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TRADITIONAL SYSTEM OF MEDICINE Naureen Shehzadi Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Superior University


PRESENTATION OBJECTIVES To know meanings of traditional system of medicine? Creating awareness regarding traditional medicine systems with special reference to Pakistan


CONTENTS Introduction Definition of folklore medicine Traditional medicine systems Ayurveda Siddha Unani Homeopathy


INTRODUCTION Traditional system of medicine is also known as folklore medicine system. Almost every country or region has its own ways of ailing the community. The traditional systems are therefore also known as indigenous remedies. Traditional systems have been used worldwide for centuries and certain ancient medicine systems are still popular and used in their country of origin.


DEFINITION WHO defines traditional medicine as; “The health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being.” Fact sheet No. 134, WHO, 2008






AYURVEDA- THE INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE “Ayur” means life and “Veda” means science This system of medicine came into existence in about 900BC ago . Ayurveda system of medicine is the oldest written medicine system and in certain cases, it is even assumed to be the most effective than modern medicine. Ayurveda system of medicine developed an extensive use of medicine from plant origin.

Basic principles in Ayurveda:

Basic principles in Ayurveda Pancha Bhuta According to ancient Indian philosophy, universe and everything in this universe (e.g. food & bodies) are composed of five elements (Pancha Bhuta); Earth Water Fire Air Space

Basic principles in Ayurveda:

Basic principles in Ayurveda Doshas Doshas Representatives Vata Factors responsible for m ovements and sensations (ANS, CNS) Pitta Factors responsible for digestion, metabolism, heat production, blood pigmentation, endocrine function, energy Kapha Factors responsible for strengthening stomach, joints, limbs and refreshing sense organs

Basic principles in Ayurveda:

Basic principles in Ayurveda Dhatus (basic structures of body) Dhatus are seven in number; 1- Food juices 2- Blood hemoglobin 3- Muscle tissues 4- Fat tissues 5- Bone tissues 6- Bone marrow 7- Semen

Basic principles in Ayurveda:

Basic principles in Ayurveda Malas (by-products of Dhatus) Malas are classified as; Urine Faeces Perspiration The Doshas, Dhatus and Malas should be in equilibrium state to assure health and any imbalance leads to disease.

Diagnosis :

Diagnosis Diagnosis was based on moment-to-moment monitoring of interaction between health and illness. Diagnosis includes eight assessments (Pulse, Urine, Nervous system, Mucous and mucous secretions, stool, tongue, body sounds and digestion fire) Remedies were prescribed based on patient’s body type as well as disease or disturbance in “Doshas”. Patient are looked at as individuals as well as their relation with environment.

Treatment in Ayurveda :

Treatment in Ayurveda Treatment involves three steps; Cleansing Palliative treatment Rejuvenation Treatment include use of; Herbs (Plant remedies) Metals (Gold, silver, copper, lead, tin and iron) Minerals Animal drugs




SIDDHA SYSTEM OF MEDICINE To achieve mastery over nature and longevity, the ancient Tamils introduced two ways in their quest of knowledge; 1- Yoga 2- Siddha medicine Person dedicated to the task of ailing the community were use to be yogis also known as Siddhars (Tamil word meaning perfect in life or heavenly bliss). Siddhars were men born with great talents who lived for thousands years and by their devotion, search of truth, attained perfection in their life.

Basic principles in Siddha:

Basic principles in Siddha Nature the best physician Food itself is a medicine.

Basic principles in Siddha:

Basic principles in Siddha A ccording to Siddha medical science, universe is composed of five elements; Earth Water Air Fire Ether Man consumes water and food, breathes the air, maintains heat in body and remain alive because of life force provided by ether.

Basic principles in Siddha:

Basic principles in Siddha Earth is the first element which provides fine shape to the body and includes bone, muscle, skin, hair, tissues etc. Water represents blood, glandular secretions, vital fluids etc. Fire is responsible for emotion, vigor and vitality and helps in digestion, circulation, respiration and nervous system activity. Ether represents man’s mental and spiritual faculties. Harmonization/equilibrium between these makes a person healthy.

Diagnosis :

Diagnosis Diagnosis involved examination of urine, pulse, eyes, voice, body colour, tongue and status of digestive system. Diagnosis involved the study of persona s well as the disease. System emphasizes that the treatment must be based not only on disease but also patient characteristics (Age, Gender, Race, Habits, Mental frame, Diet, Appetite, Physical condition, habitat etc.)

Treatment :

Treatment T he system made use of not only plants and animal drugs but also produced great treasure in treating diseases with metals and minerals. Metals were incinerated and used as medicine. Most commonly used metals included gold, silver, tin, lead and iron. they also used drugs that sublime on heating e.g. mercury and Sulphur. Siddhas were aware of various pharmaceutical industrial process e.g. calcination, sublimation, distillation, fusion, separation, fermentation, congelation etc. and served as polypharmacists

Treatment :

Treatment Some secret methods (especially fixing and consolidation of certain volatile substances e.g. mercury, Sulphur, arsenic) are still a mystery. Siddha system treats all diseases other than emergency conditions. This system is effective in treating STD, UTI’s, Liver and GIT diseases, general debility, Post-partum anemia, fever, chronic diseases like arthritis, diarrhea and allergic disorders.




UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE Unani system of medicine has its roots in Greece. This system was introduced by “Hippocrates” who freed medicine from realm of superstitions and magics. This system was introduced in India by Abu Bakr Bin Ali Usman Kasahani, Sadruddin Damashqui, Bahwabin Khwas Khan, Ali Geelani, Akabl Arzani and Mohammad Hoshim Alvi Khan.

Basic principles in Unani system of medicine:

Basic principles in Unani system of medicine Unani consider the human body to be consisting of seven components; Elements Temperaments Humors Organs Spirits Faculties Functions HOTFFES

Basic principles in Unani system of medicine:

Basic principles in Unani system of medicine Unani system is based o Greece philosophy that considers the body to be made of four elements (Earth, water, air and fire) which have four different temperaments (Cold, hot, wet, dry). Interaction of these elements produces four temperatures; Hot wet Hot dry Cold wet Cold dry

Basic principles in Unani system of medicine:

Basic principles in Unani system of medicine The body consists of simple and compound organs which got their nourishment through four humors; Blood Phlegm Yellow bile Black bile It is believed that blood is hot and wet, phlegm is cold and hot, yellow bile is hot and dry and black bile is cold and dry.

Basic principles in Unani system of medicine:

Basic principles in Unani system of medicine Human body is based on six essentials; 1- Atmospheric air 2- Drinks and food 3- Sleep and wakefulness 4- Excretion and retention 5- Physical activity and rest 6- Mental activity and rest

Diagnosis and treatment :

Diagnosis and treatment Diseases are detected with the help of pulse, urine and stool and treatment involves various strategies. Treatment method Strategies Ilaj bil tadbeer Drugless regimens e.g. exercise, massage, hamam (Turkish bath), douches (Cold and hot) etc. Ilaj bil ghiza Diet therapy Ilaj bil dawa Correction of cause 1- ilaj bil zid 2- Ilaj bil misl Drugs are given as crude or as compound drugs (mostly plant origin, some minerals and animal drugs) Ilaj bil yad Surgical procedures




HOMEOPATHY It is a specialized form of therapeutics developed by a German physician, chemist and pharmacist “Dr. Samuel Christian Friedrich Hahnemann” in 1810. Homeo means “Like” and Pathos means “Treatment”.

Basic principles in homeopathy :

Basic principles in homeopathy Dr. Hahnemann believed that symptoms are no more than an outward reflection of the body’s inner fight to overcome illness; not the manifestation of the illness itself. So, the system treats the diseases or sufferings by the drugs that posses power of producing similar sufferings.

History :

History In the quest of reducing the damaging side-effects of drugs with medical treatments, Dr Hahnemann began experimenting on himself and a group of healthy volunteers. He started giving smaller and smaller medicinal doses of drugs and found that as well as reducing toxicity, the medicines actually appeared to be more effective at the lower the dose. He also observed that symptoms caused by toxic ‘medicines’ such as mercury, were similar to those of the diseases they were being used to treat e.g. syphilis, which lead to the principle he described as ‘like cures like’.

Fundamentals in homeopathy :

Fundamentals in homeopathy Laws Basis Law of similia Let likes be cured by likes Law of simplex Simple and single drugs be prescribed at time Law of minimum Drugs are used in minimum quantities i.e. just to arise the reaction in a body Drug proving Drugs of known curative power should be known . Curative power is the ability of drug to produce disease symptoms when employed in healthy individual Drug potentisation Process of dynamization of the drug in such a way that it produce the curative effect.

Fundamentals in homeopathy :

Fundamentals in homeopathy Laws Basis Vital force Disease is noting but disharmonious flow of vital force that gives rise to abnormal sensation and functions. To achieve health, this force needed to be restored. Acute and chronic diseases Characterization of disease on the basis of onset, nature of progress and termination Individualization No two individuals are alike in the world, so are the diseases and medicine cant be prescribed just on the basis of name of the disease Direction of cure Cure takes place within outward from above to downward and symptoms disappear in the reverse of their appearance

Treatment :

Treatment Mother tinctures Homeopathic dilutions (3x, 6x, 12x, 30x, 200x and 1000x) Tissue salts Tablets Tablet triturates Bach flower remedies


CLASS ASSIGNMENT What is a mother tincture? How can you define Bach flower remedies? Name 5 homeopathic drugs from each treatment group. Name the drug prescribed by homeopathic doctors for treatment of dengue. How acne are produced? Describe in terms of Ayurveda. Name 5 drugs (brands, manufacturers and indications) from Ayurveda origin available in Pakistan Name 20 Unani medicine available in drug stores or super stores

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