P4A Unit 8 Hospitality

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Choose any 1 Alcoholic Beverage and any 1 Non-Alcoholic Beverage and present the following information:- Manufacturing Process Categories or Types Manufacturing Countries Popular Brand

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Alcoholic Beverage

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How is Whisky Made? 1. Ingredients Barley Water Yeast 2. The manufacturing steps Malting Grinding Brewing Fermentation Distillation Aging Bottling

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The Barley is at the base of all the process. The quality of the barley has a great influence on the quality of the end product. The barley being used for the production of whisky is carefully selected. It is after all the basic ingredient which will determine the quality of the whisky which will be sold years later. This selection was traditionally the job of the manager of the distillery. Most of the distilleries nowadays buy their malt in a malting plant (for economic reasons). However, the maltings must respect precise requirements from the distilleries, in order to let them produce their whisky properly, and on the same way year after year.There is no legal obligation to use Scottish barley to produce Scotch whisky. The most important thing is the highest sugar content and the lowest price. The combination of those two elements is often the only criteria in the choice of a variety of barley. A great deal of the barley used to produce Scotch whisky is coming from England or South Africa. It is not excluded that GMO are used, but it is difficult to get evidences of that. Anyway, this would perfectly conform with the productivity logic.

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Water is another of the most important ingredients in the making process of whisky. The quality of the whisky depends on the quality and purity of the water. Water in Scotland is famous for its great purity. The difference in taste between the whisky coming from various distilleries is partly due to the quality of water used. Water in the Highlands is often peaty, which gives it a brownish colour. Substances, deriving from peat, are carried by the rivers which water is used to make whisky, and contribute often to the original taste of scotch whisky.But water is certainly not the only determining factor in the taste of a malt whisky. The manufacturing process is of course very important in the final taste of whisky. Water is used in several steps during the distillation process. First of all, it is mixed to the grinded malt in order to produce the wort. It is also used for cooling the alcohol leaving the still. Last but not least, water is used to reduce the alcohol at bottling. Yeast (brewer's yeast, often mixed with culture yeast) will start the fermentation process.The role of yeast is capital. The choice of the yeast is part of manufacturing secret of the distilleries.

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The Manufacturing Steps The making process of whisky takes at least 3 years. If a grain (malted or not) spirit did not stay for at least 3 years in an oak cask, it does not deserve the name of whisky. Even worse, it does not have legally the right to be marketed under the name of whisky.To deserve the name of Scotch, the whisky has to stay for this minimum of 3 years on the Scottish ground.Generally, the whiskies marketed as single malt aged for a minimum of 8 to 10 years.Whisky, just like any other alcohol, is the result of natural chemical alterations of sugar. To produce alcohol, we first need to produce sugar.Sugar is potentially present in barley, which grows easily under the Scottish latitudes. Many alcohols are made from grapes, but the climate of Scotland is not suited for this kind of culture. But the manufacturing process remains very similar to the one used in production of alcohol based on other raw material.

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Malting:- Malt is the result of the malting process. The barley is made wet and spread on the malting floor to allow the germination process to start. A succession of chemical reactions change the starch contained in the barley in sugar. Later sugar will change into spirit. The malting art consist of finding the right moment to stop the germination process: not too late but not too early. According to the season, malting takes between 8 and 21 days. Constant attention has to be given to the process. Barley has to be turned over regularly to ensure a constant moisture and temperature and to control the germination of the barley grains.The end of the germination is triggered by drying the germinating barley over a fire (kiln). This oven is often heated by peat. The smoke of the peat fire in the kiln is determining is the taste of many a whisky.

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Germination is stopped by drying the grains above an oven (kiln). The kiln on the picture is the one of Laphroaig. A kiln was often fed with peat. It is the smoke of the peat fire which gives some whiskies their particular flavour. The art of some distilleries is in the correct proportioning of peat used to dry the malt. Springbank for instance produces 3 different malts: Springbank, Longrow and Hazelburn (which will be available from 2006). One of the main differences between those 3 products is the proportion of peat used for drying the malt. There are also some other differences in the distillation process in the case of Springbank. Bruichladdich also produces 3 different whiskies with different peat levels: Bruichladdich, Port Charlotte and Octomore (the two latter's are recent productions, and will not be marketed before several years).

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Grinding:- When the malt is dry, it is grinded to make a kind of coarse flour which will be used in the next operations. This flour is called grist. Malt grinding is done with a malt mill in the distillery itself. Nearly all the distilleries use the same kind of mill, traditionally made in England, in Leeds, which is sometimes hard to accept for a real Scot.

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Brewing:- The grist will be mixed with hot water in the mash tun. Generally one volume of grist is mixed up with 4 volumes of water. In this operation, 3 successive waters are used, at a temperature between 63 and 95% A mash tun can contain up to 25000 litres and has a double bottom with thin perforations to let the wort (sugared liquid resulting of the brewing operation) flow out, retaining bigger parts which will be sold as cattle food. In order to facilitate the process, mash tun have rotating blades. The waste is called draff. The first operation, taking about 1 hour, will change the starch in fermenting sugars. The mix of water and grist looks like a kind of traditional porridge.This sugared juice is called wort. The remainders will be brewed 3 to 4 times, in order to get a maximum of wort. The quality of the wort is controlled by the excise men, because it determines the amount of spirit which will finally be produced. This is the base of the taxation of the distillery. .

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Fermentation The Wash Back:- In order to start the fermentation of the wort, yeast is added. The action of the yeast on the sugar of the wort will produce alcohol and carbon dioxide. The wort starts bubbling, which will sometimes result in strong vibrations of the wash back, despite its impressive size. Traditional wash backs are made of Oregon pinewood or scottish larch. However, more and more stainless steel wash backs are used nowadays, because they are easier to maintain. The result of the fermentation is the same in both kinds of wash backs. However, lots of distilleries pretend Oregon wood is much better, and even hi-tech distilleries like Caol Ila do not believe in stainless steel wash backs The picture above has been taken at the Glenkinchie distillery, while the stainless steel wash backs on the left belong to Laphroaig.

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The Wash:- As result of the fermentation of the wort, a kind of beer with a percentage of approximately 8%. Till now, there are no substantial differences in the process of making whisky, and the making of beer.From now the difference between the process will become obvious. Beer will be perfumed with hops, while whisky will be distilled without alterations. Distillation:- The distillation is the process used to separate alcohol from water and other substances contained in the wash. This is a classical operation, and it is the base of each spirit round the world. It is used in perfumery too. Distillation is made in stills. The principle is very easy: water evaporates at 100% while alcohol does from 80%. Alcohol will thus be transformed in vapour and raises into the still before water itself begins evaporating.Pot stills are used in Scotland. The size of the stills is fixed by the law. This is due to historical reasons, related to excise rights. Edradour has the smallest legal stills of Scotland. If the stills were a bit smaller, the distillery would lose its licence.

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Traditionally, the stills were heated with coal or peat, depending on the areas and possibilities. Currently, nearly all of them are heated with vapour, because this method gives more control on the process. The fuel used to heat the vapour is generally petrol, but it can happen that coal is still used. The huge quantity of heat produced by distilleries is sometimes recycled. For instance, the municipal swimming pool of Bowmore is warmed with recuperation heat from the distillery. Scotch whisky is double distilled, with some exceptions to this rule, like Auchentoshan which is distilled three times, just like Irish whiskey. The distillation process occurs in two stages in two still with different capacity and shape. The first distillation occurs in the wash still whose capacity can be between 25 and 30.000 litres and transforms the wash in "low wine", at about 21 % of alcohol. If the stills were originally heated with a naked fire, generally from coal or gas, the current stills are heated by a serpentine within the still, where the vapour is circulating.

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Aging:- The distillation process is unique for each distillery using pot stills. (Distilleries using Lomond stills - there are very few of them left now - can produce several types of whisky.) This means that all the whiskies produced by a certain distillery are treated on the same way, with the same malt, the same stills on the same way by the same people... So, why can they be so different from each other? The answer to this question is in the aging process, the casks used, the nature of the warehouse, the taste of the air (it seems that a whisky aged in casks stored in warehouses close to the sea have a different taste from a whisky aged on some other place). Glenmorangie Cellar 13 is a good example of that phenomenon. To have the right to bear the name of whisky, a grain spirit (malted or not) must be aged at least for 3 years in a oak cask. Unlike Cognac which is stored in new casks, the Scottish always use second hand casks.

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If the surrounding air has a (little) influence on the taste of whisky, one must realize that many distilleries bring their casks to some central place near Edinburgh for their aging. It it not clear to me if the whiskies aged that way are marketed as single malt or if they will be used in blends.In other words, the influence of the air on the taste of whisky; myth or reality?There is one thing for sure however, and that is that the role of quality of the barley, the making process, and the nature and quality of the casks where it was aged is very important. According to some specialists, this could be good for 95% of the final quality of a malt whisky. To have the right to bear the name of whisky, a grain spirit (malted or not) must be aged at least for 3 years in a oak cask. Unlike Cognac which is stored in new casks, the Scottish always use second hand casks. .

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Bottling:- Bottling is the last step before putting the whisky on the market. Unlike wine, whisky does not mature anymore in the bottle. So a 12 years old whisky stays a 12 years old even 12 years later, and does not become a 24 years old one.... When bottling, some residues are left in the whisky. The effect of this is that whisky looks "cloudy", and this is not always appreciated by the consumer. That's why distilleries found out the "chill filtering", which removes all this residues. The problem with chill filtering is that it also removes parts of the fragrances and of the taste.

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With the current revival of single malt, more and more bottlers (in dependant or official) bottle their whiskies without chill filtering. And this makes single malt lovers very happy. During bottling, the alcohol percentage is reduced. This is the other operation where the quality of water has a great influence on the taste of whisky. The minimum percentage of alcohol for whisky is 40%. Most of the bottles are marketed at this percentage, because the excise rights are calculated on the alcohol proportion in the bottle. The excise rights are particularly high in Great Britain, but in other countries they are lower. That's why on the international market, whiskies are frequently bottled at 43%.For some technical reasons, the ideal percentage for bottling without chill filtering seems to be 46%. Most of the non chill filtered whiskies are marketed at 46%. Often whisky is not diluted when bottled. That's called cask strength bottling.

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Manufacturing Countries:- Barley which is fermented and brewed. Then it is then distilled and is made from malt. And malt is made from blended and matured and made into whisky. Sometimes along with barley a number of other cereals like oats, rice, wheat, maize etc, also may be used, although whisky is produced around the world, the most famous whisky producing countries are:- Scotland, Ireland and United States of America. -: Famous Brands :- Royal Salute (Scotch Whisky) Chivas Regal (Scotch Whisky) Glen Spey (Scotch Whisky) Black and White (Scotch Whisky) Johny Walker (Scotch Whisky) Blue Label (Scotch Whisky) Dimple (Scotch Whisky) Old Crow (Irish Whiskey) Jameson (Irish Whiskey) Bushills (Irish Whiskey) Jack Daniels (American Bourbon Whisky) Old Granddad (American Bourbon Whisky)

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Types of Scotch whisky There are two major categories, single and blended. Single means that all of the product is from a single distillery, while Blended means that the product is composed of whiskies from two or more distilleries. Traditional practices define five types: Single malt whisky is a 100% malted barley whisky from one distillery, distilled in batches in pot stills Single grain whisky is distilled at a single distillery from water and malted barley, with or without whole grains of other cereals; it must not meet the requirements of a single malt whisky Vatted malt whisky that is a blend of single malt whiskies, from more than one distillery Blended grain whisky is a whisky created by mixing grain whiskies from more than one distillery Blended Scotch whisky is a mixture of single malt whisky and grain whisky, distilled at more than one distillery

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And Bottles Whisky Brands

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Whiskey Glasses

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Non-Alcoholic Beverage Coffee

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Coffee is a brewed beverage prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of "coffee cherries" that grow on trees in over 70 countries. It has been said that green coffee is the second most traded commodity in the world behind crude oil. Due to its caffeine content, coffee can have a stimulating effect in humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. It is thought that the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant was first recognized in the south west of Ethiopia, and the cultivation of coffee expanded in the Arab world. The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.

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Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown species are Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta) and Coffea arabica; less popular species are liberica, excelsa, stenophylla, mauritiana, racemosa. These are cultivated primarily in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted, undergoing several physical and chemical changes. They are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavour. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. Coffee is an important export commodity. In 2004, coffee was the top agricultural export for 12 countries, and in 2005, it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value. Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the overall effects of coffee are positive or negative is still disputed.

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Etymology:- The term coffee was introduced to Europe by the Ottoman Turkish kahve, which is, in turn, derived from Arabic: قهوة‎, qahwah. In the languages of Ethiopia, terms such as bunna (in Amharic and Afan Oromo) and būn (in Tigrinya) are used. The source of the Arabic term is not certain; some have attributed it to the name of the Kaffa region in western Ethiopia, where coffee was first found; but Arab lexicographers described it as originally a kind of wine, derived from qahiya "to have no appetite". The English word coffee first came to be used in the early to mid-1600s, but early forms of the word (cited by English authors from various source languages) date to the 1590s.026

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Background:- Coffee is a beverage made by grinding roasted coffee beans and allowing hot water to flow through them. Dark, flavorful, and aromatic, the resulting liquid is usually served hot, when its full flavor can best be appreciated. Coffee is served internationally—with over one third of the world's population consuming it in some form, it ranks as the most popular processed beverage—and each country has developed its own preferences about how to prepare and present it. For example, coffee drinkers in Indonesia drink hot coffee from glasses, while Middle Easterners and some Africans serve their coffee in dainty brass cups. The Italians are known for their espresso, a thick brew served in tiny cups and made by dripping hot water over twice the normal quantity of ground coffee, and the French have contributed café au lait, a combination of coffee and milk or cream which they consume from bowls at breakfast.

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Coffee originated on the plateaus of central Ethiopia. By A.D. 1000, Ethiopian Arabs were collecting the fruit of the tree, which grew wild, and preparing a beverage from its beans. During the fifteenth century traders transplanted wild coffee trees from Africa to southern Arabia. The eastern Arabs, the first to cultivate coffee, soon adopted the Ethiopian Arabs' practice of making a hot beverage from its ground, roasted beans. Raw Materials:- Coffee comes from the seed, or bean, of the coffee tree. Coffee beans contain more than 100 chemicals including aromatic molecules, proteins, starches, oils, and bitter phenols (acidic compounds), each contributing a different characteristic to the unique flavor of coffee. The coffee tree, a member of the evergreen family, has waxy, pointed leaves and jasmine-like flowers. Actually more like a shrub, the coffee tree can grow to more than 30 feet (9.14 meters) in its wild state, but in cultivation it is usually trimmed to between five and 12 feet (1.5 and 3.65 meters). After planting, the typical tree will not produce coffee beans until it blooms, usually about five years. After the white petals drop off, red cherries form, each with two green coffee beans inside. (Producing mass quantities of beans requires a large number of trees: in one year, a small bush will yield only enough beans for a pound of coffee.) Because coffee berries do not ripen uniformly, careful harvesting requires picking only the red ripe berries: including unripened green ones and overly ripened black ones will affect the coffee taste.

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Coffee bean harvesting is still done manually. The beans grow in clusters of two; each cluster is called a "cherry." Next, the beans are dried and husked. In one method, the wet method, the beans are put in pulping machines to remove most of the husk. After fermenting in large tanks, the beans are put in hulling machines, where mechanical stirrers remove the final covering and polish the beans to a smooth, glossy finish. After being cleaned and sorted, the beans are roasted in huge ovens. Only after roasting do the beans emit their familiar aroma. The beans are then cooled.

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The Manufacturing Process:- Drying and husking the cherries 1) First, the coffee cherries must be harvested, a process that is still done manually. Next, the cherries are dried and husked using one of two methods. The dry method is an older, primitive, and labor-intensive process of distributing the cherries in the sun, raking them several times a day, and allowing them to dry. When they have dried to the point at which they contain only 12 percent water, the beans' husks become shriveled. At this stage they are hulled, either by hand or by a machine.

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2) In employing the wet method, the hulls are removed before the beans have dried. Although the fruit is initially processed in a pulping machine that removes most of the material surrounding the beans, some of this glutinous covering remains after pulping. This residue is removed by letting the beans ferment in tanks, where their natural enzymes digest the gluey substance over a period of 18 to 36 hours. Upon removal from the fermenting tank, the beans are washed, dried by exposure to hot air, and put into large mechanical stirrers called hullers. There, the beans' last parchment covering, the pergamino, crumbles and falls away easily. The huller then polishes the bean to a clean, glossy finish.

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Cleaning and grading the beans 3) The beans are then placed on a conveyor belt that carries them past workers who remove sticks and other debris. Next, they are graded according to size, the location and altitude of the plantation where they were grown, drying and husking methods, and taste. All these factors contribute to certain flavors that consumers will be able to select thanks in part to the grade. To make instant coffee, manufacturers grind the beans and brew the mixture in percolators. During this process, an extract forms and is sprayed into a cylinder. As it travels down the cylinder, the extract passes through warm air that converts it into a dry powder.

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4) Once these processes are completed, workers select and pack particular types and grades of beans to fill orders from the various roasting companies that will finish preparing the beans. When beans (usually robusta) are harvested under the undesirable conditions of hot, humid countries or coastal regions, they must be shipped as quickly as possible, because such climates encourage insects and fungi that can severely damage a shipment. 5) When the coffee beans arrive at a roasting plant, they are again cleaned and sorted by mechanical screening devices to remove leaves, bark, and other remaining debris. If the beans are not to be decaffeinated, they are ready for roasting. Decaffeinating:- 6) If the coffee is to be decaffeinated, it is now processed using either a solvent or a water method. In the first process, the coffee beans are treated with a solvent (usually methylene chloride) that leaches out the caffeine. If this decaffeination method is used, the beans must be thoroughly washed to remove traces of the solvent prior to roasting. The other method entails steaming the beans to bring the caffeine to the surface and then scraping off this caffeine-rich layer.

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Roasting 7) The beans are roasted in huge commercial roasters according to procedures and specifications which vary among manufacturers (specialty shops usually purchase beans directly from the growers and roast them on-site). The most common process entails placing the beans in a large metal cylinder and blowing hot air into it. An older method, called singeing, calls for placing the beans in a metal cylinder that is then rotated over an electric, gas, or charcoal heater. Regardless of the particular method used, roasting gradually raises the temperature of the beans to between 431 and 449 degrees Fahrenheit (220-230 degrees Celsius). This triggers the release of steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and other volatiles, reducing the weight of the beans by 14 to 23 percent. The pressure of these escaping internal gases causes the beans to swell, and they increase their volume by 30 to 100 percent. Roasting also darkens the color of the beans, gives them a crumbly texture, and triggers the chemical reactions that imbue the coffee with its familiar aroma (which it has not heretofore possessed).

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8) After leaving the roaster, the beans are placed in a cooling vat, wherein they are stirred while cold air is blown over them. If the coffee being prepared is high-quality, the cooled beans will now be sent through an electronic sorter equipped to detect and eliminate beans that emerged from the roasting process too light or too dark. 9) If the coffee is to be pre-ground, the manufacturer mills it immediately after roasting. Special types of grinding have been developed for each of the different types of coffee makers, as each functions best with coffee ground to a specific fineness. Instant coffee 10) If the coffee is to be instant, it is I V brewed with water in huge percolators after the grinding stage. An extract is clarified from the brewed coffee and sprayed into a large cylinder. As it falls downward through this cylinder, it enters a warm air stream that converts it into a dry powder.

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Packaging 11 Because it is less vulnerable to flavor and aroma loss than other types of coffee, whole bean coffee is usually packaged in foil-lined bags. If it is to retain its aromatic qualities, pre-ground coffee must be hermetically sealed: it is usually packaged in impermeable plastic film, aluminum foil, or cans. Instant coffee picks up moisture easily, so it is vacuum-packed in tin cans or glass jars before being shipped to retail stores.

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Coffee cultivates in:- India Brazil Vietnam Colombia Indonesia Mexico Peru Thailand Uganda Ethiopia Honduras Philippines

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http://www.whisky-distilleries.info/Fabrication_EN.shtml http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Coffee.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coffee http://images.google.co.in/images?hl=en&um=1&q=espresso&sa=N&start=36&ndsp=18

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