ICH 2010 guidelines

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ICH 2010 Guidelines:

ICH 2010 Guidelines Muhammad Asim Rana BSc , MBBS, MRCP, SF-CCM, EDIC, FCCP Intensive Care Department King Saud Medical City Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Introduction:

Introduction Spontaneous ICH is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Most patients present with small ICHs that are readily survivable with good medical care but sometimes needs aggressive surgical intervention. The last ICH Guidelines were published in 2007 and this serves to update those guidelines. http://www.strokecenter.org/trials/

ICH & Deterioration:

ICH & Deterioration ICH is a medical emergency-high morbidity and mortality Hematoma expansion and early deterioration are common within the first few hours after onset 20% or more of patients will experience a decrease in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 2 points between the pre-hospital emergency medical services assessment and the initial evaluation in the emergency department (ED). Average change of GCS is 6 points. Mortality rate is 75%. On presentation to a hospital, 15% of patients demonstrate a decrease in the GCS score of 2 points in the 1 st hour.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The risk for early neurological deterioration and the high rate of poor long-term outcomes underscores the need for aggressive early management.

Pre-hospital Management:

Pre-hospital Management Provide respiratory and cardiovascular support and to transport the patient to the closest facility prepared to care for patients with acute stroke.

PowerPoint Presentation:

EMS should notify the ED about the arrival of a potential stroke patient so that critical pathways can be initiated and consulting services can be alerted. Advanced notice by EMS can significantly shorten time to CT Scan in the A&E.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Obtaining a focused history regarding the timing of symptom onset (or the time the patient was last normal) and information about medical history, medication, and drug use.

Management in A&E:

Management in A&E T ertiary care center & well equipped A&E R esources necessary neurology neuroradiology neurosurgery critical care facilities

Management in A&E:

Management in A&E Emergency neurosurgical management hematoma evacuation external ventricular drainage invasive monitoring and treatment of ICP ICU may come in for BP management intubation reversal of coagulopathy

Protocol driven ICH management:

Protocol driven ICH management Although many centers have critical pathways developed for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, few have protocols for the management of ICH.

Neuroimaging:

Neuroimaging Rapid neuroimaging with CT or MRI is recommended to distinguish ischemic stroke from ICH (Class I; Level of Evidence: A). (Unchanged from the previous guideline)

Neuroimaging:

Neuroimaging CT angiography and contrast-enhanced CT may be considered to help identify patients at risk for hematoma expansion (Class IIb ; Level of Evidence: B)

Neuroimaging:

Neuroimaging (Class IIa ; Level of Evidence: B). (New recommendation) CT angiography, CT venography , C ontrast-enhanced CT C ontrast-enhanced MRI M agnetic resonance angiography M agnetic resonance venography can be useful to evaluate for underlying structural lesions, including vascular malformations and tumors when there is clinical or radiological suspicion

Medical Treatment for ICH:

Medical Treatment for ICH Patients with a severe coagulation factor deficiency or severe thrombocytopenia should receive appropriate factor replacement therapy or platelets (Class I; Level of Evidence: C) (New recommendation)

Medical Treatment for ICH:

Medical Treatment for ICH Patients with ICH whose INR is elevated due to OACs should have their warfarin withheld, receive therapy to replace vitamin K–dependent factors and correct the INR, and receive intravenous vitamin K (Class I; Level of Evidence: C)

Medical Treatment for ICH:

Medical Treatment for ICH PCCs have not shown to improve outcome compared with FFP but may have fewer complications compared with FFP and are reasonable to consider as an alternative to FFP (Class IIa ; Level of Evidence: B)

Medical Treatment for ICH:

Medical Treatment for ICH rFVIIa does not replace all clotting factors, and although the INR may be lowered, clotting may not be restored in vivo; therefore, rFVIIa is not routinely recommended as a sole agent for OAC reversal in ICH (Class III; Level of Evidence: C) (Revised from the previous guideline)

Medical Treatment for ICH :

Medical Treatment for ICH Although rFVIIa can limit the extent of hematoma expansion in noncoagulopathic ICH patients, T here is an increase in thrombo -embolic risk with rFVIIa and no clear clinical benefit in unselected patients. Thus rFVIIa is not recommended in unselected patients. (Class III; Level of Evidence: A) (New recommendation)

Medical Treatment for ICH :

Medical Treatment for ICH Further research to determine whether any selected group of patients may benefit from this therapy is needed before any recommendation for its use can be made. The usefulness of platelet transfusions in ICH patients with a history of antiplatelet use is unclear and is considered investigational (Class IIb ; Level of Evidence: B). (New recommendation)

Medical Treatment for ICH:

Medical Treatment for ICH Patients with ICH should have intermittent pneumatic compression for prevention of venous thrombo -embolism in addition to elastic stockings (Class I; Level of Evidence: B) (Unchanged from the previous guideline)

Medical Treatment for ICH:

Medical Treatment for ICH After documentation of cessation of bleeding, lowdose subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin or unfractionated heparin may be considered for prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with lack of mobility after 1 to 4 days from onset (Class IIb ; Level of Evidence: B) (Revised from the previous guideline)

Blood Pressure and Outcome in ICH:

Blood Pressure and Outcome in ICH Until ongoing clinical trials of BP intervention for ICH are completed, physicians must manage BP on the basis of the present incomplete efficacy evidence. Current suggested recommendations for target BP in various situations are listed in Table 6 and may be considered (Class IIb ; Level of Evidence: C) (Unchanged from the previous guideline)

Blood Pressure and Outcome in ICH:

Blood Pressure and Outcome in ICH In patients presenting with a systolic BP of 150 to 220 mm Hg, acute lowering of systolic BP to 140 mm Hg is probably safe (Class IIa ; Level of Evidence: B) (New recommendation)

General Monitoring:

General Monitoring Initial monitoring and management should take place in an intensive care unit with physician and nursing neuroscience intensive care expertise (Class I; Level of Evidence: B) (Unchanged from the previous guideline)

Management of Glucose:

Management of Glucose Glucose should be monitored and normoglycemia is recommended (Class I: Level of Evidence: C) (New recommendation)

Seizures and Antiepileptic Drugs:

Seizures and Antiepileptic Drugs Clinical seizures should be treated with antiepileptic drugs (Class I; Level of Evidence: A) (Revised from the previous guideline)

Seizures and Antiepileptic Drugs:

Seizures and Antiepileptic Drugs Continuous EEG monitoring is probably indicated in ICH patients with depressed mental status out of proportion to the degree of brain injury (Class IIa ; Level of Evidence: B)

Seizures and Antiepileptic Drugs:

Seizures and Antiepileptic Drugs Patients with a change in mental status who are found to have electrographic seizures on EEG should be treated with antiepileptic drugs (Class I; Level of Evidence: C)

Seizures and Antiepileptic Drugs:

Seizures and Antiepileptic Drugs Prophylactic anticonvulsant medication should not be used (Class III; Level of Evidence: B) (New recommendation)

ICP Monitoring and Treatment:

ICP Monitoring and Treatment Patients with a GCS score of <8, those with clinical evidence of transtentorial herniation , or those with significant IVH or hydrocephalus might be considered for ICP monitoring and treatment.

ICP Monitoring and Treatment:

ICP Monitoring and Treatment A cerebral perfusion pressure of 50 to 70 mm Hg may be reasonable to maintain depending on the status of cerebral autoregulation (Class IIb ; Level of Evidence: C) (New recommendation)

ICP Monitoring and Treatment:

ICP Monitoring and Treatment Ventricular drainage as treatment for hydrocephalus is reasonable in patients with decreased level of consciousness (Class IIa ; Level of Evidence: B) (New recommendation)

Intraventricular Hemorrhage:

Intraventricular Hemorrhage Although intraventricular administration of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in IVH appears to have a fairly low complication rate efficacy and safety of this treatment is uncertain and is considered investigational (Class IIb ; Level of Evidence: B) (New recommendation)

Minimally Invasive Surgical Removal of ICH:

Minimally Invasive Surgical Removal of ICH For most patients with ICH, the usefulness of surgery is uncertain (Class IIb ; Level of Evidence: C) (New recommendation) Specific exceptions to this recommendation are following

Minimally Invasive Surgical Removal of ICH:

Minimally Invasive Surgical Removal of ICH Patients with cerebellar hemorrhage who are deteriorating neurologically or who have brainstem compression and/or hydrocephalus from ventricular obstruction should undergo surgical removal of the hemorrhage as soon as possible (Class I; Level of Evidence: B). (Revised from the previous guideline) Initial treatment of these patients with ventricular drainage alone rather than surgical evacuation is not recommended (Class III; Level of Evidence: C). (New recommendation)

Minimally Invasive Surgical Removal of ICH :

Minimally Invasive Surgical Removal of ICH For patients presenting with lobar clots >30 mL and within 1 cm of the surface, evacuation of supratentorial ICH by standard craniotomy might be considered (Class IIb ; Level of Evidence: B). (Revised from the previous guideline)

Minimally Invasive Surgical Removal of ICH :

Minimally Invasive Surgical Removal of ICH The effectiveness of minimally invasive clot evacuation utilizing either stereotactic or endoscopic aspiration with or without thrombolytic usage is uncertain and is considered investigational (Class IIb ; Level of Evidence: B). (New recommendation)

Timing of Surgery:

Timing of Surgery Although theoretically attractive, no clear evidence at present indicates that ultra-early removal of supratentorial ICH improves functional outcome or mortality rate. Very early craniotomy may be harmful due to increased risk of recurrent bleeding (Class III; Level of Evidence: B). (Revised from the previous guideline)

Prevention of Recurrent ICH:

Prevention of Recurrent ICH In situations where stratifying a patient’s risk of recurrent ICH may affect other management decisions, it is reasonable to consider the following risk factors for recurrence: lobar location of the initial ICH older age ongoing anticoagulation presence of the apolipoprotein E 2 or 4 alleles greater number of microbleeds on MRI (Class IIa ; Level of Evidence:B ) (New recommendation)

Prevention of Recurrent ICH:

Prevention of Recurrent ICH After the acute period, no medical contraindications, BP should be well controlled, particularly for ICH location typical of hypertensive vasculopathy (Class I; Level of Evidence: A) (New recommendation) After the acute ICH period, a goal target of a normal BP of <140/90 (<130/80 if diabetes or chronic kidney disease) is reasonable (Class IIa ; Level of Evidence: B). (New recommendation)

Prevention of Recurrent ICH :

Prevention of Recurrent ICH Avoidance of long-term anticoagulation as treatment for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is probably recommended after spontaneous lobar ICH because of the relatively high risk of recurrence (Class IIa ; Level of Evidence: B). Anticoagulation after nonlobar ICH and antiplatelet therapy after all ICH might be considered, particularly when there are definite indications for these agents (Class IIb ; Level of Evidence: B) (Unchanged from the previous guideline)

Prevention of Recurrent ICH :

Prevention of Recurrent ICH Avoidance of heavy alcohol use can be beneficial (Class IIa ; Level of Evidence: B). There is insufficient data to recommend restrictions on use of statin agents or physical or sexual activity (Class IIb ; Level of Evidence: C) (New recommendation)

Outcome Prediction and Withdrawal of Support:

Outcome Prediction and Withdrawal of Support Aggressive full care early after ICH onset and postponement of new DNR orders until at least the second full day of hospitalization is probably recommended (Class IIa ; Level of Evidence: B). Patients with preexisting DNR orders are not included in this recommendation.

Outcome Prediction and Withdrawal of Support:

Outcome Prediction and Withdrawal of Support Current methods of prognostication in individual patients early after ICH are likely biased by failure to account for the influence of withdrawal of support and early DNR orders. Patients who are given DNR status at any point should receive all other appropriate medical and surgical interventions unless otherwise explicitly indicated. (Revised from the previous guideline)

Rehabilitation and Recovery:

Rehabilitation and Recovery Given the potentially serious nature and complex pattern of evolving disability, it is reasonable that all patients with ICH have access to multidisciplinary rehabilitation (Class IIa ; Level of Evidence: B) Where possible, rehabilitation can be beneficial when begun as early as possible and continued in the community as part of a well-coordinated (seamless) program of accelerated hospital discharge and home-based resettlement to promote ongoing recover (Class IIa ; Level of Evidence: B) (New recommendation)

Thank you:

Thank you

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