air microbiology

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AIR MICROBIOLOGY:

AIR MICROBIOLOGY DR. NAUREEN SHEHZADI DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, FACULTY OF PHARMACY, SUPERIOR UNIVERSITY

AIR:

AIR The air is a layer of gases surrounding the planet that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation). The common name given to the atmospheric gases used in breathing and photosynthesis is air .

AIR ENIRONMENT; WHY TO STUDY?:

AIR ENIRONMENT; WHY TO STUDY? Air is a special important and microbes and their activities are of great importance in many ways since; Of all environments, air is the simplest one and it occurs in a single phase gas. Air environment is instrumental in the chain of biochemical reactions. Air is the environment that provides oxygen necessary for the life of living organisms. Without air, life is not possible.

COMPOSITION OF AIR:

COMPOSITION OF AIR Air is a gaseous environment. Th e relative quantities of various gases in air, by volume percentage are; Nitrogen 78 % Oxygen 21% Argon 0.9 % Carbon dioxide 0.03 % Hydrogen 0.01% Other gases in trace amounts In addition to various gases, dust and condensed vapor may also be found in air.

LAYERS OF AIR:

LAYERS OF AIR

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Various layers can be recognized in the atmosphere up to a height of about 1000km. Although air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, air suitable for the survival of terrestrial plants and terrestrial animals currently is only known to be found in Earth's troposphere and artificial atmospheres. This layer is nearest to the earth. In temperate regions, troposphere extends up to about 11 km whereas in tropics up to about 16km. This layer is characterized by a heavy load of microorganisms. Above the troposphere, the temperature starts to increase and the atmosphere become unsuitable for microbial growth and population.

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT:

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

1) Atmosphere :

1) Atmosphere In addition to water droplets, dust particles and other matter, air also contains microbes. These microbes follow a particular pathway in which they are suspended into the atmosphere which includes. 1- Launching into the air (source of the launching of airborne microbes stems from humans, animals and vegetation) 2- Transported (by various methods including winds, machinery and people ) 3- Deposited in new atmosphere/environment The atmosphere can have a variety of physical characteristics, and can be very extreme in terms of the relative humidity, temperature and radiation. These factors play a huge role in what kinds of microbes will survive in the atmosphere and how long they will stay alive.

2) Clouds:

2) Clouds This is a second area in the air environment where bio aerosols can exist. Cloud water is a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds suspended within moisture (contribution of microbial activity to clouds). The conditions in clouds are not conducive to much life as; 1- Microbes present there must withstand freezing temperatures, the threat of desiccation, and extreme UV rays 2- Clouds have acidic environment, with a pH ranging from 3 to 7 . Nevertheless , there are extremophile microbes which can withstand all of these environmental pressures. Clouds serve as a transport for these microbes, dispersing them over long distances.

3) Environmental stresses:

3) Environmental stresses These stresses pose a variety of problems for survival of microbes and include; Desiccation (it limits the amount of time that they can survive while suspended in the air) Humidity (it affects the survival of organisms in air) Temperature (too hot of temperatures can denature proteins, and too cold of temperatures can cause ice crystal formation) Radiation (it can damage DNA within the cells) In dry whether the microbial load of air is high while in wet weather the rain washes the microorganisms from the air.

WHAT IS AIR MICROBIOLOGY?:

WHAT IS AIR MICROBIOLOGY? Aerobiology is defined as the study of life present in the air. Or Aero microbiology is related to the study of environmentally relevant microorganisms (bio aerosols).

PowerPoint Presentation:

The atmosphere as a habitat is characterized by high light intensities, extreme temperature variations, low amount of organic matter and a scarcity of available water making it a non hospitable environment for microorganisms and generally unsuitable habitat for their growth . Nevertheless , substantial numbers of microbes exist within 300-1000 feet of earth’s surface that have become attached to fragments of dried leaves, straw or dust particles light enough to be blown by wind.

AIR MICROFLORA:

AIR MICROFLORA Many different microorganisms can be in aerosol form in the atmosphere. In order to survive in the atmosphere, it is important that these microbes adapt to environmental stresses. Many of the microbes that are capable of surviving harsh conditions can readily form endospores, which can withstand extreme conditions. Many of these microorganisms can be associated with specific and commonly known diseases.

SOURCES OF MICROBES IN THE AIR:

SOURCES OF MICROBES IN THE AIR

FORMS OF DISCHARGE:

FORMS OF DISCHARGE

AIR-BORNE DISEASES (Bacterial):

AIR-BORNE DISEASES (Bacterial) Bacteria Disease Streptococcus pyogenes Sore throat Corynebacterium diphtheriae Diphtheria Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumococcal pneumonia Klebsiella pneumoniae atypical pneumonia Neisseria meningitidis Meningococcal meningitis Yersinia pestis Bubonic plaque Bordetella pertussis Whooping cough Haemophilus influenzae Influenza Nocardia asteroids Nocardiosis

AIR-BORNE DISEASES (viral):

AIR-BORNE DISEASES (viral) Virus Disease Influenza virus Influenza Hantavirus Pulmonary syndrome Hepatitis virus Hepatitis Herpes virus Chicken pox Picorna virus Common cold Flavivirus Dengue fever Rubella virus Rubella Measles virus Measles Influenza virus Influenza Hantavirus Pulmonary syndrome

AIR-BORNE DISEASES (fungal):

AIR-BORNE DISEASES (fungal) Fungi Disease Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillosis Blastomyces dermatiridi Blastomycosis Coccidioides immitis Coccidioidomyosis Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcosis Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasmosis Pneumocystis carinii Pneumocystitis

Class task:

Class task Microbial flora and its significance in hospital Difference between indoor and outdoor microbial flora

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