folic acid muhammad mustansar

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Folic acid (also known as folate , vitamin M , vitamin B9 (or folacin ), pteroyl- L-glutamic acid , pteroyl- L-glutamate , and pteroylmonoglutamic acid are forms of the water-soluble vitamin B9 .

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Folic acid is itself not biologically active, but its biological importance is due to tetrahydrofolate and other derivatives after its conversion to dihydrofolic acid in the liver

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Folate and folic acid derive their names from the Latin word folium (which means "leaf"). Leafy vegetables are principal sources of folic acid,

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6 it is also known as folacin or folate. it is water soluble vitamin . it is yellow crystalline substance.

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Chemically it consists of pteridine, para-aminobenzoic acid, and glutamate (Pte-GLU). Additional glutamate groups may be added via the γ-carboxylate group, resulting in polyglutamates (PteGLUn). Folic acid can occur in the reduced or the oxidized form,



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Folic acid structure:

Folic acid structure


Sources Certain foods are very high in folate: Leafy vegetables such as spinach , asparagus , turnip greens , lettuce and some Asian vegetables [ Legumes such as dried or fresh beans , peas and lentils Egg yolk

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Baker's yeast Fortified grain products (pasta, cereal, bread); some breakfast cereals (ready-to-eat and others) are fortified with folate Sunflower seeds Liver and liver products contain high amounts of folate Kidney

VITAMIN B9 (Folic Acid):

VITAMIN B 9 (Folic Acid) SOURCES Liver Yeast Kidney Green leafy vegetables Meat Fish RDA: 100 microgm/day

Absorption & excretion:

17 Absorption & excretion It is readily absorbed in the jejunum & ileum of small intestine . storage – liver. Excretion –through feces and urine


COENZYME FORMS OF FOLIC ACID: Tetrahydrofolic acid, FH 4 : Folinic acid: Rhizopterin:


METABOLIC ROLE (ONE CARBON METABOLISM): FH4 is the coenzyme form of folic acid and it acts as coenzyme in transfer and utilization of one carbon moiety [C 1 ] One Carbon Donor and Acceptor Compounds:

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One carbon donor group One carbon acceptor group Formimino group of formimino glu [from his]. N-formyl methionine of transfer-RNA. Methyl group of methionine . Glycine to form serine. Methyl group of methionine . Glycine to form serine. Methyl group of thymine. Uracil to form thymine.  -carbon of serine. Ethanolamine to form choline. Gly , trp , ALA and acetone, Positions 2 and 8 of purine ring. Histidine synthesis.



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Antifolates Folate is important for cells and tissues that rapidly divide Cancer cells divide rapidly, and drugs that interfere with folate metabolism are used to treat cancer.

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It is especially important in aiding rapid cell division and growth , such as in infancy and pregnancy. Children and adults both require folic acid to produce healthy red blood cells and prevent anemia

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Folate is a coenzyme for single carbon transfers (addition or subtraction of a single carbon molecule). This is critical for DNA metabolism. A folate coenzyme is necessary to synthesize nucleotides from their components, in order to make DNA as well as RNA.

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A folate coenzyme is also necessary for the synthesis of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is part of the chain of reactions leading to the production of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe;( SAMe is a methyl donor).

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Folate is therefore necessary for reactions that involve methylation,many of which are critical to cell function and survival.

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Deficiency can result in many health problems, the most notable one being neural tube defects in developing embryos.

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Common symptoms of folate deficiency include diarrhea, macrocytic anemia with weakness or shortness of breath, nerve damage with weakness and limb numbness ( peripheral neuropathy pregnancy complications, mental confusion,

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forgetfulness or other cognitive declines, mental depression, sore or swollen tongue, peptic or mouth ulcers, headaches, heart palpitations, irritability, and behavioral disorders. Low levels of folate can also lead to homocysteine accumulation

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DNA synthesis and repair are impaired and this could lead to cancer development

Daily requirement:

31 Daily requirement Men – women – 100 mcg Children – 80 mcg. Infant – 25 mcg pregnant women – 400mcg


32 DEFICIENCY Anemia – often occurs in pregnant women and also children skin – loss of hair, grayish brown skin pigmentation can also occur. Nervous – mental depression & fatigue. ORAL- severe ulcerative stomatitis may be seen. swelling & redness of lips.

Folic acid function:

Folic acid function

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Hair & Skin – it is essential for the health of skin & hair Pregnancy – it is an important nutrient for the pregnant women & her developing fetus.& folic acid improves the lactation.

Folic Acid Deficiency:

Folic Acid Deficiency Deficiency causes : Sensations of weakness Numbness and tingling of fingers and toes Ulcers in the mouth Sore tongues Feelings of weakness :


37 FUNCTIONS Formation of RBC – folic acid in combination with vitamin B12 is essential for formation, and maturation of RBCs


DEFICIENCY: It is the most common vitamin deficiency observed primarily in pregnant women, lactating mother , women on OCPs and alcoholics. In pregnancy decreased absorption and increased clearance is the cause. Anaemia: macrocytic type FIGLU test - to detect folate deficiency.

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Folacin = Folate = Folic acid Deficiency causes neural tube defects – in utero 39

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The antifolate methotrexate is a drug often used to treat cancer because it Inhibits the production of the active form of THF from the inactive dihydrofolate (DHF

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FUNCTIONS: The active form of folic acid is Tetrahydrofolate.It acts as coenzymes in various bio-chemical reactions.


45 BIOCHEMISTRY PEARLS Folate (folic acid) is an essential vitamin that, in its active form of tetrahydrofolate, transfers 1-carbon groups to intermediates in metabolism and plays an important role in DNA synthesis.

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THF is necessary for the de novo synthesis of purines and the conversion of deoxyuridine 5’-monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine 5’-monophosphate (dTMP). The major metabolic perturbation in folate deficiency occurs in megaloblastic anemia.

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