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Many governmental strategies and international initiatives have promoted breastfeeding as the best method of feeding a child in his or her first year and beyond, as does the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and many others.History of breastfeeding : History of breastfeeding In the early years of the human species, breastfeeding was as common as it was for other mammals feeding their young The Egyptian , Greek and Roman empires saw women only feeding their own children wet nurses were employed to breastfeed the children of the royal families According to some Brahminical literature, breastfeeding in 2nd century India was commonly practiced but not until the fifth dayPhysiology of lactation : Physiology of lactation Throughout the last two trimesters of pregnancy a woman's body produces hormones which stimulate the growth of the milk duct system in the breasts Progesterone -- influences the growth in size of alveoli and lobes. Estrogen -- stimulates the ductule system to grow and become specific.Other Hormones: Other Hormones Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) Prolactin - contributes to the accelerated growth of the alveoli during pregnancy Oxytocin - After birth, Oxytocin contracts the smooth muscle layer of band-like cells surrounding the alveoli to squeeze the newly-produced milk into the duct system. Human placental lactogen (HPL) - appears to be instrumental in breast, nipple, and areola growth before birthLacto genesis I stage : Lacto genesis I stage During the latter part of pregnancy breasts are making colostrum high levels of progesterone inhibit most milk secretion and keep the volume “turned down” normal for a pregnant woman to leak colostrum before her baby's birthLacto genesis II stage: Lacto genesis II stage At birth , the delivery of the placenta results in sudden drop in progesterone / oestrogen/HPL levels high Prolactin levels cues Lactogenesis II copious milk production Prolactin blood levels - highest levels tend to occur between 2 a.m. and 6 a.m.Lacto genesis II stage: Lacto genesis II stage Although biochemical markers indicate that Lactogenesis II commences approximately 30-40 hours after birth , mothers do not typically begin feeling increased breast fullness (the sensation of milk "coming in") until 50-73 hours (2-3 days) after birth.Lactogenesis III stage: Lactogenesis III stage During pregnancy and the first few days postpartum, milk supply is hormonally driven. This is the endocrine control system . After milk supply has been more firmly established, Lactogenesis III begins - the autocrine (or local) control system At this stage, milk production follows the law of supply and demand milk supply is strongly influenced by how often the baby feedsLactation : Lactation The production, secretion and ejection of milk is called lactation Feeding at least once every two to three hours a target of eight nursing sessions/pumping sessions per 24 hours 10 to 12 nursing sessions per 24 hours is the comparative norm Feeding a baby on demandProperties of breast milk : Properties of breast milk not entirely understood nutrient content of mature milk is relatively consistent Depends on the mother's food supply and the nutrients in her bloodstream at the time of feeding woman uses an extra 500-600 Foremilk , the milk released at the beginning of a feed, is watery, low in fat and high in carbohydrates compared with the creamier hind milk which is increasingly released as the feed progressesThe let down reflex (milk ejection reflex): The let down reflex ( milk ejection reflex ) is caused by the release of the hormone, Oxytocin stimulates the muscles of the breast to squeeze out the milk The thought of nursing or the sound of any baby can stimulate the let-down reflex Afterpains – oxytocin causing uterine contractionsFeeding and positioning : Feeding and positioning Upright: Mobile Lying down On her back On her side Hands and knees Cradling positions Cradle hold Cross-cradle hold Feeding up hill Lying downVarieties of breastfeeding: Varieties of breastfeeding Exclusive breastfeeding Predominant or mixed breastfeeding tandem breastfeeding - Feeding two infants simultaneously extended breastfeeding – Beyond 2 and up to 7 years shared breastfeeding - more than one woman to feed a childExpression: Expression Expression can be used to maintain lactation, expressed milk can be fed through a nasogastric tubeBenefits of breastfeeding : Benefits of breastfeeding According to the American Academy of Pediatrics breast milk has health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic, and environmental benefits, as proved by numerous research studies.Benefits for the baby: Benefits for the baby bond between baby and mother strengthened Ready and is at body temperature decreased risk sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) encourages the proper development of both the teeth and other speech organs Benefits for the baby: Benefits for the baby beneficial role in the prevention of obstructive sleep apnea lower the risk of or protect against Allergies Infections Obesity Diabetes Eczema CancersBenefits for the baby: Benefits for the baby Breast milk has many anti-infective factors anti malarial factor Para amino benzoic acid (PABA) anti amoebic factor BSSL lactoferrin (which binds to iron, inhibiting the growth of intestinal bacteria like E. Coli) factors for neuronal development like cystine , methionine and taurineBenefits for the mother : Benefits for the mother increases levels of oxytocin – uterine contraction Help in placental delivery Decrease PPH Loose weight – fat in milk lactational amenorrhoea – family planning Prevent cancers- breast, ovary, endometrium Reduced risk of osteoporosis Bonding It saves time and moneyBenefits for society : Benefits for society Breastfeeding saves on health care costs Breastfeeding contributes to a more productive workforce – babies healthy –parents time on treatment saved Breastfeeding is better for our environment because there is less trash and plastic waste compared to that produced by formula cans and bottle supplies"Baby-Friendly" Hospitals Boost Newborn Breastfeeding Rates: "Baby-Friendly" Hospitals Boost Newborn Breastfeeding Rates began in 1991 and is sponsored by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Each "baby-friendly" hospital took 10 steps to encourage breastfeeding encourage breastfeeding in new mothers US - 80% vs. 46% exclusive breastfeeding ratesWhen breastfeeding may be harmful : When breastfeeding may be harmful classic galactosemia has HIV has untreated pulmonary tuberculosis uses potentially harmful substances such as cocaine , heroin and amphetaminesProblems with breastfeeding: Problems with breastfeeding Artificial teats (nipples) Swallowing difficulties Cleft palate Breast pain Engorgement Sore nipples Candidiasis Milk stasis , Mastitis Nipple confusionBreastfeeding in public : Breastfeeding in public A newborn may need to feed as frequently as every two hours Therefore legal and social rules regarding indecent exposure and dress code , as well as inhibitions of the woman, tend to be relaxed for this situation USA- September 29 , 1999 affirming the right of a woman to breastfeed her child anywhere on federal property UK-The legislation sets up a fine of up to £2500 for preventing breastfeeding in legally permitted places.Drugs to Avoid While Breast-Feeding : Drugs to Avoid While Breast-Feeding medications for anxiety , depression , migraines and chemotherapy Anti-anxiety drugs: Alprazolam , Diazepam , Lorazepam , Midazolam, Perphenazine, Prazepam, Quazepam, Temazepam . Antidepressant drugs: Amitriptyline , Amoxapine, Clomipramine, Desipramine , Dothiepin, Fluoxetine , Fluvoxamine , Imipramine , Nortriptyline , Paroxetine , Sertraline , Antipsychotic drugs: Chlorpromazine, Clozapine , Haloperidol , Mesoridazine, Trifluoperazine. Other drugs: Amiodarone , Chloramphenicol, Clofazimine, Lamotrigine , Metoclopramide , Metronidazole , TinidazoleBecome a Breast Milk Donor: Become a Breast Milk Donor Y ou have chosen to give your babies the very best, your own breast milk. However, mothers of many critically ill and premature babies can't supply the breast milk their babies need, and due to lack of adequate supplies of breast milk, these babies must be fed formula substitutes. Those that need breast milk the most are not getting it. You can help. Become a Breast Milk Donor.If Men Got Pregnant: If Men Got Pregnant Maternity leave would last two years... with full pay. There would be a cure for stretch marks. Natural childbirth would become obsolete. Morning sickness would rank as the nation's #1 health problem They wouldn't think twins were so cute Sons would have to be home from dates by 10:00 PMPowerPoint Presentation: THANKS You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.