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Bioenergetics Dr. Hariharan. V Assistant professor Karpagam Faculty of medical sciences Coimbatore

Free energy:

Free energy Gibbs change in free energy( Δ G) is the portion of free energy available for doing work (useful energy) First law of thermodynamics states that the total energy of the system remains constant 2 nd law: total entropy of the system must increase for a process to occur spontaneously If Δ G is negative, the reaction proceeds by releasing energy- exergonic If Δ G is positive the reaction occurs using energy

How endergonic reaction occur in our body:

How endergonic reaction occur in our body Most of the reactions which produces energy ( exergonic ) are from catabolic reactions of food stuffs Endergonic reactions which require energy ( synthetic reactions, muscle contraction, Nerve impulse, active transport, etc) are achieved by coupling with exergonic reactions But it is not possible always. So we must need a energy currency which can be produced by exergonic and can be utilised by endergonic reactions

High energy phosphates:

High energy phosphates Standard free energy of some phosphates given in descending order PEP Carbamoyl phosphate 1,3, Bisphospho glycerate Creatine phosphate ATP ADP G1P, F6P, G6P, Glycerol 3 phosphate

ATP- energy currency:

ATP- energy currency ATP has 2 high energy phosphate bonds. ATP can be formed from the high energy compounds above it or it can help formation of low energy compounds below its Δ G

Sources of ATP:

Sources of ATP Oxidative phosphorylation- where reducing equivalents from various compounds are taken up by FAD and NAD and given to ETC to form ATP via ATP synthase. Glycolysis- substrate level phosphorylation TCA cycle- succinate thiokinase Other catabolic pathways

References :

References Harper-27 th edition

Thank you:

Thank you

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