Routing Protocols CCNA FARAAZ

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Routing protocols : 

Routing protocols Prepared By:- FARAAZ CHAUDHARY 1

What are protocols? : 

What are protocols? Protocols are the set of routes which are used by computers to communicate with each other across a network. 2

What is Routing? : 

What is Routing? Routing is the process of transferring among different subnet/network using a L3 (Network Layer) device which is known as Router (which determines the path according to the configuration of the routing done by the administrator). The routing process involves two activities: Path Determination & Packet Switching There are three types of routing: Static Routing Dynamic Routing & Default Routing 3

Routing protocols : 

Routing protocols Routing protocols are the set of rules used by the router to communicate between the source and the destination. They do not move the data from source to destination only update the routing table (contains the information of a router). Routed protocols transfers the data from one network to another. Each protocol has its own algorithm to choose the best path. The metrics by routing protocols include: Number of network layer devices along the path (hop count). Bandwidth Delay Load Cost Routing protocols store the results of these metrics in a routing table. 4

Route types : 

Route types Static routing when an administrator manually assigns the path from source to destination network. It provides more security to the network. The main drawback of the static routing is that when a link fail in the internetwork all the network goes down. Dynamic routing is the process in which routing tables are automatically updates by various routing protocols. Dynamically discover and maintain routes. Calculate routes. Distribute routing updates to other routers. Reach agreement with other routers about the network topology. Default routing is the process when we don’t know the destination address. It is used for our own network. Works only on one serial port where there is only one entry or exit point. 5

Dynamic routing : 

Dynamic routing 6 Dynamic routing advantages are as follows: Administrator has less work in maintaining the configuration when adding or deleting networks. Protocols automatically react to the topology changes. Configuration is less error-prone. More scalable: growing the network usually does not present a problem. Dynamic routing disadvantages are as follows: Router resources are used (CPU cycles, memory and link bandwidth). More administrator knowledge is required for the configuration, verification and troubleshooting.

Dynamic routing protocols : 

Dynamic routing protocols The dynamic routing can be categorized on the basis of various parameters:- Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) These are used to exchange the information within an autonomous system or used in Intra Domain Routing (Intranet).These protocols keep a track of how to get from one destination to the other inside a or set of networks that you administrate. Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) fall into two categories: Distance Vector Protocols Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Link State Protocols Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Intermediate System to Intermediate System 7

Dynamic routing protocols : 

Dynamic routing protocols Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) It is used for Inter Domain Routing. To get from place to place outside your networks, i.e. Exterior Gateway Protocols handle routing outside an Autonomous System and get you from your network through your internet providers network and onto any other network. Examples of an Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) Border Gateway Protocol (BGP): It is used by companies with more than one Internet provider. Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) These are types of Dynamic routing protocols, they differ mainly in the way that they discover & make calculations about routes. 8

Classful routing protocols : 

Classful routing protocols Classful routing protocols do not include the subnet mask with the route advertisement. Within the same network, consistency of the subnet masks is assumed. Summary routes are exchanged between foreign networks. Examples of Classful Routing Protocols: RIP Version 1 (RIPv1) IGRP 9

Classless routing protocols : 

Classless routing protocols Classless routing protocols include the subnet mask with the route advertisement. Classless routing protocols support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) and subnetting Examples of classless routing protocols: RIP Version 2 (RIPv2) EIGRP OSPF IS-IS 10

Distance vector : 

Distance vector Distance vector Routing Protocol: these protocols determines the distance and direction to any link in the internetwork. The routing protocols that are based on distance vector algorithm it follows the matrix of hop count, bandwidth, load, delay and reliability. It uses Bellman Ford Algorithm. A router using a distance vector routing protocol does not have the knowledge of the entire path to a destination network. It knows only: The direction in which packets should be forwarded. The direction to the destination network. They are still in use today: RIP (v1 & v2) and IGRP. DVRP are simple and efficient in small network. They do not scale well and have poor convergence properties. 11

Routing information protocol : 

Routing information protocol Routing Information Protocol (RIP): It is an open Standard Protocol based on a version that was developed in 1988. it has the following key characteristics: Hop count is used as the metric for path selection. If the hop count is grater than 15. RIP cannot supply a route to that network. Routing updates are broadcast or multicast every 30 seconds. If the changes occur or not. It has two types: RIP version 1 uses only classful routing, which means that all devices in the network must use the same subnet mask. RIP version 2 does send subnet mask information with the route updates. This is called classless routing. 12

RIPv1 configuration : 

RIPv1 configuration Router>enable Router#configure terminal Router (config)#router rip Router (config)#version 1 Router (config)#network space network address of own LAN Router (config)#network space network address of own router serial port Router (config)#end Router#write 13

RIPv2 configuration : 

RIPv2 configuration Router>enable Router#configure terminal Router (config)#router rip Router (config)#version 2 Router (config)#network space network address of own LAN Router (config)#network space network address of own router serial port Router (config)#end Router#write 14

Interior gateway routing protocol : 

Interior gateway routing protocol IGRP is a proprietary protocol developed by Cisco. It has the following key design characteristics: Bandwidth, delay, load and reliability are used to create a composite metric. Routing updates are broadcast every 90 seconds, by default. IGRP is the predecessor of EIGRP and is now obsolete. 15

Link state routing protocol : 

Link state routing protocol Works faster than the DVRP. It follows the shortest path to calculate the distance between the source and the destination. The router using this protocol sends small packets to each other with their routers called hello packets. It uses the SPF algorithm. Link State Routing Protocols provide greater flexibility than DVRP. They reduce overall broadcast traffic and make better decisions about routing by taking characteristics such as bandwidth, delay, reliability and load into consideration, instead of basing their decision solely on distance or hop count. Some of the LSRPs are the OSPF and IS-IS. Novell’s NLSP (NetWare Link State Protocol) is also a link state routing protocol, which only supports IPX. 16

Open shortest path forward : 

Open shortest path forward A large network can be broken into small areas so that router in one area know less topology and they don’t have the information about other areas routers. Creating OSPF areas result in smaller database which reduce the memory consumption and processing. OSPF is an open standards routing protocol. OSPF is an open standards routing protocol. Supports VLSM/CIDR and has unlimited hop count. Two routers may not perform an OSPF adjacency, if: The subnet masks do not match, causing routers to be on separate networks. OSPF Hello or Dead timers do not match. OSPF network types do not match. There is a missing or incorrect OSPF network command. 17

OSPF Configuration : 

OSPF Configuration Router>enable Router#configure terminal Router(config)#router/ospf /0 Router(config)#network/net address of own LAN/wild card mask/area/0 Router(config)#network/net address of own router serial port/wild card mask /area/ 0 Router(config)#end Router#write There are two current versions in use: OSPFv2: OSPF for IPv4 networks. OSPFv3: OSP for IPv6 networks. 18

Hybrid routing protocol : 

Hybrid routing protocol These protocols combines the feature of both DVRP & LSRP. 19

Enhanced IGRP : 

Enhanced IGRP Works on any condition. It supports the features of both DVRP & LSRP. It is not an Open Standard Protocol. It is a Cisco propriety protocol and has these key characteristics: It supports multi protocols networking including IP, IPX and Appletalk. Sends only partial updates. Uses DUAL (Diffusing Update) algorithm to calculate the path between the source and the destination. Routing are changed only when there is a change in the topology. 20

EIGRP configuration : 

EIGRP configuration Router>enable Router#configure terminal Router(config)#router/eigrp/15 Router(config)#network/net address of own LAN Router(config)#network/net address of own router serial port Router(config)#end Router#write 21

Thank you : 

Thank you Wish you the best for your future 22

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