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Health professionals may call for camp sanitation or coping with waste disposal problems when there is a disruption or breakdown of community health services in natural disasters. Slide 3: What is Solid Waste ? Solid wastes includes Garbage (food waste) Rubbish (paper, plastics, wood, metal, throw-away containers, glass) Demolition products (bricks, concrete, pipes) Dead animals, manure and other discarded materials. Slide 4: SOLID WASTE ACCUMULATION, A HEALTH HAZARD BECAUSE : It decomposes and favours fly breeding It attracts rodents and vermin The pathogens which may be present in the solid waste may be conveyed back to man’s food through flies and dust There is a possibility of water and soil pollution Heaps of refuse present an unsightly appearance and nuisance from bad odour. Slide 5: SOURCES OF REFUSE (SOLID WASTE) Street refuse Market refuse Stable refuse (litter) Industrial refuse Domestic refuse Slide 6: STORAGE Galvanized steel dust bin with close fitting cover. Public Bins COLLECTION House to house collection. Dumping the refuse into the nearest public bins. Thrown in the street. TRANSPORT Dustless refuse collector (vehicles) - Western method Slide 7: METHODS OF DISPOSAL The Choice of Particular Method of Disposal depends upon the local factors like cost and availability of land and labour. The principles methods of refuse disposal are : a. Dumping b. Controlled Tipping or Sanitary Landfill c. Incineration d. Composting e. Manure pits f. Burial Slide 8: DUMPING : Refuses are dumped in low lying areas partially as a method of reclamation of land but mainly as an easy method of disposal of dry refuse. Mechanism of Action: As a result of bacterial action, Refuse decreases considerably in volume and is converted into humus. Uses: Reclaimed land is used for agricultural purposes Slide 9: DISADVANTAGES: The refuse is exposed to flies and rodents. It is a nuisance from smell and unsightly to see. It will be dispersed by wind in the streets. Drainage from dumps will contribute to pollution of surface and ground water. WHO Condemned this method of disposal. Slide 10: DUMPING IN UNUSED LAND : DUMPING IN RIVER : Slide 11: b) Controlled tipping (Sanitary land fill) Most satisfactory method of refuse disposal if suitable land is available. The material is placed in a trench or a prepared area, adequately compacted and covered with earth at the end of the working day. There are three types of controlled tipping Trench method – level ground is available. Ramp method – well suited for sloping land Area method – Land depressions, disused quarries and clay pits. Slide 12: SANITARY LANDFILL : Slide 13: USE OF BULL DOZER IN SANITARY LAND FILL : Slide 14: c) Incineration : Refuse can be disposed of hygienically by burning or incineration. It is a method of choice where suitable land is not available. Hospital refuse which is hazardous is best disposed of by this method. Slide 15: DIFFERENT TYPES OF INCINERATORS : Slide 16: d) Composting : Method of combined disposal of refuse and night soil. Two methods Bangalore Method (Anerobic method) – Hot fermentation method Mechanical composting (Aerobic method) Slide 17: COMPOSTING : Bangalore Method Slide 18: e. Manure pits Refuse is disposed in rural areas by digging ‘manure pits’ in the individual house holds. f. Burial This method is suitable for small camps. Slide 19: GOBAR PITS : Slide 20: PUBLIC EDUCATION : Public cooperation is needed for collection of solid waste disposal. Public awareness is created by using mass media like radio, TV, newspaper, etc. Slide 21: ECONOMICS AND FINANCE Financing is usually done by municipalities and gram panchayats About 20% of the municipal budget is spent on collection and disposal of solid waste. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATON ISWA (International Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Association) – 1970. This is assisting countries to improve sanitary services. WHO International reference centre (Switzerland) - helps to collect, evaluate and disseminate information on waste – disposal practices and to foster research. Slide 22: SUMMARY Solid Waste is hazardous to health so it has to be handled carefully and disposed properly in order to protect our health and to maintain good environment. Slide 23: REFERENCES Parks Textbook of Social & Preventive Medicine. Internet sites You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.