HISTORY OF FORENSIC MEDICINE --jps

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HISTORY OF FORENSIC MEDICINE:

DR. JINESH P. S. 02/08/2011 HISTORY OF FORENSIC MEDICINE

CONTENTS:

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION HISTORY - EARLIEST PERIOD - TRANSITION PERIOD - AFTER 17 TH CENTURY A BRIEF HISTORY OF TOXICOLOGY REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION We can never be fully in possession of a science until we know the history of its development (Charles Greene Custom) The relationship between law and medicine is very old Many devoted their life in the study and development of forensic medicine as we understand it today, but they were all disgraced by their colleagues Most medical professionals regarded them as intruders, exploiters of the true art of medicine, or representatives of a second-rate science tainted by crime and the ugliness of slums

EARLIEST PERIOD:

EARLIEST PERIOD

EGYPT:

EGYPT 2900 BC – IMHOTEP- Chief Justice and Physician to king Zozer of Egypt, the first ever medico-legal expert , personified medicolegal relation

EGYPT:

The Egyptians were well-versed in the art of preservation of dead bodies, by mummifying them artificially They were recovered in an excellent state of preservation 3300 BC - Earliest known Egyptian mummy, nicknamed ‘Ginger' for its hair color , found in a cemetery at Gebelein , Egypt EGYPT

BABYLON:

BABYLON 2200 BC – HAMMURABI – King of Babylon formulated oldest known law code -medical malpractice , criminal & civil liability of medical man -penalties varied with social status of the patient & ranged from cutting of hand of erring physician to monetary compensation

CHINA:

CHINA 3000 BC – Chinese materia medica give information of poisons including aconite, arsenic & opium 200 BC – hashish used as narcotic in surgery

INDIA:

3000 – 1000 B C - In ancient historic period legal system was based on hindu jurisprudence Dharma as in Vedhas & Smritis 3100 BC – code of manu – “DHARMASASTRA “ – contain medicolegal principles – 1 st legal code of India The drunk, insane, hungry and thirsty, the fatgued & with defective sense organs were not permitted to be witnesses in court Statements of children, old men, diseased persons & weak minded persons were not to be relied INDIA

DHARMASASTRA:

DHARMASASTRA Damaging medicinal plants were punishable Child marriage were not allowed Punishments were mentioned for Adultery, Seduction, Incest, Unnatural sexual offences Killing of Brahmin was greatest crime

INDIA:

INDIA In Rig Veda – marriage bet brother & sister was prohibited, only persons having knowledge were allowed to treat patients Marriage before puberty was not allowed

INDIA:

Brunahatya & Atmahatya were punishable 1500 BC - Atharva veda – cure for injuries due to arrows, stab wounds, snake bite 5 th & 4 th century BC – Ashoka - hospitals, roadside clinics, Ayurvedic teaching institutions ( Budha era) INDIA

INDIA:

INDIA 350 BC – “ Arthasasthra ” by Kaudilyan – medical knowledge utilized for the purpose of law ( Mauryan period) 250 AD – Charaka Samhitha contains moral & ethical principles 300 AD – Susrutha Samhitha contains surgical principles

GREECE:

GREECE 460 - 384BC – Hippocrates described lethality of wounds Separated the discipline of medicine from religion, believing and arguing that disease was not a punishment inflicted by the Gods Hippocratic oath includes the promise not to administer poisons or to procure abortions

GREECE:

GREECE 384 – 322 BC Aristotle fixed animation of fetus at 40 day after conception Proposed a law to prevent rearing deformed children by limiting age of procreation in men is 70 & of conception in women is 50

GREECE:

287 BC – 212 BC “ Archimedes of Syracuse “ - Greek, mathematician, physicist - first instance when science used for detection of crime King of Syracuse, Heiron 2 nd - suspicious about the purity of gold in his crown & he instructed his court scientist Archimedes to find out a way to detect adulteration without destroying the crown First forensic scientist GREECE

ROME:

600 BC – bodies of all women dying during confinement should be immediately opened to save child’s life 572 BC – in “ Lex Aquillia ” - deals with lethality of wounds 138 BC - in “ Lex Aquillia ” - physician causing death of his patient was to be exiled or executed, abortion was highly punishable ROME

ROME:

ROME 44 BC - Roman physician “ Antistius “ examined body of Julius Caesar & found 23 stab wounds over his body After the post-mortem examination, he concluded that only one wound- “one in the chest between 1 st and 2 nd ribs” – was fatal

ROME:

AD 23 – 79 Pliny the Elder - wrote abt suspended animation, sudden natural death & suicide He wrote men’s corpses in water float on their backs but womens face downwards ROME

ROME:

AD 483 – 565 Emperor Justinian – practice of medicine & prescribed penalties Physicians are not ordinary witnesses, but give judgement rather than testimony 750 AD –Roman Emperor Charlemagne produced “ Capaitularies ” by bishops – mentioned that expert medical testimony was required in wounding, abortion, rape, incest, infanticide, & suicide ROME

BET 5th & 10th CENTURY; THE DARK AGE:

BET 5 th & 10 th CENTURY; THE DARK AGE The “ Leges Barbarorum ” of Goths, Visigoths & Vandals implemented “ Wergeld ” means blood money

TRANSITIONAL PERIOD:

TRANSITIONAL PERIOD

HIS YUAN LU:

HIS YUAN LU 1248 AD – Chinese doctor Hsu Chichtsi wrote Hsi Yüan Lu (instructions to coroners) Handbook for applying medical knowledge to the solving of crimes and to the work of the courts Contain valuable instructions for the examination of corpses It deals with the various kinds of wounds It tells how to ascertain whether a person had been killed by strangulation or drowning

HIS YUAN LU:

It discusses the problem of whether dead bodies found in water have been actually drowned, or killed beforehand & whether a body was burned before or after death It stresses the need for careful examination of the scene of the crime Its basic attitude may be summed up in the proverb: "Everything may depend on the difference between two hairs" HIS YUAN LU

ITALY:

ITALY 1249 AD - Hugo de Luca, a famous surgeon issued medical certificates to court of justice of Bologna 1302 AD - Bartolomeo de Varignana performed an autopsy as per order of Bologna court in a case of suspected poisoning 1394 AD – Medicolegal autopsies were conducted in Pavia

GERMANY:

GERMANY 1532 AD – Emperor Charles 5 th declared “ Constitutio Criminalis Carolina” Injury to the person, infanticide, suicide, procured abortion, concealed & pretended pregnancy, medical malpractice, simulated diseases Allowed opening of bodies for investigation

GERMANY:

Galen 150 AD described difference between lung tissue before & after birth 1561 AD – Sonnenkalb in Saxony introduced hydrostatic test for live birth 1782 AD - 1 st medicolegal journal “Magazine fur die Gerichtliche Arzeneikundeund Medicinische Polizei ” GERMANY

Slide 28:

1556 - first exhumation in Bohemia buried about a week

17TH CENTURY ONWARDS:

17 TH CENTURY ONWARDS

GIOVANNI BATTISTA MORGAGNI:

GIOVANNI BATTISTA MORGAGNI 1682-1771 - Italian anatomist Giovanni Battista Morgagni had begun dissecting the bodies of the dead and comparing the alterations with the symptoms of the diseases 1761 - published a book on the 640 post-mortem dissections he had conducted He thus was the father of modern anatomical pathology

GIOVANNI MORGAGNI:

He wrote the famouse sentence “ Tacea colloquia effugiat risus . Hic locus estubi nors gaudet succurrere vitae” “Let conversation cease; let laughter flee. This is the place where death delights to help the living” GIOVANNI MORGAGNI

MATHIEU JOSEPH BONAVENTURE ORFILA:

MATHIEU JOSEPH BONAVENTURE ORFILA 1787-1853 - Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila , Spanish born French toxicologist & chemist Orfila created new techniques and refined existing techniques in his treatise, “ Traité des poisons ” greatly enhancing their accuracy especially in case of Arsenic poisoning

ORFILA:

ORFILA In 1840, Marie LaFarge tried for the murder of her husband using As Arsenic available to killer & found in food , not found in body Orfila was asked by the court to investigate He discovered the “ Marsh Test”, was performed incorrectly & that there was arsenic in the body & LaFarge found guilty

ORFILA:

He is one of the first people to use a microscope to assess blood and semen stains Father of Toxicology ORFILA

JOHANN LUDWIG CASPER:

JOHANN LUDWIG CASPER 1796-1864 - born in Berlin Published Forensic Dissection in 1850 & Practical Manual of Forensic Medicine in 1856 He published a handbook – Casper’s Dictum of Putrefaction

CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES:

1864 - lungs of dead newborn children: stillborn, newborn who have taken a breath, newborn whose lungs have been artificially inflated CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES

CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES:

CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES 1864 - Rope marks and upper thigh

CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES:

1864 - Head and hand of a drownee CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES

CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES:

1864 - Bloodstain, blisters, bullet holes CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES

CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES:

The stomach of a 50-year-old man, who died due to tuberculosis of the lung CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES

Slide 41:

1788 - Samuel Farr published “Elements of Medical Jurisprudence” first book of forensic medicine in English 1845 – Dr. C T Woodford appointed as the first professor of forensic medicine in India at Calcutta Medical College 1847 – 1 st code of medical ethics was adopted by American Medical Association in Philadelphia

Slide 42:

1855 – Ambroise August Tardieu published “Etudes” a monograph in forensic medicine – Tardieu’s spots in asphyxial deaths 1860 – Indian Penal Code was drafted by Lord Macaulay 1862 – Federal court in Delhi with a provision for appeal to the Privy council in England 1878 – Criminal Procedure Code was drafted by Lord Macaulay

Slide 43:

1882 – Alphonse Bertillon , a French police officer & biometric researcher – 1 st system of anthropometric identification “Father of Forensic Medicine”

Slide 44:

1892 - Francois Galton English Anthropometrist introduced fingerprint identification

Slide 45:

1897 – 1 st finger print bureau was established in Calcutta 1920 – Jaising P modi published “Medical Jurisprudence & Toxicology” 1921 – John Larson & Berkeley , USA invented polygraph 1929 – 1 st forensic medicine laboratory was established in Chicago

Slide 46:

1933 – Indian Medical Council constituted 1947 – International Code of Medical Ethics declared in Nuremberg 1947 – Geneva convention against torture 1958 – Dr. Theod0re Curhey coined – psychological autopsy 1961 – Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine constituted at Calcutta

EDMOND LOCARD:

EDMOND LOCARD 1877-1966 – known as Sherlock Holmes of France Exchange Principle “The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another”

DR. THOMAS NOGUCHI:

DR. THOMAS NOGUCHI 1962 – Dr. Thomas Noguchi ( known as Coroner of the stars) done the psychological autopsy of Marylene Monroe The cause of death was phenobarbitone poisoning - was suffering from depression & personality disorder, habit of taking barbiturates

Slide 49:

1964 – Code of Ethics – World Medical Association - declaration of Helsinki 1985 – Alec Jeffrey , Leicester University Prof – DNA fingerprinting

Slide 50:

In India, DNA fingerprinting is successfully being used at the Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad by Dr Lalji Singh 1993 – Indian Human Rights Act 2000 – Lawrence Farwell – Brain fingerprinting in USA

Slide 51:

After 2000 - Virtopsy project of the Institutes of Forensic Medicine, Diagnostic Radiology & Neuroradiology at the University of Bern, Switzerland

A BRIEF HISTORY OF TOXICOLOGY:

A BRIEF HISTORY OF TOXICOLOGY

Slide 53:

16000 BC – hunters in Kenya used poison to kill 4500 BC – Sumerians in Mesopotania worshipped Gula 850 BC – Homer in Odyssey mentioned about poisoned arrows 600 BC – Kasyapa - cured snakebite 399 BC – Socrates was executed by giving poison hemlock (conium maculatum ) 322 BC – Demosthenes committed suicide by taking poison

Slide 54:

183 BC – Hannibal – cyanide 30 BC – Cleopatra - venom of an asp 1216 AD – King John of England was murdered by toad toxins 16 th century – Bezoar stones –remedy against poison 1769 – Secundus designed stomach pump 1831 Tuery (French pharmacist) – activated charcol as antidote

Slide 55:

1870 – Lieben – Iodoform test for alcohol 1880 – Fodor – quantitative estimation of CO in blood 1898 – Eduard Schiff – hair should be examined in As poisoning 1906 – Niclolux – quantitative determination of alcohol in blood 1913 – J. J. Thompson – mass spectrometer 1944 - Erika Cremer ( austria ) - gas chromatography

Slide 56:

1956 – Minimata Bay disaster 1958 – Kerala food poisoning tragedy 1984 – Bhopal gas tragedy 1992 – knew abt one & only poisonous bird hooded pitohui 2003 – “comprehensive medical toxicology” by V. V. Pillai

REFERENCES:

REFERENCES Jason Payne-James, Roger W. Byard , Tracey S. Corey, Carol Henderson: Encyclopedia of Forensic & Legal Medicine. Vol2. 2005 B. Umadethan : Forensic Medicine. 1 st ed. 2011 Francis E. Camps, Ann E. Robinson, Bernard G. B. Lucas: Gradwohl’s Legal Medicine. 3 ed.1976 B. V. Subrahmanyam : Modi’s Medical Jurisprudence & Toxicology. 22 nd ed. 2001 Visible proofs – Forensic views of the body. July 2006 V. V. Pillai . Textbook of Forensic Medicine & toxicology. 16 th ed.2011

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

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