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Chapter 3 : 

Cognitive Development: Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories Chapter 3

Constructivism : 

Constructivism Construct your own knowledge and add to what you already know Basis for many current reforms in education Piaget Children act like “little scientists” They constantly try to make sense of their world Provided a framework for understanding how children think Patterns of development

Jean Piaget : 

Jean Piaget

Piaget : 

Piaget Children act like “little scientists” They constantly try to make sense of their world Provided a framework for understanding how children think Patterns of development Stage theorist

Piaget : 

Piaget Research focused on children’s development of Logical Scientific Mathematical concepts Stage theorist Stages of development Sensorimotor Preoperations Concrete operations Formal operations

Schemes for organizing the world : 

Schemes for organizing the world Sets of Physical actions Mental operations Concepts

Three types of knowledge: : 

Three types of knowledge: Physical knowledge Logico-mathematical knowledge Social knowledge

Intellectual development guided by: : 

Intellectual development guided by: Organization Adaptation Assimilation Making new information to fit existing schemes Accommodation Changing existing schemata

Piaget’s four factors for cognitive development: : 

Piaget’s four factors for cognitive development: Maturation of inherited physical structures Physical experiences with the environment Social transmission of information and knowledge Equilibration

Object permanence : 

Object permanence Knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they can no longer be seen or manipulated

Preoperational : 

Preoperational Preschool children lack the ability to do some logical operations that older children can do Children can use symbols Children begin to use numbers as a tool for thinking

Metacognition : 

Metacognition Thinking about thinking

Egocentrism. : 

Egocentrism. Perceiving and interpreting the world in terms of self

Centration : 

Centration Young children tend to focus or center their attention on only one aspect of a stimulus

In the concrete operational stage: : 

In the concrete operational stage: Thinking appears to be less rigid Child understands that operations can be mentally reversed or negated Ability to order objects in a logical progression Ability to classify objects Understand conservation Ability to draw logical inference based on the relationship between two statements

Neo-Piagetians : 

Neo-Piagetians Have attempted to add greater specificity to developmental changes, while maintaining the basic assumptions of Piaget’s theory

Piaget’s work : 

Piaget’s work Concerns the purposes and goals of education Knowledge is constructed from the child’s own physical and mental activities Importance of play in children’s development

Lev Vygotsky : 

Lev Vygotsky

Vygotsky’s theory : 

Vygotsky’s theory Stresses relations between the individual and society Children are born with elementary mental abilities such as perception, attention, and memory Cognitive development related to qualitative changes in children’s thinking processes Language is an important psychological tool influencing children’s cognitive development

Zone of Proximal Development : 

Zone of Proximal Development What they can do ZPD what they can do w/ assistance Interactions with adults and peers move them to a higher level of functioning

Vygotsky : 

Vygotsky Knowledge construction not an individual process Culture vital to shaping cognitive development Knowledgeable peers or adults at heart of cognitive development Learning precedes development Less emphasis on physical maturation or innate biological processes

Egocentric speech : 

Egocentric speech Movement from being regulated by others to being regulated by own thinking processes

Vygotsky & Piaget : 

Vygotsky & Piaget Children are not passive receivers of knowledge Play and activity are paramount for cognitive development

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