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Premium member Presentation Transcript Chap. 6 – Antigen-Antibody interactions : Chap. 6 – Antigen-Antibody interactions Characterized as: Non-covalent interaction (similar to “lock and key” fit of enzyme-substrate) Does not lead to irreversible alteration of Ag or Ab This exact and specific interaction has led to many immunological assays used to: detect Ag or Ab diagnose disease measure magnitude of humoral IR identify molecules of bio and med interest Ag-Ab interactions : Ag-Ab interactions Bonds: Hydrogen Ionic Hydrophobic interactions Van der Waals forces Each bond is weak; many are strong To “hold” they must be close requiring high amts of complementarity! Measuring affinity of Ab to Ag : Measuring affinity of Ab to Ag Assoc between CDR and monovalent Ag can be expressed as: Ag + Ab ⇆ Ag-Ab; k1 = forward (assoc) rate constant whereby k1/k-1 = Ka k-1 = reverse (dissoc) rate constant the assoc/equilibrium constant Ka = [Ag-Ab] value of Ka depends on k1; [Ag] [Ab] for small haptens, k1 is high for large protein Ag’s, k1 is lower Ka determined by equilibrium dialysis : Ka determined by equilibrium dialysis Cross-reactivity : Cross-reactivity Sometimes, Ab can “cross-react” with unrelated Ag…. (can occur if Ag’s share an identical/similar epitope) Often seen with polysaccharide Ag’s e.g. ABO Blood groups – glycoproteins -persons lacking one or both of the blood (AB) Ag’s will have serum Ab’s vs.the missing Ag’s -these Ab’s produced from cross-reactive MO Ag’s!! -provides basis for blood typing tests -necessitates compatible blood types during transfusions, etc. Other MO cross-reactions: 1) Streptococcus pyogenes 2) Vaccinia virus Immunologic tests: : Immunologic tests: Precipitation Rxns: -Ab’s and Ag’s in aqueous soln’s form a lattice => Precipitin Lattice formation requires: 1) polyvalent Ab’s 2) Ag must be bivalent, polyvalent Precipitation rxns, once popular, have been replaced by faster, more sensitive tests Immunologic tests: : Immunologic tests: Precipitation rxns in gels Immunologic tests: : Immunologic tests: 2. Immunoelectrophoresis: Incorp electrophoresis w/ double diffusion An Ag mixture is 1st separated by charge Then, “troughs” are cut ∥to direction of elec field and antisera is added to trough Ag’s and Ab’s diffuse towards each other to produce precipitin bands Used to detect: a)presence/absence of specific proteins or Ig classes b) immunodeficiency or immunoproliferative disorder Immunologic tests: : Immunologic tests: Immunoelectrophoresis: Immunologic tests: : Immunologic tests: 3) Agglutination reactions – simple, inexpensive, but sensitive! Several types exist: a) Hemagglutination of RBC’s b) Bacterial Agglutination c) Passive Agglutination d) Agglutination Inhibition Immunologic tests: : Immunologic tests: 4) Radioimmunoassay (RIA)– very sensitive test; used for measuring hormones, serum proteins, drugs, etc. at low [C]’s (≤ 0.001ug/ml) measures “competitive binding” of radiolabelled Ag + unlabelled (test) Ag to high affinity Ab Immunologic tests: : Immunologic tests: ELISA tests: dep on enzyme conugated to 2 Ab reacting with a specific substrate to produce a color rxn. Most sensitive of tests for Ag/Ab!! Variations of ELISA’s: Allows for qualitative or quantitative testing. Each one can be used for qualitative detection of Ag or Ab Also, a std curve based on known [C]’s of Ag/Ab can be prepped and an unknown [C} can be ascertained Indirect ELISA Sandwich ELISA Competitive ELISA Immunologic tests: Types of ELISA’s… : Immunologic tests: Types of ELISA’s… Immunologic tests: 6) Western Blot : Immunologic tests: 6) Western Blot Used to id specific proteins in mixtures Proteins are separated on SDS-PAGE Proteins then transferred to membrane Membrane flooded w/ radio-labelled or enz-linked poly/monoclonal Ab’s specific for protein Immunologic tests: 7) Immunoprecipitation : Immunologic tests: 7) Immunoprecipitation Provides a quick and sensitive test for finding proteins/Ag’s Especially in low [C]’s Binds Ab to synthetic bead support centrifuged Or 2° Ab w/ bead or magnetic bead -> collect by magnetism Immunologic tests: 8) Immunofluorescence : Immunologic tests: 8) Immunofluorescence Provides a quick method for the id of pathogens and lymphocytes Ab’s are conjugated with a fluorescent dye (fluorescein, rhodamine, phycoerythrin) If Ab’s bind to specific Ag’s, they can be illum w/ UV light and emit bright colors There are currently 2 methods employed: Direct staining Indirect staining Direct and indirect Immunofluorescence : Direct and indirect Immunofluorescence You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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