Female Foeticide

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SEX SELECTION: IMPLICATIONS & CURRENT STATUS :

SEX SELECTION: IMPLICATIONS & CURRENT STATUS Lt Col A S Kushwaha Dept of Community Medicine 3/4/2012 1 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

NATURE:

NATURE Statistically speaking, there are 51 boys born for every 49 girls. For every 100 females about 104-106 boys are expected. 3/4/2012 2 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

HUMAN: MALE BABY OBSESSION :

HUMAN: MALE BABY OBSESSION 330 BC, Aristotle – Tying left testicle Chinese conception chart Wheelan method- timing of intercourse Shettles Method – position Urban Legends – diet, drugs, age 3/4/2012 3 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

Urban Legends:

Urban Legends Change your diet to include lots of red meat, salty snacks, and cola soft drinks. Legend says if the man climaxes first, you'll conceive a baby boy. Schedule your lovemaking sessions for odd numbered days of the month. Have sex at night, preferably when there's a quarter moon in the sky. Have as much sex as possible, since many people believe more boys are conceived during the "honeymoon" phase of a relationship. Have the man drink coffee before sex, since this causes the sperm with Y chromosomes to become more active. 3/4/2012 4 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

PowerPoint Presentation:

Yatra naryestu pujjyante , ramante tatra devata ’ - Ancient Indian scriptures Having a daughter is like watering a flower in the neighbour's garden . Tamil proverb ( In Kannada : ‘ maga manege ; magalu pararige ’ ) ‘Having a daughter is a punishment for the sins committed in previous life’. - According to one dalit women, 3/4/2012 5 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

The Technologies:

"The unholy alliance between tradition (son-complex) and technology is playing havoc with Indian Society” The Technologies cloning genetic screening sex selection artificial placentas gene therapy post-menopausal motherhood GOOD BAD UGLY 3/4/2012 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

TECHNODOCS OPINION:

TECHNODOCS OPINION providers of NRTs 64% - against sex selective abortions, 10 % - of them stated that too were against it but they had to do it, 24% - approved of sex selective abortions . A CEHAT study 3/4/2012 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

PowerPoint Presentation:

July 23, 2007 In a shocking discovery, the Orissa police recovered as many as 30 polythene bags stuffed with female fetuses and the body parts of new-born babies from a dry well near a private clinic in Nayagarh , close to Bhubaneswar . Police have arrested the manager of the clinic. 3/4/2012 8 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

PowerPoint Presentation:

, ‘Had these clinics were available 30 years ago, many of us would never have seen this world!’ As narrated by a literate woman in Village M 3/4/2012 9 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

SEX SELECTION:

SEX SELECTION What is it? How it is done? Where? Why? How we can measure? Current status? What will it lead to? What we can do? 3/4/2012 10 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

What is sex selection? :

What is sex selection? Human sex selection is the attempt to control the sex of the offspring to achieve a desired sex . 3/4/2012 11 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

METHODS OF SEX SELECTION:

METHODS OF SEX SELECTION PRE-IMPLANTATION Sperm sorting - by flow cytometry . Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) POST-IMPLANTATION Prenatal diagnosis & sex-selective abortion (Double illegality) 3/4/2012 12 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

POST-BIRTH:

POST-BIRTH Sex-selective infanticide Sex-selective child abandonment Sex-selective adoption Differential stopping behaviour 3/4/2012 13 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

SEX SELECTION:

SEX SELECTION What is it? How it is done? Where? Why? Current status? How we can measure? What will it lead to? What we can do? 3/4/2012 14 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

WHERE?:

WHERE? Globally SEAR countries -China India Punjab, Haryana, Delhi 3/4/2012 15 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

WHERE?:

WHERE? Poor - Rich Illiterate - Educated Rural - Urban Orthodox families - Modern BIMARU states – DEMARU states 3/4/2012 16 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

SEX SELECTION:

SEX SELECTION What is it? How it is done? Where? Why? How we can measure? Current status? What will it lead to? What we can do? 3/4/2012 17 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

WHY?:

WHY? SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHIC COMMERCIAL LOGISTIC 3/4/2012 18 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

SOCIAL :

SOCIAL Women empowerment Expression of reproductive rights Minimize violence against women Conserve property of family 3/4/2012 19 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

Son Preference and Daughter Aversion:

Son Preference and Daughter Aversion Economic progress has not necessarily changed the traditions of gender discrimination - dowry family name property last rites old-age support Patrilocal Patrilineage Patriarchal 3/4/2012 20 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

SOCIAL ATTITUDES:

SOCIAL ATTITUDES 3/4/2012 21 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

SOCIAL PERCEPTIONS:

SOCIAL PERCEPTIONS 3/4/2012 22 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

WHY?:

WHY? SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHIC COMMERCIAL LOGISTIC 3/4/2012 23 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

DEMOGRAPHIC :

DEMOGRAPHIC Family balancing Prevented occurrences of unintended pregnancy and abortion, Population stabilization- TFR & NRR Small family Norm 3/4/2012 24 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

WHY?:

WHY? SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHIC COMMERCIAL LOGISTIC 3/4/2012 25 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

SEX SELECTION & SEX SELECTIVE ABORTION:

SEX SELECTION & SEX SELECTIVE ABORTION Rs . 1,000 crore industry (US$ 244 million) Easy & Quick money 3/4/2012 26 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

WHY?:

WHY? SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHIC COMMERCIAL LOGISTIC 3/4/2012 27 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

LOGISTIC /ADMINISTRATIVE:

LOGISTIC /ADMINISTRATIVE Easy access to medical facilities Ability to pay the doctor and abortionist for the test and abortion A good network of roads to cut down the cost and time of travel Unholy alliance of traditional thoughts as reflected in the ‘son complex’ and easily available technological advances for sex-determination in utero 3/4/2012 28 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

SEX SELECTION:

SEX SELECTION What is it? How it is done? Where? Why? How we can measure? Current status What will it lead to? What we can do? 3/4/2012 29 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

MEASUREMENTS:

MEASUREMENTS M:F Sex Ratio Sex Ratio at Birth Child Sex Ratio (0-6 Yrs) Abortion rate & facilities Sex-selective abortion, Differential foetal mortality, Unreported female infanticide Excess female mortality Index of Son preference =100 (E/C) (Where, E =the excess number of sons over daughters considered ideal) 3/4/2012 30 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

SEX RATIO:

SEX RATIO Overall sex ratio Trend of sex ratio SRB (Sex Ratio at Birth) CSR (Child sex ratio) Females/1000 males (Female deficit) e.g. SR of 933/1000 Males/100 females (Male surplus) = 107/100 3/4/2012 31 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

SEX SELECTION:

SEX SELECTION What is it? How it is done? Where? Why? How we can measure? Current status What will it lead to? What we can do? 3/4/2012 32 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

CURRENT STATUS:

CURRENT STATUS ECONOMIST - “Where are the 100 million missing women?” - Amartya Sen Sen A. Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books; 1999 3/4/2012 33 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

MTP ACT 1971:

MTP ACT 1971 Law that turned against females for whom it was designed. MTP Act + USG = Sex selective abortion PNDT Act 1994 PCPNDT 2003 3/4/2012 34 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

PowerPoint Presentation:

3/4/2012 35 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

SEX RATIO :

SEX RATIO Country Sex Ratio India 933 China 944 USA 1029 Indonesia 1004 Brazil 1025 Pakistan 938 Bangladesh 951 Japan 1041 Russian Fed. 1140 Source:World Pop. Prospects, mid year estimates, 1998 3/4/2012 36 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

Sex Ratio: India:

Sex Ratio: India Year No. of Females 1901 972 1911 964 1921 955 1931 950 1941 945 1951 946 1961 941 1971 930 1981 934 1991 927 2001 933 3/4/2012 37 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

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3/4/2012 38 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

PowerPoint Presentation:

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PowerPoint Presentation:

Child Sex Ratio Census Total Rural Urban 1981 962 963 931 1991 945 948 935 2001 927 934 903 SRB/ 2003 883 888 866 3/4/2012 40 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

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INDIA CHILD SEX RATIO IN AGE GROUP 0-6 1991 2001 3/4/2012 42 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

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Excess Female Mortality:

Excess Female Mortality OR 3/4/2012 46 Lt Col A S Kushwaha OR

CURRENT STATUS:

CURRENT STATUS Since 1991, 80% of districts in India have recorded a declining sex ratio New Delhi , Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. have recorded a more than 50 point decline in the child sex ratio in 10 years . CSR in Punjab stood at a mere 775 females per 1000 males . India - deficit of 3.5 crore women when it entered the new millennium. 3/4/2012 47 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

STATUS REPORT:

STATUS REPORT 2002-2003- every ninth household in the state acknowledged sex selective abortion. (According to the Chandigarh-based Institute for Development and Communication ) More than 100,000 sex-selective abortions in India every year (Arnold et al. 2002). 3/4/2012 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

Money –Sex selective abortion link:

Money –Sex selective abortion link CSR WEALTH 3/4/2012 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

PROVING THE NEXUS:

PROVING THE NEXUS Sex selective abortion & USG The evidence of substantial sex-selective abortion in states such as Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, and Maharashtra is consistent with the high rates of use of ultrasound and amniocentesis ( Retherford and Roy 2003). 3/4/2012 50 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

Pregnancies with an Ultrasound:

Pregnancies with an Ultrasound Percent of pregnancies in the past 5 years Residence Wealth Index Education WHO GOES FOR USG 3/4/2012 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

USG & PREGNANCY:

USG & PREGNANCY Undergone USG :20.1% Who asked :Doctor (53.2%) Where :Govt. facility (52 %) :Private (20%) Why Abnormality :2.6 % Fetal position :15.6 % Age 35+ : 6.5 % Sex Determination : 26 % 3/4/2012 52 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

ARE ULTRASOUNDS BEING CONDUCTED FOR SEX-SELECTION?:

ARE ULTRASOUNDS BEING CONDUCTED FOR SEX-SELECTION? There is evidence of sex selection, when the sex ratio at birth deviates from the normal of about 960-970 girls per 1,000 boys Thus, the question can be answered by examining the sex ratio at birth for births that result after a pregnancy with an ultrasound 3/4/2012 53 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

USG- SEX RATIO LINK:

USG- SEX RATIO LINK NO USG USG 100 3/4/2012 54 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

Are ultrasounds being conducted for sex-selection?:

Are ultrasounds being conducted for sex-selection? Girls per 1,000 boys born in the past 5 years (for pregnancies with an ultrasound) 1 child 3 children 2 children 3/4/2012 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

IMPLICATIONS:

IMPLICATIONS 3/4/2012 56 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

Implications:

Implications By 2020 there could be more than 35 million young "surplus males" in China and 25 million in India. Resurgence of practices such as polyandry, infanticide? Trafficking ? Violence against women and girls 3/4/2012 57 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

PowerPoint Presentation:

The ‘shortage’ of women does not lead to their increased value, but to greater restrictions and control placed over them. 3/4/2012 58 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

PowerPoint Presentation:

Ethical Concerns –designer babies Demographic concerns – gender imbalance Legal concerns -Of the 36 countries with laws or policies on sex selection: 0 explicitly permit it 5 prohibit sex selection for any reason China India Israel New Zealand UK 31 prohibit it for social or “non-medical” reasons 3/4/2012 59 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

SATA PRATHA:

SATA PRATHA JAISALMER/JAIPUR: Padam Mali (30) is unable to find a suitable bride for himself neither from his own caste nor from others. The reason: his sister is a minor and therefore, not yet ready for marriage. It may sound far-fetched, but the skewed sex ratio in the desert district of Jaisalmer has led to parents marrying off their daughters in families from where they can get a bride for their son. 3/4/2012 60 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

A Silent National Emergency:

A Silent National Emergency 3/4/2012 61 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

Sex selection is a key social issue :

Sex selection is a key social issue Rooted in patriarchal value of son preference Indicative of a gender divide in society which is not in tune with the development aspirations of the country Also responsible for the demographic divide in the country as it encourages large families in anticipation of an elusive son 3/4/2012 62 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

It is time to bring in a social movement :

It is time to bring in a social movement Falling sex ratio should be declared a national emergency and adequate resources should be allocated for the same . It is also important to build a national consensus on the issue and mobilize all the stakeholders to stop the practice of sex selection 3/4/2012 63 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

PowerPoint Presentation:

In 1995, the Fourth World Women’s Congress passed the Declaration of Beijing, and Action Plan, which have become major principles for promoting gender equality internationally 3/4/2012 64 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

It is time ----:

It is time ---- to change the perceptions and values to create a positive image of the girl child 3/4/2012 65 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

GOVT INITIATIVES:

GOVT INITIATIVES National Support & Monitoring Cell Inspection Committee – visits Computerization of the records Community awareness – IEC campaign Training modules Medical curriculum Sex ratio indicators – RCH/NRHM 3/4/2012 Lt Col A S Kushwaha 66

ELEVENTH PLAN:

ELEVENTH PLAN Develop targets & indicators- SRB, CSR Target: CSR 0-6 Yrs to 935 by 2011-12 and 950 by 2016-17 Gender budgeting in health Resource transfers Data for tracking PHC level enumeration – routine Independent auth at district level 3/4/2012 Lt Col A S Kushwaha 67

Sex Selection :

Sex Selection Never… Commit Condone or Remain silent 3/4/2012 68 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

PowerPoint Presentation:

3/4/2012 69 Campaign Against Sex Selective Abortions DOWN WITH DISCRIMINATION SAY “NO” to FEMALE EXTERMINATION Eliminate Inequality, not Women”. “Destroy Dowry, not Daughters”. Daughters are not for slaughter. Say “NO” to Sex Determination Say “YES” to Gender Justice

PowerPoint Presentation:

"A son is a son till he takes a wife A daughter's a daughter the rest of her life." 3/4/2012 70 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

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Women Achievers ????? MANY MORE ELIMINATED BEFORE THEY COULD ………. 3/4/2012 71 Lt Col A S Kushwaha

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3/4/2012 72 Lt Col A S Kushwaha Thank You

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