lipid crude drugs an intro

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LIPID CRUDE DRUGS:

LIPID CRUDE DRUGS Naureen Shehzadi Department of Pharmaceutical sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Superior University

WHAT ARE LIPIDS?:

WHAT ARE LIPIDS? Lipids represent a large and diverse group of naturally occurring organic compounds that are related by their solubility in non-polar solvents (e.g. ether, acetone, chloroform and benzene) and are generally insoluble in water. These include organic molecules e.g. waxes , fats, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins, monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids and others.

PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF LIPIDS:

PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF LIPIDS These serve as natural structural components of biological membranes. These act as energy reserves (predominantly in the form of triacylglycerols). These act as derivatives for synthesizing vitamins and hormones. Lipophilic bile acids help aid in lipid Solubilization.

PHARMACOGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION:

PHARMACOGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION

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FIXED OILS

DEFINITION:

DEFINITION A fixed oil is a natural (animal or vegetable source), non-volatile compound which is chemically a glyceride of fatty acids (usually triglycerides).

CHEMISTRY OF FIXED OILS:

CHEMISTRY OF FIXED OILS Fixed oils are esters of fatty acid with glycerol. Depending upon the reaction of alcoholic hydroxyl group with on two or three molecules of monobasic fatty acids, these may be; Monoglycerides Diglycerides Triglycerides

TYPES:

TYPES Based on the ability of an oil to absorb oxygen from the air, these may be; Mechanism of drying: Oxygen from the atmosphere, saturates the double bonds to form oxides that may be polymerized to form hard or elastic films on the surfaces where these are applied.

1- Drying oils:

1- Drying oils These oils upon exposure to air, undergo oxidation get dried and form tough and hard film. These are usually used in paints and varnishes. For example; Linseed oil

2- Semi-drying oils:

2 - Semi-drying oils These oils when exposed to air, undergo little bit oxidation and dry out but do not form tough and thin film. For example; Cottonseed oil

3- Non-drying oils:

3- Non-drying oils These oils neither undergo oxidation, do not dry nor form tough and hard film. For example; Olive oil

PREPARATION OF FIXED OILS:

PREPARATION OF FIXED OILS

Extraction of fixed oils:

Extraction of fixed oils These Methods utilize high mechanical pressure to squeeze oil from botanical material. Most nut and seed oils are extracted using one of these methods . Cold press: It is a process of extracting fixed oil in which the environment is heat-controlled to keep temperatures below 120 °F. Keeping temperatures low is especially important with delicate oils in preserving their inherent therapeutic characteristics. Expression

Extraction of fixed oils:

Extraction of fixed oils Expeller pressing: Expeller Pressing is a chemical-free mechanical process that extracts oil from seeds and nuts through crushing. The material is exposed to friction-generated temperatures which is unregulated. Thus, harder materials create higher temperatures. No external heat sources are applied during this process. Expression

Refining of fixed oils:

Refining of fixed oils Some oils undergo a refinement process in order to; Remove impurities I mprove the color or texture Stabilize the shelf life of the oil In the process of refining, the oil is reacted with a weak base solution to saponify the free fatty acids into soap. The oil is then spun in a centrifuge and washed with water until the pure oil remains. The oil may also be degummed to remove the sticky phospholipids, color pigments and odor-lending portions .

Bleaching of fixed oils:

Bleaching of fixed oils Some lipids are bleached in order to; Improve the color Increase the clarity of the oil Bleaching is generally done by passing the oil through Fuller's earth and then filtering the oil.

Deodorizing of fixed oils:

Deodorizing of fixed oils Due to the high temperatures used, deodorization is clearly the most damaging process of refinement. Some oils do require deodorization process in order to remove compounds that lend an unappealing or overpowering aroma to the oil. This is generally done by blowing high-temperature steam through the oil to vaporize the aromatic components or by heating the oil to high temperatures and performing this process under a vacuum to help remove all of the volatile odorous substances.

PROPERTIES OF FIXED OILS:

PROPERTIES OF FIXED OILS Generally speaking, these are oily, non-volatile principles of plants that are usually present in seeds and nuts. Non-irritant Odorless Tasteless Non-volatile Insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents Produce greasy mark on paper Upon heating strongly, undergo decomposition Upon hydrolysis, yield glycerol and fatty acid These are called fixed because they have large molecules which do not evaporate .

PROPERTIES OF FIXED OILS:

PROPERTIES OF FIXED OILS They have higher quantity of unsaturated acid compared to the saturated acids. They also contain (up to 2-5%) other substances like phosphatides, phytosterols, hydrocarbons, fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E etc.), minerals and other substances possessing smell. Sulphonated oils can be produced by reacting fatty acids and sulphurous acid under low temperature that results in sulphates of fats. These are used in textile, leather and metal industries .

PROPERTIES OF FIXED OILS:

PROPERTIES OF FIXED OILS These may be hydrogenated by passing hydrogen gas in the presence of finely divided nickel through the oil heated to 160-200°C. this results in partial or complete conversion of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acids (which are solid at room temperature and more stable).

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VOLATILE OIL AND FIXED OILS:

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VOLATILE OIL AND FIXED OILS Volatile oils Fixed oils Volatile at room temperature Non-volatile at room temperature Usually obtained by distillation Usually obtained by expression and other extraction procedures Do not leave any spot Leave a spot Cannot be saponified Can be saponified Mixture of oleoptenes and stearoptenes Esters of higher fatty acids and glycerin

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FATSAND FIXED OILS:

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FATSAND FIXED OILS Fixed oils Fats Liquid at room temperature Solid at room temperature Contain unsaturated glycerides e.g. glyceryl oleate Contain saturated glycerides e.g. glyceryl stearate Fixed oils can not be distilled without their decomposition

REPRESENTATIVE PLANT FIXED OILS:

REPRESENTATIVE PLANT FIXED OILS

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FATS

DEFINITION:

DEFINITION These are the esters of glycerol with three different fatty acids.

TYPES:

TYPES

1) Monounsaturated fats:

1) Monounsaturated fats These are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain and all of the remainder of the carbon atoms in the chain are single-bonded. Monounsaturated fatty acids are liquids at room temperature and semisolid or solid when refrigerated. Viscosity of fatty acid and melting points increase with decreasing number of double bonds; monounsaturated fatty acids have a higher melting point than polyunsaturated fatty acids (more double bonds) and a lower melting point than saturated fatty acids (no double bonds ).

Sources :

Sources Red meat Whole milk products Nuts High fat fruits such as olives and avocados Canola oil and Cashews are both about 58% monounsaturated fat. Tallow (beef fat) is about 50% monounsaturated fat Other sources include grape seed oil, groundnut oil (peanut oil), sesame oil, corn oil, whole grain wheat, cereal, safflower oil, almond oil, sunflower oil, tea-oil, and avocado oil.

2) Polyunsaturated fats:

2) Polyunsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats are triglycerides in which the hydrocarbon tails constitutes polyunsaturated fatty acids (fatty acids possessing more than a single carbon–carbon double bond. These materials exist as cis or trans isomers depending on the geometry of the double bond .

Types :

Types Omega 3 fatty acids: These have a double bond three carbons away from the methyl carbon. Omega 6 fatty acids: These have a double bond six carbons away from the methyl carbon.

3) Saturated fats:

3) Saturated fats Saturated fat consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain i.e. the chain of carbon atoms is fully "saturated" with hydrogen atoms . Examples include butyric acid (4-C), lauric acid (12-C), myristic acid (14-C), Palmitic acid (16-C) and steric acid (18-C).

Types :

Types

4) Trans fats:

4 ) Trans fats Trans fats are a form of unsaturated fatty acid that are typically formed during food processing. They occur only rarely in nature and are generated artificially by processing vegetable oils. In nature, most unsaturated fats are of the configuration whereby the carbon atoms either side of a double bond are on the same side: the cis configuration. Whereas the carbon atoms appear on alternate sides of the double bond in trans fats.

How produced?:

Trans fats are also known as partially hydrogenated oils which are produced by adding hydrogen to the liquid vegetable oil. The process of hydrogenation makes the fat more solid, lengthen its shelf-life and make it more suitable for frying and other uses. How produced?

Health effects of trans fats:

Health effects of trans fats Using trans fats increases the risks of heart diseases since it increases LDL (bad cholesterol) and decreases HDL (good cholesterol). Trans-fat is believed to be the culprit of roughly 50,000 heart attacks each year

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WAXES

DEFINITION:

DEFINITION These are a mixture of long-chain non-polar lipids that are plastic near ambient temperature and melt above 45°C to give a low viscosity liquid. Esters of alcohol other than glycerols

CHEMISTRY OF WAXES:

CHEMISTRY OF WAXES Chemically, waxes are esters of long-chain fatty alcohols with long-chain fatty acids. The nature of the other constituents can vary greatly with the source of the waxy material, but they include; Hydrocarbons Sterol esters Aliphatic aldehydes Primary and secondary alcohols Diols Ketones and β-diketones Triacylglycerols etc….

CHEMISTRY OF WAXES:

CHEMISTRY OF WAXES The chain-length and degree of unsaturation and branching of the aliphatic constituents also varies with the origin of the wax, but other than in some waxes of marine origin or from some higher animals, the aliphatic moieties tend to be saturated or monoenoic.

TYPES:

TYPES

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FATS AND WAXES:

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FATS AND WAXES FATS WAXES A wide chain of long chain alkanes, esters, polyesters and hydroxy esters of long chain primary alcohols and fatty acids. These are the esters of glycerol with three different fatty acids. Lack of triglyceride esters of glycerin and three fatty acids.

REFERENCES:

REFERENCES Kolattukudy , P.E. (Editor) Chemistry and Biochemistry of Natural Waxes. (Elsevier, Amsterdam) (1976 ). Hamilton , R.J. (Editor) Waxes: Chemistry, Molecular Biology and Functions. (The Oily Press, Dundee) (1995). Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry by J.S. Qadry, 16 th edition, ISBN 978-81-239-1917-1 Textbook of pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry by Biren Shah and A. K. Seth, Elsevier Publication

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