Accidents & Injuries

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Magnitude of the problem,causes and prevention

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Accidents & Injuries:

Accidents & Injuries Dr. Gopalrao Jogdand, M.D. Ph.D. Professor & Head, Department of Community Medicine

Definition:

Definition Occurrence of sequence of events which usually produces unintentional injury, death or property damage.

Types of accidents:

Types of accidents Road traffic accidents. Domestic accidents. Industrial accidents. Railway accidents. Airline accidents. Violence.

Measurement of the problem :

Measurement of the problem Mortality: Measured as, Proportional mortality rate- No. of deaths due to accidents expressed as per 100 or 1000. Killed in road traffic accidents= death within 30 days of road traffic accident. Measured as death rate per 1000 or 100000 registered vehicles and deaths of vehicle occupants/1000 vehicles/year.

Morbidity:

Morbidity Injuries are categorized as a. Serious injuries b. Slight injuries. Injuries are assessed as per the Abbreviated injury scale. Morbidity statistics is not very reliable because of under reporting of injuries.

Disability:

Disability One of the important out come of the accident is disability. Disabilities are rated as a. Temporary b. Permanent. Or c. Total d. Partial. Measuring disability in terms of its duration is a limited concept which does not take in to consideration the psychological or social aspect of the injury.

Magnitude of the Problem:

Magnitude of the Problem Accidents are one of the ten leading causes of death in European countries. People killed in road traffic accidents exceed deaths of people caused in second world war. Accidents are on the rise in SEAR countries. All sorts of accidents are on the rise in India.

Road traffic accidents:

Road traffic accidents Causative factors:- 1. Large no. of vehicles, pedestrians, animals, bullock carts on the road leading to congestion on the roads. Large no. of old and badly maintained vehicles on road. Overloaded vehicles on road. Defective roads, poor lighting, speed braekers.

Domestic accidents:

Domestic accidents Drowning. Burns. Poisoning. Falls. Injuries from sharp pointed objects. Bites of poisonous insects, reptiles and other injuries from animals.

Violence:

Violence An estimated 1618000 people died in2002 due to violence as a result of homicide, suicide and war. In SEAR 386000 deaths. Factors promoting violence: The image of violence as a mean of solving problems at international, national or domestic front. Easy availability of fire arms, and other weapons of destruction. Terrorism: An accepted form of violence accepted by some as a way of solving problems.

Industrial and railway accidents:

Industrial and railway accidents On the rise in industrialized as well as developing countries. Defective and old out dated machinery. Main cause of railway accidents is human failure. Accidents are having multi factorial etiology.

Factors involved in accidents:

Factors involved in accidents Human factors: age, sex, education. Medical factors: sudden illness, heart attack, impaired vision, hearing and fatigue. Psychological factors: lack of experience, risk taking, defective judgment, delay in decision making, poor perception, family dysfunction. Lack of body protection: helmets, seat belts.

Environmental factors:

Environmental factors Defective and narrow roads, defective road lay out at cross roads, defective speed breakers, lack of familiarity, bad weather. Relating to vehicles: old and badly maintained vehicles, excessive speed, vehicular congestion on the roads. Inadequate enforcement of traffic rules.

Promotion of safety measure:

Promotion of safety measure Provision of seat belts to the occupants of a motor vehicle should be made compulsory. Helmets and leather clothing and boots: Use of these protective equipment should be made compulsory for the prevention of serious injuries of the bikers.

Continued….:

Continued…. Other measures: proper use of door locks, use of laminated high penetration resistant wind screens, proper designing of the cars. Use of alcohol and other drugs: Use of alcohol and other drugs should be strictly prohibited

Continued….:

Continued…. Primary care: planning, organization and management of trauma treatment and emergency care. For this purpose there should be an Accident Services Organization and well equipped, specialized trauma care hospital in all major cities. For transportation of the victims provision of ambulances, and if possible air ambulance should be made available.

Elimination of causative factors:

Elimination of causative factors Road improvement, imposition of speed limits, marking of dangerous points on the roads. At domestic level: reduction of electric voltage, safe storage of drugs, poisons and weapons. Industrial level: Provision of fire guards, fire fighting equipments, use of protective equipments.

Enforcement of laws:

Enforcement of laws These include strict licensing procedure, medical fitness test, enforcement of speed limits and severe action for drunken driving. Periodic medical check up of drivers over the age of 55 years. For the prevention of industrial accidents proper and strict implementation of factory and industrial laws.

Rehabilitation:

Rehabilitation Rehabilitation of the accident victim should be done comprehensively, medical rehabilitation, social, psychological rehabilitation and occupational rehabilitation. The objective of the rehabilitation is to prevent, reduce or compensate disability and thereby handicap.

Accident research:

Accident research Accident research is concerned with collecting accurate information about the type of accident its extent and other characteristics of the accident. Correlation of accident experience with personal attributes and the environment in which accidents occur. Seeking new and better ways to alter the human behavior, making environment safer, efficient evaluation of control measures. This is now called as accidentology.

Thank You:

Thank You

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