Vancouver Citation Style-JPS

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Vancouver Citation Style :

Vancouver Citation Style Jinesh P. S. 01/01/2012


CITATION STYLES Various citation styles convey the same information, only the presentation of that information differs. Most style guides fall into two commonly used systems: Author-date system (e.g. Harvard ) Numeric system (e.g. Vancouver )


INTRODUCTION Vancouver style came out of a meeting of medical journal editors in 1978, held in Vancouver, BC, and is maintained by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It is also known as the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Failure of Proper citations is plagiarism and is a serious academic offense.


ADDITIONAL RESOURCES ON THE VANCOUVER STYLE For the complete guide to the Vancouver Style, please consult this online book: Citing Medicine, 2nd ed. 2 URM Sample References at: For more help, please contact a VCC librarian:


USING VANCOUVER STYLE The full citations will be included in the Reference List at the end of your document, with matching numbers identifying each reference. Citations within the text of your paper are identified with a number in round brackets. References are numbered consecutively in the order they are first used in the text. When multiple references are cited together, use a hyphen to indicate a series of inclusive numbers

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Use commas to indicate a series of non-inclusive numbers. The original number used for a reference is reused each time the reference is cited. Include the page number for any direct quotes or specific ideas. The citation in brackets is placed after any commas and periods, and before any colons and semi-colons.


INDIRECT CITATIONS An indirect source is when one author is quoted in the text of another author. These types of citations are generally not accepted in Vancouver Style, so seek permission from your instructor. Include the author and date of the original source in the text. Use “as cited in” or “as discussed in” to say where you found the quotation and provide the citation to that reference.


Standard format : Author Surname Initials. Title: Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher; Year Book with One Author or Editor Eg : Mason J. Concepts in dental public health. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. Multiple Authors : Cite authors in the same way for all types of resources: articles, websites, videos, etc. List up to the first 6 authors/editors, and use “et al.” for any additional authors. Eg : Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, et al., editors. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 17th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2008. REFERENCE LIST - BOOKS

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Organization as Author Eg : Canadian Dental Hygienists Association. Dental hygiene: definition and scope. Ottawa: Canadian Dental Hygienists Association; 1995. No Author/Editor Eg : Scott’s Canadian dental directory 2008. 9th ed. Toronto: Scott’s Directories; 2007. Government Document Eg : Canada. Environmental Health Directorate. Radiation protection in dentistry: recommended safety procedures for the use of dental x-ray equipment. Safety Code 30. Ottawa: Ministry of Health; 2000.

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Chapter in a book Eg : Alexander RG. Considerations in creating a beautiful smile. In: Romano R, editor. The art of the smile. London: Quintessence Publishing; 2005. p. 187-210. E-book Eg : Irfan A. Protocols for predictable aesthetic dental restorations [Internet]. Oxford: Blackwell Munksgaard ; 2006 [cited 2009 May 21]. Available from Netlibrary :


REFERENCE LIST - ARTICLES IN JOURNALS Standard Format for Journal Articles: Author Surname Initials. Title of article. Title of journal, abbreviated. Date of publication: Volume Number (Issue Number): Page Numbers. Finding the Journal Abbreviation Vancouver Style does not use the full journal name, only the commonly-used abbreviation: “New England Journal of Medicine” is cited as “N Engl J Med”. If the abbreviation is not stated, use the PubMed Journals Database to find your journal: http ://

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Creating small URLs: If the URL of an article is long, go to: Journal Article in Print : Eg : Haas AN, de Castro GD, Moreno T, Susin C, Albandar JM, Oppermann RV, et al. Azithromycin as a adjunctive treatment of aggressive periodontitis : 12-months randomized clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol . 2008 Aug; 35(8):696-704.

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Journal Article from a Website: Eg : Tasdemir T, Yesilyurt C, Ceyhanli KT, Celik D, Er K. Evaluation of apical filling after root canal filling by 2 different techniques. J Can Dent Assoc [Internet]. 2009 Apr [cited 2009 Jun 14];75(3):[about 5pp.]. Available from: Journal Article from an Online Database: Eg : Erasmus S, Luiters S, Brijlal P. Oral hygiene and dental student’s knowledge, attitude and behaviour in managing HIV/AIDS patients. Int J Dent Hyg [Internet]. 2005 Nov [cited 2009 Jun 16];3(4):213-7. Available from Medline:


Standard Format for Websites: Author Surname Initials (if available). Title of Website [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of First Publication [Date of last update; cited date]. Available from: URL Publication Information Online: Publication information is often unavailable on websites and is not standardized like books or journals. Vancouver Style requires the “Place of Publication”, the “Publisher” and the “Original Publication Date” as part of the citation. If these pieces of information are not given, use: [place unknown], [publisher unknown] or [date unknown]. REFERENCE LIST - WEBSITES

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Website with Author: Eg : Fehrenbach MJ. Dental hygiene education [Internet]. [Place unknown]: Fehrenbach and Associates; 2000 [updated 2009 May 2; cited 2009 Jun 15]. Available from: Website without Author: Eg : American Dental Hygienists’ Association [Internet]. Chicago: American Dental Hygienists’ Association; 2009 [cited 2009 May 30]. Available from:

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Part / Article within a Website Eg : Medline Plus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine; c2009. Dental health; 2009 May 06 [cited 2009 Jun 16]; [about 7 screens]. Available from: Blog Eg : Skariah H. The tooth booth dental blog [Internet]. Mississauga (ON): Hans Skariah ; 2004 - [cited 2009 Jun 20]. Available from:

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An Entry / Article within a Blog Eg : Skariah H. The tooth booth dental blog [Internet]. Mississauga (ON): Hans Skariah ; 2004 - . Dental did you know: breastfeeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits; 2009 May 18 [cited 2009 Jun 20]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: Image on the Internet Eg : McCourtie SD, World Bank. SDM-LK-179 [image on the Internet]. 2009 Apr 29 [cited 2009 Jun 14]. Available from:


OTHER RESOURCES - NEWSPAPER ARTICLES Like journals, newspapers are cited differently depending on how the article was accessed. Include a working “permanent link” to any article accessed online. Eg : Fayerman P. Women must now wait to 40 for publicly paid amnio test. Vancouver Sun. 2009 Jun 9; Sect. A:5. Eg : Health Canada issues warning over fake toothbrushes. The Globe and Mail [Internet]. 2009 April 10 [cited 2009 Jun 23]. Available from:


VIDEO RECORDINGS Eg : Dental dam: still the best dry-field technique [DVD]. Provo (UT): Practical Clinical Courses; 2007. Eg : Cuaron A, director; Abraham M, producer. Children of men [DVD]. Universal City (CA): Universal; 2006.


DICTIONARY, ENCYCLOPEDIA OR SIMILAR REFERENCE BOOK Entries in reference books are either signed or unsigned. The author will be listed at the start or end of the individual entry. An editor(s) will usually be listed at the front of the book but the editor is not included in the citation for reference works Unsigned Eg : Mosby’s dental dictionary. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2008. Frenotomy ; p. 273. Signed (and Online) Eg : Murchison DF. Dental emergencies. In: Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy [Internet]. 18th ed. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck; 2009 [last modified 2009 Mar; cited 2009 Jun 23]. Available from:


PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS Personal communication (with the exception of email) should not be included in the Reference List, as they are unpublished and cannot be easily traced by the reader. Instead, acknowledge personal conversations and letters within the text in parentheses. Permission : When citing any personal communication, you must have written permission from the cited person(s) to use that communication. Acknowledge the permission in a footnote or in a “Notes” section at the end of the text.

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Conversation Eg : “…in conversation with a fellow student from the Dental Hygiene program (Affleck, Ben. Conversation with: Matt Damon. 2008 Sep 07.).” Personal Letter Eg : “…this information was later confirmed in a letter (Hepburn, Katherine. Letter to: Spencer Tracy. 2005 Mar 03. 4 pages.).”


Email Email correspondence is included in the Reference List as emails are easily traceable and dated. Eg : Bloom, Orlando. Searching Medline for dental hygiene articles [Internet]. Message to: Johnny Depp . 2008 Nov 11 [cited 2009 Jun 22]. [3 paragraphs].


REFERENCES Vancouver Community College Library. Vancouver Citation Style. 2009. Available at University of Western Sydney Library. Vancouver Referencing Style Guide.2011. Available at

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