plasma proteins

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Plasma proteins : 

Plasma proteins Dr. Hariharan

Slide 2: 

Blood volume- 4.5 to 5 litres. Centrifuge- upper plasma Plasma- 55-60% Protein content- 6-8 gm/ 100ml All ptns except immunoglobulins synthesized by liver

Albumin : 

Albumin Mol wt- 69,000 Synthesized by liver Half life- 20 days Blood level- 3.5 to 5 g/dl

Functions of albumin-1.Osmotic pressure : 

Functions of albumin-1.Osmotic pressure Colloid osmotic pressure of plasma- 278-305 mosm/kg Exerted by –Na+ - but crosses freely Proteins- large- cannot escape Starling’s hypothesis At capillary end- BP expels water out Effective osmotic pressure takes the water in

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10 mm Hg out E.O.Press- 25 BP-35 mmhg BP-10 mmhg E.O.Press- 25 10 mm Hg in

2.Transport function : 

2.Transport function Bilirubin Non-esterified fatty acids Drugs-sulphonamides, aspirin, salicylate, dicoumarol, phenytoin Hormones-steroid hormones, thyroxine Metals- calcium, copper, heavy metals Only unbound fractions are active

Slide 7: 

3.Buffering action 4.Nutritional function- all cells take up albumin. Consider as transport of a.a

Clinical applications : 

Clinical applications Blood brain barrier- fatty acids,bilirubin-albumin Drug interactions- phenytoin, dicoumarol Protein-Bound Calcium- hypoalbuminemia- low Ca+ Therapeutic Use- shock, Hge, burns

Hypoalbuminemia : 

Hypoalbuminemia Causes: Cirrhosis of liver Malnutrition Nephrotic syndrome Albumiuria- nephrotic syndrome, acute nephritis Protein losing Enteropathy Congestive cardiac failure A:G ratio-compensatory inc in globulins

Transport Proteins : 

Transport Proteins Albumin: FFA, bilirubin, drugs, Ca+ Pre-Albumin or Transthyretin- thyroxin RBP-Retinol binding protein Thyroxine Binding Globulin(TBG) Transcortin(cortisol binding globulin) Haptoglobin- hemoglobin Transferrin Lipoproteins

Polymorphism : 

Polymorphism Protein that exists in different phenotypes in population, but only one form seen in a particular person Almost all ptns Haptoglobin- Hp1-1, Hp2-1, Hp2-2

Acute Phase Proteins : 

Acute Phase Proteins CRP:C-Reactive Protein C- polysaccharide capsule of pneumococci Beta globulin Liver Inc in inflammatory states High sensitivity CRP- cardiac risk predictor

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2. Ceruloplasmin Liver Has 6-8 copper atoms Also called ferroxidase- incorporates iron into transferrin 90% copper is bound Low levels- Wilson’s disease, malnutrition, nephrosis, cirrhosis Inc in inflammatory conditions

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3. a-1Antitrypsin(AAT) Inhibits all serine proteases- plasmin, chymotrypsin, elastase, cathepsin Emphysema Nephrotic syndrome-AAT lost 4. a-2Macroglobulin Hepatocytes and macrophages Anticoagulant Inc in nephrotic syndrome

Negative Acute Phase Proteins : 

Negative Acute Phase Proteins Ex: Albumin, Transthyretin, RBP, Transferrin

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XII ###### ############ XII a XI a IX fibrin XI II II a X a fibrinogen X IX a X tissue factor Ca+

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PROTHROMBIN Zymogen Prothombin- by Xa- removal of terminal fragment-Ca+ binding site cleaved-converted to Thrombin 10-15mg/ dl FIBRINOGEN Becomes fibrin during clotting mechanism Fibrinolysis: TPAplasminogen Plasmindissolves clots Streptokinase, Urokinase

Abnormalities in Coagulation : 

Abnormalities in Coagulation Hemophilia A X linkes- males Deficiency Factor VIII Prolonged clotting time Excessive bleeding Old treatment-Blood transfusions Now- recombinant factor VIII Hemophilia B- Factor IX- Christmas disease

Patterns in serum electrophoresis : 

Patterns in serum electrophoresis normal α2 α1 β γ alb α2 α1 β γ alb Nephrotic Syndrome α2 α1 β γ alb Multiple Myeloma

Slide 20: 

Thank you

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