Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex

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Broadmann's Areas of the cortex

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FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES:

Dr.Mohammed Sadiq Azam Postgraduate, Prof.Siraj’s unit, M:I Deccan College of Medical Sciences FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES

BRAIN - ANATOMY:

BRAIN - ANATOMY

BRAIN - ANATOMY:

BRAIN - ANATOMY

BRAIN - ANATOMY:

BRAIN - ANATOMY

BRAIN – FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY:

BRAIN – FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY

HISTOLOGY:

HISTOLOGY Six layers: I: Molecular layer II: External granular layer III: Small pyramidal cell layer IV: Internal granular layer V: Large pyramidal cell layer VI: Layer of fusiform or polymorphic cells

SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX:

SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX

SENSORY HOMUNCULOUS:

SENSORY HOMUNCULOUS

SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX:

SSA 1 & SSA 2 Amorphsynthesis – forgets one half SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX

MOTOR CORTEX:

MOTOR CORTEX

MOTOR HOMUNCULOUS:

MOTOR HOMUNCULOUS

MOTOR AREAS:

MOTOR AREAS

ROLE OF BRAIN STEM IN MOTOR FUNCTION::

Way station for “command signals” Important in movement & equilibrium Reticular nuclei and vestibular nuclei Vestibular nuclei: M, K, S ROLE OF BRAIN STEM IN MOTOR FUNCTION:

VISUAL CORTEX:

VISUAL CORTEX

VISUAL CORTEX:

VISUAL CORTEX

VISUAL CORTEX:

VISUAL CORTEX

CONTROL OF EYE MOVEMENTS:

CONTROL OF EYE MOVEMENTS EOM: Medial & Lateral recti Inferior & Suerior recti Superior & Inferipr oblique MLF

CONTROL OF EYE MOVEMENTS:

CONTROL OF EYE MOVEMENTS Fixation eye movements Voluntary fixation mechanism Involuntary fixation mechanism Role of superior colliculi in involuntary fixation Continuous tremor Slow drift Flicking movts Saccadic eye movements Pursuit movements

AUDITORY CORTEX:

AUDITORY CORTEX

AUDITORY CORTEX:

AUDITORY CORTEX Determination of direction of entry of sound: Time lag between entry of sound into one ear and the other Difference between the intensities of the sounds in the two ears. Neural mechanism: Superior olivary nucleus

OLFACTORY CORTEX:

OLFACTORY CORTEX Very old – Medial olfactory area Hypothalamus & limbic cortex Less old olfactory area Limbic cortex & Paleocortex Newer pathway Dorsomedial thalamic nucleus Lateropasterior quadrant of the orbitofrontale cortex

ASSOCIATION AREAS:

ASSOCIATION AREAS

ASSOCIATION AREAS:

ASSOCIATION AREAS Parietooccipitotemporal association area: Spatial co-ordinates Language comprehension (Wernicke’s area) Visual comprehension (Angulate gyrus - Dyslexia) Naming objects Prefrontal association area: Sequential and parallel inputs of motor function Planning of motor activity (thought process) Working memory

ASSOCIATION AREAS:

ASSOCIATION AREAS

WERNICKE’S AREA::

= GENERAL INTERPRETIVE AREA = GNOSTIC AREA = KNOWING AREA = TERITARY ASSOCIATION AREA Single greatest role of any part of the cerebral cortex for the function of intelligence. Highly developed on the dominant hemisphere in the posterior part of the superior temporal lobe. WERNICKE’S AREA:

ANGULAR GYRUS:

Most inferior portion of posterior parietal lobe. Visual comprehension D yslexia ANGULAR GYRUS

FACE RECOGNITION:

Medial undersides of both occipital lobes Prosophenosia FACE RECOGNITION

SPEAKING A HEARD WORD:

SPEAKING A HEARD WORD

SPEAKING A WRITTEN WORD:

SPEAKING A WRITTEN WORD

NON DOMINANT HEMISPHERE:

Interpretation of music Nonverbal visual experiences (patterns) Spatial relationships between person and environment Body language, intonation of voices Somatic experiences from limbs and hands NON DOMINANT HEMISPHERE

Gerstmann syndrome:

Lesion at angular and supramarginal gyri near parietotemporal junction Dysgraphia Dyscalculia Finger agnosia Left right disorientation Gerstmann syndrome

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

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