Community Health Nursing.pdf

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COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING According to American Nursing Association “Community health nursing is a synthesis of nursing practice and public health practice applied in promoting and preserving the health of populations. the nature of this practice is general and comprehensive. it is not limited to a particular age or diagnostic group. It is continuous and not episodic. The dominant responsibility is to the population as a whole. Therefore Nursing directed to individuals families or groups contributes to the health of the total population. Health promotion health maintenance health education coordination and continuity of care are utilized in a holistic approach to the management of the individual family group and community. The nurse’s actions acknowledge the need for comprehensive health planning recognize the influences of social and ecological issues give attention to populations at risk and utilize dynamic forces which influence change.” Philosophy: 1 Philosophy of individual’s right of being healthy- Health is believed to be one of the rights of all human beings nationally and internationally according to the WHO charter. Goal of health for all is based on the philosophy of individual’s right of being healthy. This philosophy encompasses all the aspects of the society i.e socioculturaleconomic aspects so that there is no hindrance of any kind to attain these rights.

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2 Philosophy of working together under a competent leader for the common good  It is from the primitive ages of human ages man has learnt to live together to meet their needs.  The basis of modern community health nursing is to share responsibility of helping each other.  When it comes to considering a organization equal participation of the people working through the community groups/people with the peoplefor the people for their mutual benefitchange in behavior and health practices.  A democratic team functioning is essential for effective delivery of health care services. 3Philosophy that people in the community have the potential for continual development and are capable of dealiong with their own problems if educated and helped  An individual with average intelligence can learn and deal with his/her own needs modify his/her lifestyles adjust to his or her changing enviournment i.e he can learn to solve his or her problems.  On the basis of this philosophy emphasis is placed on health education projected towards individuals in homehealth centre place of work school community places or hospital.  This helps to modify their behaviours respective to health. 4Philosophy of Socialism

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Socialism as one of the social system in the community has control over production and distribution eg:food housing material production of all kinds education transportationetc. should be shared with all people. Aim: The aim of community health nursing practice is to promote health and efficiency prevent and control diseases and disabilities and prolong life by providing need based well balanced comprehensive health care services to community at large through organized community efforts. Objectives: 1. To increase the capability of community to deal with their own health problems. Provision of adequate information pertaining to their health problemshealth issues can increase the community’s capability to deal with the health problems in a effective manner People can be taught “how to care for themselves” through educationguidance and supervision. eg: Helping young mothers to give care to the children in meeting their physiological safety love and security needs so as to have normal growth and development of children. Continuous need based health educationnot only improves health knowledge and skills but also helps in developing positive attitude which brings change in health behavior. 2.To strengthen community resources

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Community resources include manpowermoney material their development distribution their utilization. Resources need to be strengtheneddistributed and utilized properly. For this purpose an intersectoral approach is regardedwhereinthere is need for a strong political legal and administrative support. 3.To control and counteract environment It includes environment protection measures and changing reaction to environment when some protection measures are not feasible. Protection measures are as follows: i. Safe drinking water ii. Clean air and soil iii. Safe disposal of refuse and excreta iv. Good social security and safety Changing reactions i. Mass Immunizations ii. Mass screening iii. Mass prophylactic treatment 4. To prevent and control communicable and non-communicable diseases This includes application all the three levels of preventive measures i.e: 1 Primary level 2 Secondary level 3 Tertiary level

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5.To provide specialized services It provides specialized services for motherschildrenworkerselderly handicapped and eligible couplesetc. 6.To conduct research To conduct research to build up knowledge and contribute to further refinement and improvement of community health practice. 7.To prepare Health personnel To prepare health personnel in the community for community health care services. Ultimate aim of community health care services is to reduce morbidity mortality and disability improve nutritional status and increase life-expectancy at birth. Principles of community Health Nursing 1 Community health nursing is an established based on recognized needs and functioning within the total health programme. 2 The community health nursing agency has clearly defined objectives and purposes for it’s services 3 An active organized citizens group of the community group is an integral part of the community health programme. 4 Community health nursing services are available to the entire community regardless of origin culture or social and economic resources and age sex creed nationality political affiliation 5 Community health nursing recognized the family and community as units of service.

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6 Health education and counseling for the individual family and community are the integral part of community health nursing. 7 Recipients of health care should participate in planning relating to goals for the attainment of health 8 The community health nurse should qualify as a full-fledged nurse. 9 The community health nursing service should be based on the needs of the patient and there should be proper continuity of services to patients. 10 Periodic and continuous appraisal and evaluation of health situation of the patients are basic to community health nursing. 11 The community health nurse should function/serve as an important member of the health team. 12 There should be provision for qualified nurse to make supervision for community health services. 13 The community health nurse does not provide material relief to patients but directs the patient to appropriate community resources for necessary financial and social assistance. 14 The community health nurse should not accept gifts or bribes from the patients 15 The community health nurse should not belong to one particular section or political group. 16 Community health agency should provide a continuing education programme for nurse 17 The nurses assume responsibilities of their own continuing professional development through acquiring higher and higher education and forming and strengthening the professional associations

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18 The community health nursing services should develop proper guidelines in maintaining records and reports. 19 There should be proper facilities and job conditions. 20 The community health nurse should maintain professional relationship with all leaders in the community and maintain ethics at all times. Quality assurance in community health nursing Define quality assurance Quality assurance can be defined as ”the promise or guarantee that certain standards of excellence are being met in care delivered.” Goals of quality assurance: 1 To ensure the delivery of quality client care 2 To demonstrate the efforts of the health care provider for the best possible result. Approaches for a quality assurance programme: There are two major categories to approach the quality assurance programme: 1 General approach 2 Specific approach 1General Approach It involves examining the ability of the person or the agency to meet the criteria and standard.

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Assessing the credentials is defined as ” formal recognition of a person as a professional with technical competence or an agency that has met minimal standard of performance.” The process of assessing the credentials has four goals: 1 To produce a quality product 2 To confer a unique identity.eg.registered nurse 3 To protect the provider and public 4 To control the profession The agencies or person who have been found to posess sound credentials are put through procedures like 1 Licensing 2 Accreditation 3 Certification 1Licensure Individual licensure is acontract between the profession and the state in which the profession is granted control over entering in and out of profession and over the quality of professional practice. 2 Accreditation State boards of nursing accredit basic nursing programmes since the graduates become eligible for licensing examination.

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Accreditation function is a voluntary approach which is connected to the governamental regulation that encourages programmes to be involved in the accrediting process. 3Certification It is another general approach which combines features of both accreditation and licensure. Educational achievements experience and performance in an examination determine a person’s qualification for functioning in an identified specialty area such as community health nursing. Other general approaches: 1 Charter It is a mechanism by which a governmental agency under state laws grants corporate status to an institution with or without rights to award degrees. 2 Recognition It is the process whereby one agency accepts the status of another agency as confirmed by the assessment of its credentials from a known person in the community or organization. 3 Academic degrees These are titles awarded to individuals by recognised institutions as having apred- determined plan in the branch of learning. There are four academic degrees awarded in nursingwith some variation at each degree level

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iBachelor of Science in Nursing iiMaster’s Degree-Master’s of Science in Nursing iiiDoctoral degrees-Doctor of PhilosophyDoctorate of Nursing science and Doctorate in Nursing. 2Specific approach Goals of specific approach are as follows: I. To identify problems between provider and client II. To intervene in problematic cases. III. To provide feedback regarding the interaction between the client and the provider. IV. To document the interaction between the service provider and the client. Specific approaches are usually implemented by agents and service providing groups who are interested in the quality of interaction between the client and the service provider Specific approaches to quality control are as follows: 1staff review committeesPeer review 2utilization review committees 3research studies 4Client satisfaction surveys 5malpractice litigation MODEL QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAMME

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Purpose-the primary purpose of a quality assurance programme is to ensure the results of an organized activity are consistent with expectations Structure Value identification forms a very integral part of the quality assurance programme In order to accompalish these formulated objectives the following steps need to be followed: 1identify the sources needed 2Describe the nature of the personnel required to handle resources supplies equipments facilities and finance. 3Once the resources are identified then policies procedures job descriptions should be clearly laid down for use Standards of structure are evaluated internally by a group of people like administratorsmanagement and staff members. Process The primary approach used for process evaluation includes the peer group committee and the client satisfaction survey. Technique used for process evaluation is direct observation questionnaire interview written audit and videotape of client and provider. Outcome:

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For the purpose of evaluation the nurse uses client’s admission data acuity of the problem and discharge data that may point out changes in the level of dependence and activity. Direct physical examination and interview will help a lot measure the outcome. This will help one to identify the causes and problems associated with health care. Evaluation Interpretation and Action: Interpretation is one of the major components of quality assurance Evaluation of the process should be carried out at major intervals and periodic reports should be prepared. Action is the final step in quality assurance model. The action must be based upon their significance economic benefits and timeliness. Health provider evaluation: It is essential to determine the individual service provider’s contribution to the quality assurance programme. Punctuality and performance are needed to evaluate the individual based on traditional trait ratings. Objective oriented action tools are developed in consultation with supervisor and the nurse. Nursing Audit Staff review committees are the most common review committees designed to assess the clent-specific aspects of certain levels of care.

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The audit is the major tool used to ascertain the quality of care: The audit process consists of 6 steps: 1 Selection of a topic for study. 2 Selection of a explicit criteria for quality care. 3 Review of records whether criteria are met. 4 Peer review of all the cases that do not meet the criteria. 5 Specific recommendations to correct the problems. 6 Follow-up to determine whether problems have been eliminated. Two types of Audits are used in nursing peer review: 1 Concurrent audit 2 Retrospective audit 1 concurrent audit concurrent audit is used by Medicare and Medicaid to evaluate care being received by public health/home health clients. The advantages of this method are as follows: I. Identification of the problems at the time care is given. II. Provision of a mechanism for identifying and meeting client needs during care III. Implementation of measures to fulfill professional responsibilities. IV. Provision of a mechanism for communicating on behalf of the client. Disadvantages of this method are as follows:

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i. Time consuming ii. More costly than to implement the retrospective audit iii. Because care is ongoing it does’t represent the total picture of the care that the client will ultimately will receive. Retrospective Audit Retrospective audit or outcome audit evaluates the quality of care through appraisal of the nursing process after the client’s discharge from the health care system. Advantages of retrospective audit are as follows: 1 Comparison of actual practice to standard of care 2 Analysis of actual practice findings 3 A total picture of the care given. 4 More accurate date for planning corrective action. Disadvantages: 1 Focus of evaluation is directed away from ongoing care.

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2 Client problems are identified after dischargeso corrective action can be only used to improve the care of the future. COMMUNITY NURSING THEORIES The models or theories which are applicable to the educator in Community health Nursing are as follows: PRECEDE MODEL Researcher green describes health education as a combination of experiences to encourage healthy habits: The model PRECEDE is an acronym for predisposingreinforcing and enabling causes in educational diagnosis and evaluation. Two basic propositions underscore the outcome oriented PRECEDE model.They are: 1Health and health behaviours arecaused by multiple factors. 2Health education designed to influence the behavior must be multi-dimensional. Health Belief Model Health Belief Model is divided into three major components: 1 Individual Perception

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2 Modifying Factors 3 Variables affecting the likelihood of initiating action. A person’s perception means his/her perceived threat of an illness. Contributory factors of these perceptions include demographic variables: 1 Age 2 Sex 3 Race 4 Ethnicity 5 Personality 6 Social class 7 Pressure 8 Reference group This model is helpful in looking at health protection or disease-preventive behavior.Data regarding health assessment is gathered together and organized for looking at client status. Health promotion model

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Pender 1987 developed this model to be used as a complement to health protecting models like Health Belief Model.determinants of health promotion behavior are organized into: Cognitive-Perceptual factors They include factors like: i. Importance of health ii. Perceived self-efficacy iii. Definition of health iv. Barriers to health-promoting behavior. Modifying factors They include i. Demographic factors ii. Biological characters like body weightinterpersonal influences family patterns of health care. CONCEPTUAL MODELS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING A Conceptual Model is otherwise called as a “Conceptual Framework”. A conceptual framework refers to global ides about individuals groups situations and events of interest to a discipline. A conceptual model

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provides a reference platform for members of a discipline to guide their thinking observation and interpretation. Conceptual models are approximations or simplifications of reality based on concepts. A conceptual model cannot be tested directly because the concepts are not operationally defined and the relationships are not observable. People in the community have continuous interaction with environment. Hence the conceptual model has significant application in community health nursing. Models applicable to Community Health Nursing Practice 1 System Model 2 Developmental Model 3 Interaction model 1System Model It focuses on the organization interaction interdependency and integration of parts and elements. It is postulated by Von Bertalanffy1952.Accoding to “Von Bertalanffy” Every organization represents a system by which term we mean a complex of elements in mutual interaction.”

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Characteristics of system model: The charachteristics of the system model are as follows i.e wholenessorganizationopennessboundary and entropy. Wholeness Wholeness refers to property of asystem in which collection of parts responds as an integral single unit Openness Openness refers to the extent to which it exchanges energy with the environmentin an open system there is input and output of environmentbut in a closed system there is no exchange of energy. Boundary Boundary refers to a border that defines what elements comprise the system. Entropy Entropy is a concept based on a major implication of the second law thermodynamicswhich states that elements in a closed system will proceed towards greater randomness or less order. Feedback

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Feedback is the process whereby the output of the system is redirected as the input to the same system. Application to Community Health Nursing The community is a social system made of interrelated subsystems. The subsystems include economic educational religious health care political welfare. law enforcement energy and recreational systems They are interrelated and have a specific orientation towards each other. 2. Developmental Model It is a way of thinking how changes occur based on theories of development of the human organization. According to Lewisthe change may be both reactive and structural. The reactive theory emphasizes the influence of environment in development programmesand the structural theory emphasizes the genetically determined programme for development Application to Community Health Nursing Practice: It is useful in working with infants and childrenbecause the major role of a nurse working with them is to assess the developmental progress and to promote overall growth and development.

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3.Interaction Model These models are based upon theories that stem from philosophical writings such as those of Cooley1969 and Mead1934. The major concepts used in interaction models are communicationperceptionrole playing and self conception. Application to Community Health Nursing: Interaction model is very useful in analyzing in Family dynamics. 1 In communication: Effective communication pattern is an important element of commun ity health nursing. 2 Self-Conception This is an important aspect of health and well being.It influences the person’s readiness to accept healthcare. So it is important that the nurse is attentive for cues that lead towards such realization and help the concept of self positively. 3 Perception Persons having individual differences will perceive incidents differently.

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Perception is affected by previous experience including attitudebeliefs and socialization Bibliography: 1 Lucita M. Public health and community health nursing in the new millennium. 1 st ed. Chennai: B.I Publications Private Limited 2006. p.88- 93136-43. 2 Gulani KK.Community health nursing: principles and practices. 1 st ed. Delhi: Kumar Publishing House 2008.p.33-46. 3 Stanhope MLancaste J. Community Health Nursing:promoting health of aggregatesfamilies and individuals. 4 th ed. St.Louis:Mosby1996.p.

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