal and glassPlastics and their role in waste disposal: Plastics and their role in waste disposal Organic polymeric materials Plastics are widely used in commercial and industrial sectors Plastics are not easily destroyed during waste management processes and are poorly biodegradable The chlorinated plastics emit toxic gases when thermally treated Plastics are known to clog or choke water lines, sewers or storm water drainage systems Easily blown by wind and litter the areas near waste dumps therebySolid Waste Management: Solid Waste Management The activities associated with the management of solid wastesModern Waste Management Systems: Modern Waste Management Systems 1. RE USE 3. RECYCLE 2. REDUCESolid Waste Disposal in an Urban Area: Solid Waste Disposal in an Urban Area The quantity of solid wastes generated is very high People from different professions, socio-economic status, ethnic and cultural backgrounds living in varied accommodations Major constituent of waste is putrescible organic matter with the balance of the content comprising of metal, glass, ceramics, plastics, textiles, dirt and wood in proportions depending on the local factors.Waste Management Plan: Waste Management Plan Sorting ‘ separation and storage of individual constituents of the waste materials ’ After sorting the waste is divided into the following streams : ● Dry recyclables ● Construction and demolition waste ● Biodegradable waste ● Bulky waste ● Hazardous waste ● Mixed wastes Sorting could be carried out manually or by semi mechanized or fully mechanized systemsStorage: Storage Every household, shop, industry, commercial centre or establishment generates waste that it needs to be stored safely prior to giving it for collection educate the people to store waste at source, dispose waste as per directions of the local bodies and effectively participate in the activities of local authorities to keep the cities cleanCollection of waste: Collection of waste Waste collection measures A daily waste collection service Recyclable material can be collected at longer intervals Waste storage depots (secondary)Disposal of solid waste: Disposal of solid waste Dumping Landfill Composting IncinertionDumping: Dumping The refuse collected from the cities and municipal areas are dumped in the low-lying areas or open tracts of lands, usually by the roadside Disadvantage Lying in the open ground Encouraging breeding of flies Attracting rodents insects and birds causing a risk of transmission of diseases emits foul odors and is an aesthetic nuisanceDisadvantage: Disadvantage The malodorous fumes and the toxic gases, which are emitted due to burning of wastes such as plastics and other materials, are spread in the direction of wind movement these dumps are accessible to animals and scavengers or rag pickers The drainage from these dumps contributes to the pollution of surface and ground and the soil aroundLandfill (Controlled tipping): Landfill ( Controlled tipping) Landfill (Controlled tipping) is a method of selecting depressed areas or creating artificial trenches where waste matter is thrown and compacted with a layer of earth on top of it This method is suitable if adequate land is availableSite selection: Site selection Away from habitation A hollow low lying area is usually selected such as an abandoned quarry, depression in land or swampy area, which is not a source of rain water harvesting or natural aquifer for a municipal area an alternative to this, trenches are dug in an open and flat area with the help of dozersSome of the points which should be remembered while selecting a site for landfill..: Some of the points which should be remembered while selecting a site for landfill.. Waste site should not be subject to flooding easily Deep sands with shallow water tables should be avoided, to prevent seepage of toxic wastes into the drinking water Fractured limestone soils, humid areas or wetlands with easy percolation should be avoided Soil with pH 6.5 or above should be chosenComposting: Composting It is a method where in the combined disposal of solid waste is carried out along with stable litter, night soil and sludge Compost is humus like material, which is generated due to the breakdown of organic matter under bacterial action, and is rich manure The compost could be sold at a price to agriculturists. Composting uses aerobic method of digestionPre-treatment: Pre-treatment The refuse or solid waste is pre-sorted to remove materials that could be recycled or have salvage value or those ones, which cannot be composted Reduce the waste particle size and this improves the efficiency of decomposition processMethods of composting: Methods of composting Bangalore method Mechanical composting Vermicomposting Effective Microorganisms (EM) TechnologyBangalore method: Bangalore method It was evolved under the auspices of Indian Council of Agricultural Research at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Also known as the hot fermentation processMechanical composting: Mechanical composting It is a process in which the compost is manufactured in a short period of time with use of waste materials and night soil The compost is ready in 4 to 6 weeks time as humus like material with a total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of 1 to 3 percentVermicomposting: Vermicomposting It is a method of disposal of kitchen and plate wastes, which serves the dual purpose of disposing off the garbage as well as proving eco- friendlyPowerPoint Presentation: Here a suitable area is chosen which is bound by a 2 to 3 feet high brick wall and few hundred earthworms are introduced in itEffective Microorganisms (EM) Technology: Effective Microorganisms (EM) Technology This is a modern eco-friendly technology consisting of use of friendly microorganisms such as phototropic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Actinomyces and yeasts EM technology also has the advantage of keeping the drains clean by decomposing the sewage and suppressing its bacterial contentIncineration: Incineration This is a process of disposal of solid waste material by thermal technology and has gained popularity in several developed countries Places where suitable land mass is not available Waste generated in hospital premises is disposed off in this manner in most countriesIncineration: IncinerationSolid Waste Disposal in an Urban Slum: Solid Waste Disposal in an Urban Slum Quantity of waste generated is lesser Solid wastes mostly comprise of used bottles, tins, plastics and ashes Animal manure and feeds are a significant part of solid wastes The roads/paths in the slums are narrow, hence the refuse lorries are unable to negotiate the paths and therefore the waste bins are placed at fewer pointsSolid Waste Disposal in Rural Areas: Solid Waste Disposal in Rural Areas Manure pits Burial Biogas plantSolid Wastes during Disasters: Solid Wastes during Disasters Planning for disposal Waste managementLegal Framework: Legal Framework The following acts and rules govern the disposal of solid wastes in India, published by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, which is the nodal Central Govt ministry responsible for the proper disposal of solid wastes : (a) Environment (Protection) Act 1986 (b) Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules1998 (c) Municipal Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules 1999Some Best Practices: 51 Some Best Practices Calcutta : 80% house-to-house collection using regular Municipal staff and usual wheelbarrows Many cities : Private groups are doing doorstep collection on payment Everywhere : SLUMS are the most cooperative . 419 slums in Mumbai have Take-away-bin systemBest Practices….: 52 Best Practices…. * Ahmedabad : 4 or 6-bin handcarts or tricycles to avoid double-handling of waste Nasik : Trucks move from one street-corner to another to have a city without street waste-bins Surat : Pin-point beats include bins on raised platforms, near drainage manholes Mumbai: Only wet waste lifted from hi-risesBest Practices….: 53 Best Practices…. SEWA : Weekly doorstep collection of dry waste by waste-picker women’s co-op, with public-info help by Bank Officers’ union Pune : Union of women waste-pickers collects for a fee both dry waste for recycling + wet waste into city bins or compost pits Bangalore : Citywide policy of dry-wet waste separation at source, collected at doorstep by city sweepers or waste-transport contractorsPowerPoint Presentation: French aircraft carrier Clemenceau http://www.greenpeace.org/international/news/ghost-ship-121205Thank you ! reference: Thank you ! reference You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.