logging in or signing up ECG MADE EASY BY DR BASHIR AHMED DAR drbashir123 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 4461 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (14) Dislike it (1) Added: August 10, 2009 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 13 Presentation Description ECG MADE EASY FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS AND DOCTORS TO HELP PATIENTS. Comments Posting comment... By: hushamata (17 month(s) ago) Thanks can i download Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: familydoctor (27 month(s) ago) Thanks alot dr can you send me this nice presentation my E.Mail firstname.lastname@example.org Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: familydoctor (27 month(s) ago) thanks dr ... great jop Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: abuakrama (27 month(s) ago) Sir,would u please allow me to ownload this ppt? Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: sahniinder (27 month(s) ago) Sir, plz. send me this superb ppt.,it is a treasurehouse of knowledge. My email address is email@example.com. Thanx, in anticipation Dr Inder Pal singh Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close loading.... See all Premium member Presentation Transcript ECG BASICS : ECG BASICS By Dr Bashir Ahmed DarChinkipora Sopore KashmirAssociate Professor MedicineEmail firstname.lastname@example.org Slide 2: From Right to Left Dr.Smitha associate prof gynae Dr Bashir associate professor Medicine Dr Udaman neurologist Dr Patnaik HOD ortho Dr Tin swe aye paeds Slide 3: From RT to Lt Professor Dr Datuk rajagopal N Dr Bashir associate professor medicine Dr Urala HOD gynae Dr Nagi reddy tamma HOD-opthomology Dr Setharamarao Prof ortho ELECTROGRAPHY MADE EASY : ELECTROGRAPHY MADE EASY ULTIMATE AIM TO HELP PATIENTS ECG machine : ECG machine Limb and chest leads : Limb and chest leads When an ECG is taken we put 4 limb leads or electrodes with different colour codes on upper and lower limbs one each at wrists and ankles by applying some jelly for close contact. We also put six chest leads at specific areas over the chest So in reality we see only 10 chest leads. Position of limb and chest leads : Position of limb and chest leads Four limb leads Six chest leads V1- 4th intercostal space to the right of sternum V2- 4th intercostal space to the left of sternum V3- halfway between V2 and V4 V4- 5th intercostal space in the left mid-clavicular line V5- 5th intercostal space in the left anterior axillary line V6- 5th intercostal space in the left mid axillary line Horizontal plane - the six chest leads : Horizontal plane - the six chest leads 6.5 Colour codes given by AHA : Colour codes given by AHA ECG Paper: Dimensions : ECG Paper: Dimensions 5 mm 1 mm 0.1 mV 0.04 sec 0.2 sec Speed = rate Voltage ~Mass ECG paper and timing : ECG paper and timing ECG paper speed = 25mm/sec Voltage calibration 1 mV = 1cm ECG paper - standard calibrations each small square = 1mm each large square = 5mm Timings 1 small square = 0.04sec 1 large square = 0.2sec 25 small squares = 1sec 5 large squares = 1sec Slide 13: After applying these leads on different positions then these leads are connected to a connector and then to ECG machine. The speed of machine kept usually 25mm/second.calibration or standardization done while machine is switched on. ECG paper : ECG paper 5 Large squares = 1 second Time 1 Large square = 0.2 second 1 Small square = 0.04 second 2 Large squares = 1 cm 6.1 Slide 15: The first step while reading ECG is to look for standardization is properly done. Look for this mark and see that this mark exactly covers two big squares on graph. STANDARDISATION ECG amplitude scale : STANDARDISATION ECG amplitude scale Normal amplitude 10 mm/mV Half amplitude 5 mm/mV Double amplitude 20 mm/mV ECG WAVES : ECG WAVES You will see then base line or isoelectric line that is in line with P-Q interval and beginning of S-T segment. From this line first positive deflection will arise as P wave then other waves as shown in next slide. Small negative deflections Q wave and S wave also arise from this line. ECG WAVES : ECG WAVES The Normal ECG : The Normal ECG Normal Intervals: PR 0.12-0.20s QRS duration <0.12s QTc 0.33-0.43s Simplified normal Position of leads on ECG graph : Simplified normal Position of leads on ECG graph Lead 1# upward PQRS Lead 2# upward PQRS Lead 3# upward PQRS Lead AVR#downward or negative PQRS Lead AVL# upward PQRS Lead AVF# upwards PQRS Simplified normal Position of leads on ECG graph : Simplified normal Position of leads on ECG graph Chest lead V1# negative or downward PQRS Chest leads V2-V3-V4-V5-V6 all are upright from base line .The R wave slowly increasing in height from V1 to V6. So in normal ECG you see only AVR and V1 as negative or downward defelections as shown in next slide. Normal ECG : Slide 13 Normal ECG NSR : NSR P-wave : P-wave Normal P wave length from beginning of P wave to end of P wave is 2 and a half small square. Height of P wave from base line or isoelectric line is also 2 and a half small square. P-wave : P-wave Normal values up in all leads except AVR. Duration. < 2.5 mm. Amplitude. < 2.5 mm. Abnormalities 1. Inverted P-wave Junctional rhythm. 2. Wide P-wave (P- mitrale) LAE 3. Peaked P-wave (P-pulmonale) RAE 4. Saw-tooth appearance Atrial flutter 5. Absent normal P wave Atrial fibrillation P wave height 2 and half small squares ,width also 2 and half small square : Slide 9 P wave height 2 and half small squares ,width also 2 and half small square Shape of P wave : Shape of P wave The upward limb and downward limbs of P wave are equal. Summit or apex of P wave is slightly rounded. P pulmonale & P mitrale : P pulmonale & P mitrale P pulmonale-Summit or apex of P wave becomes arrow like pointed or pyramid shape,the height also becomes more than two small squares from base line. P waves best seen in lead 2 and V1. P pulmonale & P mitrale : P pulmonale & P mitrale P mitrale- the apex or summit of p wave may become notched .the notch should be at least more than one small square. Duration of P becomes more than two and a half small squares. Slide 30: Slide 14 Slide 31: Slide 16 Left Atrial Enlargement : Left Atrial Enlargement Criteria P wave duration in II >than 2 and half small squares with notched p wave or Negative component of biphasic P wave in V1 ≥ 1 “small box” in area Right Atrial Enlargement : Right Atrial Enlargement Criteria P wave height in II >2 and half small squares and are also tall and peaked. or Positive component of biphasic P wave in V1 > 1 “small box” in area Slide 34: Slide 15 Atrial fibrillation : Atrial fibrillation P waves thrown into number of small abnormal P waves before each QRS complex The duration of R-R interval varies The amplitude of R-R varies Abnormal P waves don’t resemble one another. Slide 36: Slide 41 Atrial flutter : Atrial flutter The P waves thrown into number of abnormal P waves before each QRS complex. But these abnormal P waves almost resemble one another and are more prominent like saw tooth appearance. Slide 38: Slide 40 Junctional rhythm : Junctional rhythm In Junctional rhythm the P waves may be absent or inverted.in next slide u can see these inverted P waves. Slide 40: Slide 43 Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia : Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia The P and T waves you cant make out separately The P and T waves are merged in one The R-R intervals do not vary but remain constant and same. The heart rate being very high around 150 and higher. Slide 42: Slide 39 NORMAL P-R INTERVAL : NORMAL P-R INTERVAL PR interval time 0.12 seconds to 0.2 seconds. That is three small squares to five small squares. PR interval : PR interval Definition: the time interval between beginning of P-wave to beginning of QRS complex. Normal PR interval 3-5mm or 3-5 small squares on ECG graph (0.12-0.2 sec) Abnormalities 1. Short PR interval WPW syndrome 2. Long PR interval First degree heart block Short P-R interval : Short P-R interval Short P-R interval seen in WPW syndrome or pre- excitation syndrome or LG syndrome P-R interval is less than three small squares. The beginning of R wave slopes gradually up and is slightly widened called Delta wave. There may be S-T changes also like ST depression and T wave inversion. Slide 46: Slide 17 Lengthening of P-R interval : Lengthening of P-R interval Occurs in first degree heart block. The P-R interval is more than 5 small squares or > than 0.2 seconds. This you will see in all leads and is same fixed lengthening . Slide 48: Slide 44 Q WAVES : Q WAVES Q waves <0.04 second. That’s is less than one small square duration. Height <25% or < 1/4 of R wave height. Normal Q wave : Normal Q wave Abnormal Q waves : Abnormal Q waves The duration or width of Q waves becomes more than one small square on ECG graph. The depth of Q wave becomes more than 25% of R wave. The above changes comprise pathological Q wave and happens commonly in myocardial infarction and septal hypertrophy. Q wave in MI : Q wave in MI Q wave in septal hypertrophy : Q wave in septal hypertrophy QRS COMPLEX : QRS COMPLEX QRS duration <0.11 s That is less than almost three small squares Some books write 2 and a half small squares. Height of R wave is (V1-V6) >8 mm some say >10 mm chest leads (in at least one of chest leads). QRS complex : QRS complex Normal values Duration: < 2.5 mm. Morphology: progression from Short R and deep S (r/s) in V1 to tall R and short S in V6 with small Q in V5-6. Abnormalities: 1. Wide QRS complex Bundle branch block. Ventricular rhythm. 2. Tall R in V1 RVH. RBBB. Posterior MI. WPW syndrome. 3. abnormal Q wave [ > 25% of R wave] MI. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Normal variant. Small voltage QRS : Small voltage QRS Defined as < 5 mm peak-to-peak in all limb leads or <10 mm in precordial chest leads. causes — pulmonary disease, hypothyroidism, obesity, cardiomyopathy. Acute causes — pleural and/or pericardial effusions Normal upward progression of R wave from V1 to V6 : Normal upward progression of R wave from V1 to V6 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 The R wave in the precordial leads must grow from V1 to at least V4 J point : J point The term J point means Junctional point at the end of S wave between S wave and beginning of S-T segment. Slide 60: J point Q S ST L V H-Voltage Criteria : L V H-Voltage Criteria In adult with normal chest wall SV1+RV5 >35 mm or SV1 >20 mm or RV6 >20 mm Left ventricular hypertrophy-Voltage Criteria : Left ventricular hypertrophy-Voltage Criteria Count small squares of downward R wave in V1 plus small squares of R wave in V5 . If it comes to more than 35 small squares then it is suggestive of LVH. LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY : LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY Right ventricular hypertrophy : Right ventricular hypertrophy Normally you see R wave is downward deflection in V1.but if you see upward R wave in V1 then it is suggestive of RVH etc. Dominant or upward R wave in V1 : Dominant or upward R wave in V1 Causes RBBB Chronic lung disease, PEPosterior MIWPW Type ADextrocardiaDuchenne muscular dystrophy Right Ventricular Hypertrophy : Right Ventricular Hypertrophy WILL SHOW AS Right axis deviation (RAD) Precordial leads In V1, R wave > S wave In V6, S wave > R wave Usual manifestation is pulmonary disease or congenital heart disease Right Ventricular Hypertrophy : Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Right ventricular hypertrophy : Right ventricular hypertrophy Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) increases the height of the R wave in V1. And R wave in V1 greater than 7 boxes in height, or larger than the S wave, is suspicious for RVH. Other findings are necessary to confirm the ECG diagnosis. Right Ventricular Hypertrophy : Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Other findings in RVH include right axis deviation, taller R waves in the right precordial leads (V1-V3), and deeper S waves in the left precordial (V4-V6). The T wave is inverted in V1 (and often in V2). Right Ventricular Hypertrophy : Right Ventricular Hypertrophy True posterior infarction may also cause a tall R wave in V1, but the T wave is usually upright, and there is usually some evidence of inferior infarction (ST-T changes or Qs in II, III, and F). Right Ventricular Hypertrophy : Right Ventricular Hypertrophy A large R wave in V1, when not accompanied by evidence of infarction, nor by evidence of RVH (right axis, inverted T wave in V1), may be benign “counter-clockwise rotation of the heart.” This can be seen with abnormal chest shape. Right Ventricular Hypertrophy : Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Tall R wave in V1 Right axis deviation Right atrial enlargement Down sloping ST depressions in V1-V3 ( RV strain pattern) Although there is no widely accepted criteria for detecting the presence of RVH, any combination of the following EKG features is suggestive of its presence: Right Ventricular Hypertrophy : Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Slide 75: Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Left Ventricular Hypertrophy : Left Ventricular Hypertrophy ECG criteria for RBBB : ECG criteria for RBBB •(1) QRS duration exceeds 0.12 seconds or 2 and half small squares roughly in V1 and may also see it in V2. •(2) RSR complex in V1 may extend to V2. ECG criteria for RBBB : ECG criteria for RBBB •ST/T must be opposite in direction to the terminal QRS(is secondary to the block and does not mean primary ST/T changes). It you meet all above criteria it is then complete right bundle branch block. In incomplete bundle branch block the duration of QRS will be within normal limits. RBBB & MI : RBBB & MI If abnormal Q waves are present they will not be masked by the RBBB pattern. •This is because there is no alteration of the initial part of the complex RS (in V1) and abnormal Q waves can still be seen. Significance of RBBB : Significance of RBBB RBBB is seen in :- (1) occasional normal subjects (2) pulmonary embolus (3) coronary artery disease (4) ASD (5) active Carditis (6) RV diastolic overload Partial / Incomplete RBBB : Partial / Incomplete RBBB is diagnosed when the pattern of RBBB is present but the duration of the QRS does not exceed 0.12 seconds or roughly 2 and a half small squares. In next slide you will see : In next slide you will see ECG characteristics of a typical RBBB showing wide QRS complexes with a terminal R wave in lead V1 and slurred S wave in lead V6. Also you see R wave has become upright in V1.QRS duration has also increased making it complete RBBB. Slide 83: ECG criteria for LBBB : ECG criteria for LBBB (1)Prolonged QRS complexes, greater than 0.12 seconds or roughly 2 and half small squares in all leads almost. (2)Wide, notched QRS (M shaped) V5, V6 (3)Wide, notched QS complexes are seen in V1 (due to spread of activation away from the electrode through septum + LV) (4)In V2, V3 small r wave may be seen due to activation of para septal region ECG criteria for LBBB : ECG criteria for LBBB So look in all leads for QRS duration to make it complete LBBB or incomplete LBBB as u did in RBBB. Look in V5 and V6 for M shaped pattern at summit or apex of R wave. Look for any changes as S-T depression and T wave in inversion if any. Significance of LBBB : Significance of LBBB LBBB is seen in :- (1) Always indicative of organic heart disease (2) Found in ischemic heart disease (3) Found in hypertension. MI should not be diagnosed in the presence of LBBB →Q waves are masked by LBBB pattern Cannot diagnose the presence of MI with LBBB Partial / Incomplete LBBB : Partial / Incomplete LBBB is diagnosed when the pattern of LBBB is present but the duration of the QRS does not exceed 0.12 seconds or roughly 2 and half small squares. NORMAL ST- SEGMENT : NORMAL ST- SEGMENT it's isoelectric. [i.e. at same level of PR or PQ segment at least in the beginning] NORMAL CONCAVITY OF S-T SEGMENT : NORMAL CONCAVITY OF S-T SEGMENT It then gradually slopes upwards making concavity upwards and not going more than one small square upwards from isoelectric line or one small square below isoelectric line. In MI this concavity may get lost and become convex upwards called coving of S-T segment. Abnormalities : Abnormalities ST elevation: More than one small square Acute MI. Prinzmetal angina. Acute pericarditis. Early repolarization ST depression: More than one small square Ischemia. Ventricular strain. BBB. Hypokalemia. Digoxin effect. Slide 95: Slide 11 Slide 96: Slide 12 Stress test ECG – note the ST Depression : Stress test ECG – note the ST Depression Note the arrows pointing ST depression : Note the arrows pointing ST depression ST depression & Troponin T positive is NON STEMI : ST depression & Troponin T positive is NON STEMI Coving of S-T segment : Coving of S-T segment Concavity lost and convexity appear facing upwards. Diagnostic criteria for AMI : Diagnostic criteria for AMI Q wave duration of more than 0.04 seconds Q wave depth of more than 25% of ensuing r wave ST elevation in leads facing infarct (or depression in opposite leads) Deep T wave inversion overlying and adjacent to infarct Cardiac arrhythmias Abnormalities of ST- segment : Abnormalities of ST- segment acute MI pericarditis early repolariz. ischemia Q waves in myocardial infarction : Q waves in myocardial infarction T-wave : T-wave Normal values. 1.amplitude: < 10mm in the chest leads. Abnormalities: 1. Peaked T-wave: Hyper-acute MI. Hyperkalemia. Normal variant . 2. T- inversion: Ischemia. Myocardial infarction. Myocarditis Ventricular strain BBB. Hypokalemia. Digoxin effect. QT- interval : QT- interval Definition: Time interval between beginning of QRS complex to the end of T wave. Normally: At normal HR: QT ≤ 11mm (0.44 sec) Abnormalities: Prolonged QT interval: hypocalcemia and congenital long QT syndrome. Short QT interval: hypercalcemia. QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - : QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - : QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - QT interval QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - : QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - QT interval QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - : QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - QT interval QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - : QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - QT interval QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - : QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - QT interval QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - : QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - QT interval 65 - 90 bpm QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - : QT Interval- Should be < 1/2 preceding R to R interval - QT interval 65 - 90 bpm Normal QTc = 0.46 sec Atrioventricular (AV) Heart Block : Atrioventricular (AV) Heart Block Classification of AV Heart Blocks : Classification of AV Heart Blocks AV Blocks : AV Blocks First Degree Prolonged AV conduction time PR interval > 0.20 seconds 1st Degree AV Block : 1st Degree AV Block Prolongation of the PR interval, which is constant All P waves are conducted Slide 120: 1st degree AV Block: Regular Rhythm PRI > .20 seconds or 5 small squares and is CONSTANT Usually does not require treatment PRI > .20 seconds First Degree Block : First Degree Block prolonged PR interval Analyze the Rhythm : Analyze the Rhythm AV Blocks : AV Blocks Second Degree Definition More Ps than QRSs Every QRS caused by a P Second-Degree AV Block : Second-Degree AV Block There is intermittent failure of the supraventricular impulse to be conducted to the ventricles Some of the P waves are not followed by a QRS complex.The conduction ratio (P/QRS ratio) may be set at 2:1,3:1,3:2,4:3,and so forth Second Degree : Second Degree Types Type I Wenckebach phenomenon Type II Fixed or Classical Type I Second-Degree AV Block: Wenckebach Phenomenon : Type I Second-Degree AV Block: Wenckebach Phenomenon ECG findings 1.Progressive lengthening of the PR interval until a P wave is blocked 2nd degree AV Block (“Mobitz I” also called “Wenckebach”): : Pattern Repeats…………. PRI = .24 sec PRI = .36 sec PRI = .40 sec QRS is “dropped” Irregular Rhythm PRI continues to lengthen until a QRS is missing (non-conducted sinus impulse) PRI is NOT CONSTANT Pause 4:3 Wenckebach (conduction ratio may not be constant) 2nd degree AV Block (“Mobitz I” also called “Wenckebach”): Type II Second-Degree AVBlock:Mobitz Type II : Type II Second-Degree AVBlock:Mobitz Type II ECG findings 1.Intermittent or unexpected blocked P waves you don’t know when QRS drops 2.P-R intervals may be normal or prolonged,but they remain constant 4. A long rhythm strip may help Second Degree AV Block : Second Degree AV Block Mobitz type I or Winckebach Mobitz type II Slide 132: Type 1 (Wenckebach) Progressive prolongation of the PR interval until a P wave is not conducted. Constant PR interval with unexpected intermittent failure to conduct Type 2 Mobitz Type I : Mobitz Type I MOBITZ TYPE 1 : MOBITZ TYPE 1 Slide 135: 2nd degree AV Block (“Mobitz II”): Irregular Rhythm QRS complexes may be somewhat wide (greater than .12 seconds) Non-conducted sinus impulses appear at unexpected irregular intervals PRI may be normal or prolonged but is CONSTANT and fixed Rhythm is somewhat dangerous May cause syncope or may deteriorate into complete heart block (3rd degree block) It’s appearance in the setting of an acute MI identifies a high risk patient Cause: anterioseptal MI, Treatment: may require pacemaker in the case of fibrotic conduction system Non-conducted sinus impulses “2:1 block” “3:1 block” PRI is CONSTANT Analyze the Rhythm : Analyze the Rhythm Second Degree Mobitz : Second Degree Mobitz Characteristics Atrial rate > Ventricular rate QRS usually longer than 0.12 sec Usually 4:3 or 3:2 conduction ratio (P:QRS ratio) Analyze the Rhythm : Analyze the Rhythm Mobitz II : Mobitz II Definition: Mobitz II is characterized by 2-4 P waves before each QRS. The PR pf the conducted P wave will be constant for each QRS . EKG Characteristics:Atrial and ventricular rate is irregular. P Wave: Present in two, three or four to one conduction with the QRS. PR Interval constant for each P wave prior to the QRS. QRS may or may not be within normal limits. Mobitz Type II : Mobitz Type II Mobitz Type II : Mobitz Type II Sudden appearance of a single, non-conducted sinus P wave... Advanced Second-Degree AV Block : Advanced Second-Degree AV Block Two or more consecutive nonconducted sinus P waves Complete AV Block : Complete AV Block Characteristics Atrioventricular dissociation Regular P-P and R-R but without association between the two Atrial rate > Ventricular rate QRS > 0.12 sec 3rd Degree (Complete) AV Block : 3rd Degree (Complete) AV Block EKG Characteristics: No relationship between P waves and QRS complexes Relatively constant PP intervals and RR intervals Greater number of P waves than QRS complexes Complete heart block : Complete heart block P waves are not conducted to the ventricles because of block at the AV node. The P waves are indicated below and show no relation to the QRS complexes. They 'probe' every part of the ventricular cycle but are never conducted. Slide 146: 3rd degree AV Block (“Complete Heart Block”): Irregular Rhythm QRS complexes may be narrow or broad depending on the level of the block Atria and ventricles beat independent of one another (AV dissociation) QRS’s have their own rhythm, P-waves have their own rhythm May be caused by inferior MI and it’s presence worsens the prognosis Treatment: usually requires pacemaker QRS intervals P-wave intervals – note how the P-waves sometimes distort QRS complexes or T-waves Third-Degree (Complete) AV Block : Third-Degree (Complete) AV Block Third-Degree (Complete) AV Block : Third-Degree (Complete) AV Block The P wave bears no relation to the QRS complexes, and the PR intervals are completely variable 30 AV Block : 30 AV Block AV dissociation atria and ventricles beating on their own no relation between P’s & QRS’s Atrial rate is different from ventricular ventricular rate: 30-60 bpm Rhythm is regular for both QRS can be narrow or wide depends on site of pacemaker! Key points : Key points Wenckebach look for group beating & changing PR Mobitz II look for reg. atrial rhythm & consistent PR 3o block atrial & ventricular rhythm regular rate is different!!! no consistent PR Left Anterior Fascicular Block : Left Anterior Fascicular Block Left axis deviation , usually -45 to -90 degrees QRS duration usually <0.12s unless coexisting RBBB Poor R wave progression in leads V1-V3 and deeper S waves in leads V5 and V6 There is RS pattern with R wave in lead II > lead III S wave in lead III > lead II QR pattern in lead I and AVL,with small Q wave No other causes of left axis deviation Slide 153: Left Anterior Hemiblock (LAHB): Left axis deviation (> -30 degrees) will be noted and there will be a prominent S-wave in Leads II, and III LPIF LASF LBB 1. 2. Lead III Lead I Lead AVF Left Posterior Fascicular Block : Left Posterior Fascicular Block Right axis deviation QR pattern in inferior leads (II,III,AVF) small q wave RS patter in lead lead I and AVL(small R with deep S) Slide 155: Left Posterior Hemiblock (LPHB): Right axis deviation and there will be a prominent S-wave in Leads I. Q-waves may be noted in III and AVF. Notes on (LPHB): QRS is normal width unless BBB is present If LPHB occurs in the setting of an acute MI, it is almost always accompanied by RBBB and carries a mortality rate of 71% LPIF LASF LBB 1. 2. Lead III Lead I Lead AVF Bifascicular Bundle Branch Block : Bifascicular Bundle Branch Block RBBB with either left anterior or left posterior fascicular block Diagnostic criteria 1.Prolongation of the QRS duration to 0.12 second or longer 2.RSR’ pattern in lead V1,with the R’ being broad and slurred 3.Wide,slurred S wave in leads I,V5 and V6 4.Left axis or right axis deviation Trifascicular Block : Trifascicular Block The combination of RBBB, LAFB and long PR interval Implies that conduction is delayed in the third fascicle Indications For Implantation of Permanent Pacing in Acquired AV Blocks : Indications For Implantation of Permanent Pacing in Acquired AV Blocks 1.Third-degree AV block, Bradycardia with symptoms Asystole e.Neuromuscular diseases with AV block (Myotonic muscular dystrophy) 2.Second-degree AV block with symptomatic bradycardia Cardiac Pacemakers : Cardiac Pacemakers Definition Delivers artificial stimulus to heart Causes depolarization and contraction Uses Bradyarrhythmias Asystole Tachyarrhythmias (overdrive pacing) Cardiac Pacemakers : Cardiac Pacemakers Types Fixed Fires at constant rate Can discharge on T-wave Very rare Demand Senses patient’s rhythm Fires only if no activity sensed after preset interval (escape interval) Transcutaneous vs Transvenous vs Implanted Cardiac Pacemakers : Cardiac Pacemakers Cardiac Pacemakers : Cardiac Pacemakers Demand Pacemaker Types Ventricular Fires ventricles Atrial Fires atria Atria fire ventricles Requires intact AV conduction Cardiac Pacemakers : Cardiac Pacemakers Demand Pacemaker Types Atrial Synchronous Senses atria Fires ventricles AV Sequential Two electrodes Fires atria/ventricles in sequence Cardiac Pacemakers : Cardiac Pacemakers Problems Failure to capture No response to pacemaker artifact Bradycardia may result Cause: high “threshold” Management Increase amps on temporary pacemaker Treat as symptomatic bradycardia Cardiac Pacemakers : Cardiac Pacemakers Problems Failure to sense Spike follows QRS within escape interval May cause R-on-T phenomenon Management Increase sensitivity Attempt to override permanent pacer with temporary Be prepared to manage VF Implanted Defibrillators : Implanted Defibrillators AICD Automated Implanted Cardio-Defibrillator Uses Tachyarrhythmias Malignant arrhythmias VT VF Implanted Defibrillators : Implanted Defibrillators Programmed at insertion to deliver predetermined therapies with a set order and number of therapies including: pacing overdrive pacing cardioversion with increasing energies defibrillation with increasing energies standby mode Effect of standby mode on Paramedic treatments Implanted Defibrillators : Implanted Defibrillators Potential Complications Fails to deliver therapies as intended worst complication requires Paramedic intervention Delivers therapies when NOT appropriate broken or malfunctioning lead parameters for delivery are not specific enough Continues to deliver shocks parameters for delivery are not specific enough and device senses a reset may be shut off (not standby mode) with donut-magnet Sinus Exit Block : Sinus Exit Block Due to abnormal function of SA node MI, drugs, hypoxia, vagal tone Impulse blocked from leaving SA node usually transient Produces 1 missed cycle can confuse with sinus pause or arrest Sinus block : Sinus block ARRTHYMIAS AND ECTOPIC BEATS : ARRTHYMIAS AND ECTOPIC BEATS Slide 172: normal ("sinus") beats sinus node doesn't fire leading to a period of asystole (sick sinus syndrome) p-wave has different shape indicating it did not originate in the sinus node, but somewhere in the atria. It is therefore called an "atrial" beat QRS is slightly different but still narrow, indicating that conduction through the ventricle is relatively normal Atrial Escape Beat Recognizing and Naming Beats & Rhythms Slide 173: there is no p wave, indicating that it did not originate anywhere in the atria, but since the QRS complex is still thin and normal looking, we can conclude that the beat originated somewhere near the AV junction. The beat is therefore called a "junctional" or a “nodal” beat Junctional Escape Beat QRS is slightly different but still narrow, indicating that conduction through the ventricle is relatively normal Recognizing and Naming Beats & Rhythms Slide 174: actually a "retrograde p-wave may sometimes be seen on the right hand side of beats that originate in the ventricles, indicating that depolarization has spread back up through the atria from the ventricles QRS is wide and much different ("bizarre") looking than the normal beats. This indicates that the beat originated somewhere in the ventricles and consequently, conduction through the ventricles did not take place through normal pathways. It is therefore called a “ventricular” beat Ventricular Escape Beat there is no p wave, indicating that the beat did not originate anywhere in the atria Recognizing and Naming Beats & Rhythms Slide 175: Fast Conduction Path Slow Recovery Slow Conduction Path Fast Recovery The “Re-Entry” Mechanism of Ectopic Beats & Rhythms Electrical Impulse Cardiac Conduction Tissue Tissues with these type of circuits may exist: in microscopic size in the SA node, AV node, or any type of heart tissue in a “macroscopic” structure such as an accessory pathway in WPW Slide 176: Fast Conduction Path Slow Recovery Slow Conduction Path Fast Recovery Premature Beat Impulse Cardiac Conduction Tissue 1. An arrhythmia is triggered by a premature beat 2. The beat cannot gain entry into the fast conducting pathway because of its long refractory period and therefore travels down the slow conducting pathway only Repolarizing Tissue (long refractory period) The “Re-Entry” Mechanism of Ectopic Beats & Rhythms Slide 177: 3. The wave of excitation from the premature beat arrives at the distal end of the fast conducting pathway, which has now recovered and therefore travels retrogradely (backwards) up the fast pathway Fast Conduction Path Slow Recovery Slow Conduction Path Fast Recovery Cardiac Conduction Tissue The “Re-Entry” Mechanism of Ectopic Beats & Rhythms Slide 178: 4. On arriving at the top of the fast pathway it finds the slow pathway has recovered and therefore the wave of excitation ‘re-enters’ the pathway and continues in a ‘circular’ movement. This creates the re-entry circuit Fast Conduction Path Slow Recovery Slow Conduction Path Fast Recovery Cardiac Conduction Tissue The “Re-Entry” Mechanism of Ectopic Beats & Rhythms Slide 179: Recognizing and Naming Beats & Rhythms Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVC’s, VPB’s, extrasystoles): A ventricular ectopic focus discharges causing an early beat Ectopic beat has no P-wave (maybe retrograde), and QRS complex is "wide and bizarre" QRS is wide because the spread of depolarization through the ventricles is abnormal (aberrant) In most cases, the heart circulates no blood (no pulse because of an irregular squeezing motion PVC’s are sometimes described by lay people as “skipped heart beats” Slide 180: Recognizing and Naming Beats & Rhythms Characteristics of PVC's PVC’s don’t have P-waves unless they are retrograde (may be buried in T-Wave) T-waves for PVC’s are usually large and opposite in polarity to terminal QRS Wide (> .16 sec) notched PVC’s may indicate a dilated hypokinetic left ventricle Every other beat being a PVC (bigeminy) may indicate coronary artery disease Some PVC’s come between 2 normal sinus beats and are called “interpolated” PVC’s Interpolated PVC – note the sinus rhythm is undisturbed The classic PVC – note the compensatory pause Slide 181: PVC's are Dangerous When: They are frequent (> 30% of complexes) or are increasing in frequency The come close to or on top of a preceding T-wave (R on T) Three or more PVC's in a row (run of V-tach) Any PVC in the setting of an acute MI PVC's come from different foci ("multifocal" or "multiformed") These dangerous phenomenon may preclude the occurrence of deadly arrhythmias: Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular Fibrillation Recognizing and Naming Beats & Rhythms sinus beats Unconverted V-tach r V-fib V-tach “R on T phenomenon” time The sooner defibrillation takes place, the increased likelihood of survival Slide 182: Recognizing and Naming Beats & Rhythms Notes on V-tach: Causes of V-tach Prior MI, CAD, dilated cardiomyopathy, or it may be idiopathic (no known cause) Typical V-tach patient MI with complications & extensive necrosis, EF<40%, d wall motion, v-aneurysm) V-tach complexes are likely to be similar and the rhythm regular Irregular V-Tach rhythms may be due to to: breakthrough of atrial conduction atria may “capture” the entire beat beat an atrial beat may “merge” with an ectopic ventricular beat (fusion beat) Fusion beat - note p-wave in front of PVC and the PVC is narrower than the other PVC’s – this indicates the beat is a product of both the sinus node and an ectopic ventricular focus Capture beat - note that the complex is narrow enough to suggest normal ventricular conduction. This indicates that an atrial impulse has made it through and conduction through the ventricles is relatively normal. Slide 183: Recognizing and Naming Beats & Rhythms Premature Atrial Contractions (PAC’s): An ectopic focus in the atria discharges causing an early beat The P-wave of the PAC will not look like a normal sinus P-wave (different morphology) QRS is narrow and normal looking because ventricular depolarization is normal PAC’s may not activate the myocardium if it is still refractory (non-conducted PAC’s) PAC’s may be benign: caused by stress, alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco PAC’s may also be caused by ischemia, acute MI’s, d electrolytes, atrial hypertrophy PAC’s may also precede PSVT PAC Non conducted PAC Non conducted PAC distorting a T-wave Slide 184: Premature Junctional Contractions (PJC’s): An ectopic focus in or around the AV junction discharges causing an early beat The beat has no P-wave QRS is narrow and normal looking because ventricular depolarization is normal PJC’s are usually benign and require not treatment unless they initiate a more serious rhythm Recognizing and Naming Beats & Rhythms PJC Slide 185: Recognizing and Naming Beats & Rhythms Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia (MAT): Multiple ectopic focuses fire in the atria, all of which are conducted normally to the ventricles QRS complexes are almost identical to the sinus beats Rate is usually between 100 and 200 beats per minute The rhythm is always IRREGULAR P-waves of different morphologies (shapes) may be seen if the rhythm is slow If the rate < 100 bpm, the rhythm may be referred to as “wandering pacemaker” Commonly seen in pulmonary disease, acute cardiorespiratory problems, and CHF Treatments: Ca++ channel blockers, b blockers, potassium, magnesium, supportive therapy for underlying causes mentioned above (antiarrhythmic drugs are often ineffective) Note IRREGULAR rhythm in the tachycardia Note different P-wave morphologies when the tachycardia begins Slide 186: Recognizing and Naming Beats & Rhythms Paroxysmal (of sudden onset) Supraventricular Tachycardia (PSVT): A single reentrant ectopic focuses fires in and around the AV node, all of which are conducted normally to the ventricles (usually initiated by a PAC) QRS complexes are almost identical to the sinus beats Rate is usually between 150 and 250 beats per minute The rhythm is always REGULAR Possible symptoms: palpitations, angina, anxiety, polyuruia, syncope (d Q) Prolonged runs of PSVT may result in atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter May be terminated by carotid massage u carotid pressure r u baroreceptor firing rate r u vagal tone r d AV conduction Treatment: ablation of focus, Adenosine (d AV conduction), Ca++ Channel blockers Note REGULAR rhythm in the tachycardia Rhythm usually begins with PAC Sinus arrest or exit block : Sinus arrest or exit block PAC : PAC Junctional Premature Beat : Junctional Premature Beat single ectopic beat that originates in the AV node or Bundle of His area of the condunction system – Retrograde P waves immediately preceding the QRS – Retrograde P waves immediately following the QRS – Absent P waves (buried in the QRS) Junctional Escape Beat : Junctional Escape Beat Junctional Rhythm : Junctional Rhythm Rate: 40 to 60 beats/minute (atrial and ventricular) •Rhythm: regular atrial and ventricular rhythm •P wave: usually inverted, may be upright; may precede, follow or be hidden in the QRS complex; may be absent •PR interval: not measurable or less than .20 sec. Junctional Rhythm : Junctional Rhythm MaligMalignant PVC patterns : MaligMalignant PVC patterns Frequent PVCs Multiform PVCs Runs of consecutive PVCs R on T phenomenon – PVC that falls on a T wave PVC during acute MI Types of PVCs : Types of PVCs Uniform Multiform PVC rhythm patterns – Bigeminy – PVC occurs every other complex – Couplets – 2 PVCs in a row – Trigeminy – Two PVCs for every three complexes Junctional Escape Rhythm : Junctional Escape Rhythm Ventricular tachycardia (VTach) : Ventricular tachycardia (VTach) 3 or more PVCs in a row at a rate of 120 to 200 bts/min-1 Ventricular fibrillation (VFib) No visible P or QRS complexes. Waves appear as fibrillating waves Torsades de Pointes : Torsades de Pointes Type of VT known as “twisting of the points.” Usually seen in those with prolonged QT intervals caused by Why “1500 / X”? : Why “1500 / X”? Paper Speed: 25 mm/ sec 60 seconds / minute 60 X 25 = 1500 mm / minute Take 6 sec strip (30 large boxes) Count the P/R waves X 10 OR Slide 202: Atrial Fibrillation: Regular “Irregular” : Regular “Irregular” Premature Beats: PVC Widened QRS, not associated with preceding P wave Usually does not disrupt P-wave regularity T wave is “inverted” after PVC Followed by compensatory ventricular pause Slide 204: Notice a Pattern in the PVC’s? Identifying AV Blocks: : Identifying AV Blocks: Name Conduction PR-Int R-R Rhythm Most Important Questions of Arrhythmias : Most Important Questions of Arrhythmias What is the mechanism? Problems in impulse formation? (automaticity or ectopic foci) Problems in impulse conductivity? (block or re-entry) Where is the origin? Atria, Junction, Ventricles? QRS Axis : QRS Axis Check Leads: 1 and AVF Interpreting Axis Deviation: : Interpreting Axis Deviation: Normal Electrical Axis: (Lead I + / aVF +) Left Axis Deviation: Lead I + / aVF – Pregnancy, LV hypertrophy etc Right Axis Deviation: Lead I - / aVF + Emphysema, RV hypertrophy etc. NW Axis (No Man’s Land) : NW Axis (No Man’s Land) Both I and aVF are – Check to see if leads are transposed (- vs +) Indicates: Emphysema Hyperkalemia VTach Determining Regions of CAD: ST-changes in leads… : Determining Regions of CAD: ST-changes in leads… RCA: Inferior myocardium II, III, aVF LCA: Lateral myocardium I, aVL, V5, V6 LAD: Anterior/Septal myocardium V1-V4 Regions of the Myocardium: : Regions of the Myocardium: Inferior II, III, aVF Lateral I, AVL, V5-V6 Anterior / Septal V1-V4 Sinus Arrhythmia : Sinus Arrhythmia Sinus Arrest/Pause : Sinus Arrest/Pause Sinoatrial Exit Block : Sinoatrial Exit Block Premature Atrial Complexes (PACs) : Premature Atrial Complexes (PACs) Wandering Atrial Pacemaker (WAP) : Wandering Atrial Pacemaker (WAP) Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) : Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (WPW) : Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (WPW) Atrial Flutter : Atrial Flutter Atrial Fibrillation (A-fib) : Atrial Fibrillation (A-fib) Premature Junctional Complexes (PJC) : Premature Junctional Complexes (PJC) Junctional Rhythm : Junctional Rhythm Junctional Rhythm : Junctional Rhythm Accelerated Junctional Rhythm : Accelerated Junctional Rhythm Junctional Tachycardia : Junctional Tachycardia Premature Ventricular Complexes (PVC's) : Premature Ventricular Complexes (PVC's) Note – Complexes not Contractions PVC’s : PVC’s Uniformed/Multiformed Couplets/Salvos/Runs Bigeminy/Trigeminy/Quadrageminy Uniformed PVC’s : Uniformed PVC’s R on T Phenomena : R on T Phenomena Multiformed PVC’s : Multiformed PVC’s PVC Couplets : PVC Couplets PVC Salvos and Runs : PVC Salvos and Runs Bigeminy PVC’s : Bigeminy PVC’s Trigeminy PVC’s : Trigeminy PVC’s Quadrageminy PVC’s : Quadrageminy PVC’s Ventricular Escape Beats : Ventricular Escape Beats Idioventricular Rhythm : Idioventricular Rhythm Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) : Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) Rate: 101-250 beats/min Rhythm: regular P waves: absent PR interval: none QRS duration: > 0.12 sec. often difficult to differentiate between QRS and T wave Note: Monomorphic - same shape and amplitude Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) : Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) V Tach : V Tach Torsades de Pointes (TdeP) : Torsades de Pointes (TdeP) Rate: 150-300 beats/min Rhythm: regular or irregular P waves: none PR interval: none QRS duration: > 0.12 sec. gradual alteration in amplitude and direction of the QRS complexes Torsades de Pointes (TdeP) : Torsades de Pointes (TdeP) Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) : Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) Rate: CNO as no discernible complexes Rhythm: rapid and chaotic P waves: none PR interval: none QRS duration: none Note: Fine vs. coarse? Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) : Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) : Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) Asystole (Cardiac Standstill) : Asystole (Cardiac Standstill) Rate: none Rhythm: none P waves: none PR interval: not measurable QRS duration: absent Asystole (Cardiac Standstill) : Asystole (Cardiac Standstill) AsystoleThe Mother of all Bradycardias : AsystoleThe Mother of all Bradycardias Atrial Pacemaker (Single Chamber) : Atrial Pacemaker (Single Chamber) pacemaker Capture? Ventricular Pacemaker (Single Chamber) : Ventricular Pacemaker (Single Chamber) pacemaker Dual Paced Rhythm : Dual Paced Rhythm pacemaker Pulseless Electrical Activity(PEA) : Pulseless Electrical Activity(PEA) The absence of a detectable pulse and blood pressure Presence of electrical activity of the heart as evidenced by ECG rhythm, but not VF or VT = 0/0 mmHg + ventricular bigeminy : ventricular bigeminy The ECG trace below shows ventricular bigeminy, in which every other beat is a ventricular ectopic beat. These beats are premature, wider, and larger than the sinus beats. ventricular bigeminy : ventricular bigeminy ventricular trigeminy; : ventricular trigeminy; The occurrence of more than one type of ventricular ectopic impulse morphology is evidence of multifocal ventricular ectopics. In this example, the ventricular ectopic beats are both wide and premature, but differ considerably in shape ventricular trigeminy : ventricular trigeminy ventricular trigeminy : ventricular trigeminy MYOCARDIAL INFARACTION : MYOCARDIAL INFARACTION Diagnosing a MI : Diagnosing a MI To diagnose a myocardial infarction you need to go beyond looking at a rhythm strip and obtain a 12-Lead ECG. ST Elevation : ST Elevation One way to diagnose an acute MI is to look for elevation of the ST segment. ST Elevation (cont) : ST Elevation (cont) Elevation of the ST segment (greater than 1 small box) in 2 leads is consistent with a myocardial infarction. Anterior Myocardial Infarction : Anterior Myocardial Infarction If you see changes in leads V1 - V4 that are consistent with a myocardial infarction, you can conclude that it is an anterior wall myocardial infarction. Putting it all Together : Putting it all Together Do you think this person is having a myocardial infarction. If so, where? Interpretation : Interpretation Yes, this person is having an acute anterior wall myocardial infarction. Putting it all Together : Putting it all Together Now, where do you think this person is having a myocardial infarction? Inferior Wall MI : Inferior Wall MI This is an inferior MI. Note the ST elevation in leads II, III and aVF. Putting it all Together : Putting it all Together How about now? Anterolateral MI : Anterolateral MI This person’s MI involves both the anterior wall (V2-V4) and the lateral wall (V5-V6, I, and aVL)! Slide 269: The ST segment should start isoelectric except in V1 and V2 where it may be elevated Characteristic changes in AMI : Characteristic changes in AMI ST segment elevation over area of damage ST depression in leads opposite infarction Pathological Q waves Reduced R waves Inverted T waves ST elevation hyperacute phase : ST elevation hyperacute phase Occurs in the early stages Occurs in the leads facing the infarction Slight ST elevation may be normal in V1 or V2 Deep Q wave : Deep Q wave Only diagnostic change of myocardial infarction At least 0.04 seconds in duration Depth of more than 25% of ensuing R wave T wave changes : T wave changes Late change Occurs as ST elevation is returning to normal Apparent in many leads Bundle branch block : Bundle branch block I II III aVR aVL aVF V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 I II III aVR aVL aVF V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Anterior wall MI Left bundle branch block Sequence of changes in evolving AMI : Sequence of changes in evolving AMI 1 minute after onset 1 hour or so after onset A few hours after onset A day or so after onset Later changes A few months after AMI Q R P Q T ST R P Q ST P Q T ST R P S T P Q T ST R P Q T Anterior infarction : Anterior infarction Anterior infarction Left coronary artery Inferior infarction : Inferior infarction Inferior infarction Right coronary artery Lateral infarction : Lateral infarction Lateral infarction Left circumflex coronary artery Diagnostic criteria for AMI : Diagnostic criteria for AMI Q wave duration of more than 0.04 seconds Q wave depth of more than 25% of ensuing r wave ST elevation in leads facing infarct (or depression in opposite leads) Deep T wave inversion overlying and adjacent to infarct Cardiac arrhythmias Surfaces of the Left Ventricle : Surfaces of the Left Ventricle Inferior - underneath Anterior - front Lateral - left side Posterior - back Inferior Surface : Inferior Surface Leads II, III and avF look UP from below to the inferior surface of the left ventricle Mostly perfused by the Right Coronary Artery Inferior Leads : Inferior Leads II III aVF Anterior Surface : Anterior Surface The front of the heart viewing the left ventricle and the septum Leads V2, V3 and V4 look towards this surface Mostly fed by the Left Anterior Descending branch of the Left artery Anterior Leads : Anterior Leads V2 V3 V4 Lateral Surface : Lateral Surface The left sided wall of the left ventricle Leads V5 and V6, I and avL look at this surface Mostly fed by the Circumflex branch of the left artery Lateral LeadsV5, V6, I, aVL : Lateral LeadsV5, V6, I, aVL Posterior Surface : Posterior Surface Posterior wall infarcts are rare Posterior diagnoses can be made by looking at the anterior leads as a mirror image. Normally there are inferior ischaemic changes Blood supply predominantly from the Right Coronary Artery Slide 288: Inferior II, III, AVF Antero-Septal V1,V2, V3,V4 Lateral I, AVL, V5, V6 Posterior V1, V2, V3 RIGHT LEFT ST Segment Elevation : ST Segment Elevation The ST segment lies above the isoelectric line: Represents myocardial injury It is the hallmark of Myocardial Infarction The injured myocardium is slow to repolarise and remains more positively charged than the surrounding areas Other causes to be ruled out include pericarditis and ventricular aneurysm ST-Segment Elevation : ST-Segment Elevation T wave inversion in an evolving MI : T wave inversion in an evolving MI The ECG in ST Elevation MI : The ECG in ST Elevation MI The Hyper-acute Phase : The Hyper-acute Phase Less than 12 hours “ST segment elevation is the hallmark ECG abnormality of acute myocardial infarction” (Quinn, 1996) The ECG changes are evidence that the ischaemic myocardium cannot completely depolarize or repolarize as normal Usually occurs within a few hours of infarction May vary in severity from 1mm to ‘tombstone’ elevation The Fully Evolved Phase : The Fully Evolved Phase 24 - 48 hours from the onset of a myocardial infarction ST segment elevation is less (coming back to baseline). T waves are inverting. Pathological Q waves are developing (>2mm) The Chronic Stabilised Phase : The Chronic Stabilised Phase Isoelectric ST segments T waves upright. Pathological Q waves. May take months or weeks. Reciprocal Changes : Reciprocal Changes Changes occurring on the opposite side of the myocardium that is infarcting Reciprocal Changes ie S-T depression in some leads in MI : Reciprocal Changes ie S-T depression in some leads in MI Non ST Elevation MI : Non ST Elevation MI Commonly ST depression and deep T wave inversion History of chest pain typical of MI Other autonomic nervous symptoms present Biochemistry results required to diagnose MI Q-waves may or may not form on the ECG Changes in NSTEMI : Changes in NSTEMI Action potentials and electrophysiology : Action potentials and electrophysiology + + + + _ _ _ _ 3.2 LVH and strain pattern : LVH and strain pattern Ventricular Strain Strain is often associated with ventricular hypertrophy Characterized by moderate depression of the ST segment. Slide 305: Copyright ©2002 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Channer, K. et al. BMJ 2002;324:1023-1026 Examples of T wave abnormalities : Copyright ©2002 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Channer, K. et al. BMJ 2002;324:1023-1026 Examples of T wave abnormalities Sick Sinus Syndrome : Sick Sinus Syndrome Sinoatrial block (note the pause is twice the P-P interval) Sinus arrest with pause of 4.4 s before generation and conduction of a junctional escape beat Severe sinus bradycardia Bundle Branch Block : Bundle Branch Block Left Bundle Branch Block : Left Bundle Branch Block Widened QRS (> 0.12 sec, or 3 small squares) Two R waves appear – R and R’ in V5 and V6, and sometimes Lead I, AVL. Have predominately negative QRS in V1, V2, V3 (reciprocal changes). Right Bundle Branch Block : Right Bundle Branch Block Where’s the MI? : Where’s the MI? Where’s the MI? : Where’s the MI? Where’s the MI? : Where’s the MI? Final one… : Final one… Which one is more tachycardic during this exercise test? : Which one is more tachycardic during this exercise test? Any Questions? : Any Questions? Thanks for paying attention.I hope you have found this session useful. : Thanks for paying attention.I hope you have found this session useful. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.