Biosynthesis of Fatty acids

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FATTY ACID BIOSYNTHESIS REGULATION:

FATTY ACID BIOSYNTHESIS REGULATION

Biosynthesis of Fatty acids:

Biosynthesis of Fatty acids The excess dietary Carbohydrates & Proteins can be converted to fatty acids and are stored as Tri acyl Glycerol. Denovo synthesis of Fatty acids takes place in Liver, Kidney, adipose tissue and Lactating Mammary glands. Site : Cytoplasm of the cell Requirements : Acetyl CoA – source of Carbon atoms NADPH – provides reducing equivalents ATP – energy

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═ Fatty acid synthesis in 3 stages Production of Acetyl CoA & NADPH Conversion of acetyl CoA to Malonyl CoA Reactions of Fattyacid synthase complex .

Production of Acetyl CoA & NADPH:

Production of Acetyl CoA & NADPH Acetyl CoA is produced in mitochondria from oxidation of pyruvate fatty acids degradation of Amino acids Ketone bodies Mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to Acetyl CoA

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Transfer of Acetyl CoA from mitochondria to cytoplasm ═ In mitochondria Acetyl CoA + Oxaloacetate to form Citrate ═ Citrate is freely transferable ═ In cytoplasm Citrate is cleaved to Acetyl CoA & Oxaloacetate oxaloacetate ↓ Malate NADPH Malic enzyme Pyruvate

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8 Mitochondrial membrane Cytosol Mitochondria Glucose Pyruvate Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Oxalo- acetate Citrate Citrate Acetyl CoA Pyruvate Dehydrogenase ATP-Citrate Lyase Malate Oxaloacetate Malic enzyme Malate dehydrogenase Note: Acetyl CoA cannot be converted to glucose Citrate As Carrier of Acetate Groups

Palmatic acid Synthesis::

Palmatic acid Synthesis: It is a 16 carbon compound. It requires 8 Acetyl CoA requires 7 cycles. In the 1 step acetyl CoA is added directly , but in each cycle 2 carbons are added in the form of malonyl CoA 8 Acetyl CoA + 7 ATP + 14 NADPH H + Palmitic acid + 8 CoA + 7 ADP + Pi + 7 H 2 o

Regulation of Fatty acid Synthesis:

Regulation of Fatty acid Synthesis Acetyl CoA Carboxylase →Important step in FA Synthesis Acetyl CoA → Malonyl CoA This enzyme is activated by citrate Inhibited by Palmitoyl CoA This enzyme is also activated by Insulin Inactivated by Glucagon, epinephrine & nor epinephrine. Diet also influences fatty acid synthesis.

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