Parturition,By:Dr.Dhiren B. Bhoi

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Parturition : 

Parturition Presented by Dr. DHIREN B. BHOI M. V. Sc. (Gynaecology and Obstetrics) Anand Agricultural University E-mail:

What is Parturition? : 

What is Parturition? Act of process of giving birth

Parturition Names in Species : 

Parturition Names in Species Cattle: Calving Sheep: Lambing Swine: Farrowing Horses: Foaling

Signs of Approaching Parturition : 

Signs of Approaching Parturition Distended abdomen Mammary development & milk secretion Swollen vulva and relaxed pelvic ligaments Mucous discharge Relentlessness and separation from group Labor and Contractions

Signs of Parturition in Cattle : 

Signs of Parturition in Cattle One week - mammary glands fill with milk, tailhead ligaments relax, and you will see a waxing of teats. 12-24 hours - frequent defecation and urination, anorexia, looking for young, makes a nest or seeks out an isolated area.

Signs of Parturition in Sheep : 

Signs of Parturition in Sheep Ten days before lambing the ewes teats become firm and full of milk, her vulva slackens and becomes slightly swollen. Closer to lambing, the ewe's cervical seal passes from the vulva as a thick, creamy, white mucus. In the final stages prior to lambing, the ewe becomes anxious and uneasy and continually switches from a reclining to a standing position.

Signs of Parturition in Horses : 

Signs of Parturition in Horses Two to six weeks before foaling the mares udder will swell. Seven to ten days prior to foaling the muscles over the buttocks appear to shrink and the abdomen drops. At four to six days before foaling the teats fill with milk. Twelve to 24 hours before foaling wax appears on the end of the nipples.

Stages of Parturition : 

Stages of Parturition Stage 1- Preparatory Stage Stage 2- Birthing Process Stage 3- Placenta Expulsion

Stage 1- preparatory stage : 

Stage 1- preparatory stage Characterized by dilation of the cervix. Rhythmic contractions of the uterus. At the end of this stage, the cervix expands, allowing the uterus and vagina to become a continuous canal.

Stage 2- Birthing Process : 

Stage 2- Birthing Process Increase in contractions with abdominal pressing. The placenta, along with the head and forelegs, are forced into the vagina (birth canal). Presentation is forelegs first with the nose resting on the forelegs. Anterior “head first” In swine, piglets may be born anteriorly or posteriorly

Stage 3- Placenta Expulsion : 

Stage 3- Placenta Expulsion Associated with uterine contractions Normally expelled within 12 hours Placenta of each species should be expelled within the following time periods Mare- one hour Cow and ewe- 8to 24 hours Sow – normally attached to fetus at birth

Types of Placentas : 

Types of Placentas Cotyledonary Cow & Ewe Diffuse Mare & Sow

Dystocia: Difficulty during Parturition : 

Dystocia: Difficulty during Parturition Fetal dystocia problems Over-sized fetus Multiple birth complications Breech presentation - With sheep, cattle, and horses, the fetus is presented posteriorly. Deviations in normal presentation - For example, one leg may be pushed back or the head may be turned.

Dystocia : 

Dystocia Maternal dystocia problems Narrowing of the birth canal due to fractures of the pelvis. Uterine torsion reducing the size of the birth canal. The cervix may fail to dilate. Absence of uterine contractions

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