concept of disease

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DYNAMICS OF DISEASE AND DISEASE TRANSMISSIONDR. I. SELVARAJ

DR. I. SELVARAJ I.R.M.SB.Sc., M.B.B.S., (M.D)., D.P.H., D.I.H., PGCH & FW /NIHFW/ NEW DELHI : 

DR. I. SELVARAJ I.R.M.SB.Sc., M.B.B.S., (M.D)., D.P.H., D.I.H., PGCH & FW /NIHFW/ NEW DELHI SENIOR DIVISIONAL MEDICAL OFFICER, INDIAN RAILWAYS (ON STUDY LEAVE) & Post Graduate Student in Community Medicine (M.D) at SREE RAMACHANDRA MEDICAL COLLEGE & RESEARCH INSTITUTE (DEEMED UNIVERSITY), CHENNAI, TAMILNADU, INDIA

CONCEPT OF DISEASE : 

CONCEPT OF DISEASE A condition of the body or some part or organ of the body in which its functions are deranged. It is a mal-adjustment of human organism to the environment. I t is deviation from normal function.

CONCEPT OF CAUSATION : 

CONCEPT OF CAUSATION DEMONISTIC THEORY DEVILISITIC THEORY TRIDOSHAS THEORY FOUR HUMOURS THEORY YANG and YIN Principles GERM THEORY - Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIAD MULTI FACTORIAL THORY – Web of disease causation, Wheel of causation

Henle-Koch’s Postulates : 

Henle-Koch’s Postulates The agent should be present in every case of the disease under appropriate condition The agent should not be present in any other disease as a fortuitous and Non-Pathogenic agent The agent must be isolated from the body of the individual in pure culture It should induce disease in a new susceptible experiment animal

NATURAL HISTORY OF DISEASE : 

NATURAL HISTORY OF DISEASE IT IS THE WAY IN WHICH A DISEASE EVOLVES OVER TIME FROM THE EARLIEST STAGE OF ITS PREPATHOGENESIS PHASE TO ITS TERMINATION AS RECOVERY, DISABILITY OR DEATH, IN THE ABSENCE OF TREATMENT OR PREVENTION

NATURAL HISTORY OF DISEASE : 

NATURAL HISTORY OF DISEASE PRE-PATHOGENIC PHASE OR SUSCEPTIBILITY STAGE PATHOGENIC PHASE INCUPATION PERIOD PRODROMAL STAGE STAGE OF OVERT DISEASE STAGE OF DEFERVESCENCE STAGE OF CONVALESCENCE

FACTORS AFFECTING THE GRADIENT OF INFECTION : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE GRADIENT OF INFECTION Infectivity Pathogenicity Virulence Antigenicity

TYPE OF INFECTION : 

TYPE OF INFECTION Latent infection Sub-clinical infection or inapparent or occult Atypical infection Severe clinical infection

Factors for development or spread of infectious disease : 

Factors for development or spread of infectious disease An etiological agent responsible for the disease should be present There should be a reservoir or carrier for the etiological agent to survive The infecting agent should be able to escape from the reservoir of infection through the portal of exit There should be a possible source of entry to transmit the agent to a new susceptible host The agent should be able to invade the new host The host should be susceptible

MODES OF TRANSMISSION : 

MODES OF TRANSMISSION DIRECT TRANSMISSION DIRECT CONTACT DROPLET INFECTION CONTACT WITH SOIL INOCULATION INTO SKINOR MUCOSA TRANSPLACENTAL INDIRECT TRANSMISSION VECHICLE BORNE VECTOR BORNE A) mechanical B) biological AIR-BORNE FOMITE BORNE UNCLEAN HANDS AND FINGERS

BIOLOGICAL TRANSMISSION : 

BIOLOGICAL TRANSMISSION Propagative Cyclo-Propagative Cyclo-developmental Transovarial transmission Trans-stadial transmission

SOURCE OF INFECTION : 

SOURCE OF INFECTION It is defined as the person, animal, object or substance from which an infectious agent passes or is disseminated to the host

RESERVOIR : 

RESERVOIR It is defined as “any person, animal, arthropod, plant, soil, or substance “(or combination of these in which an infectious agent lives and multiplies, on which it depends primarily for survival, and where it reproduces itself in such manner that it can be transmitted to a susceptible host”

CARRIERS : 

CARRIERS A Carrier is defined as an infected person or animal that harbours a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and serves as a potential source of infection for others

CARRIERS : 

CARRIERS TYPE A) Incubatory B) Convalescent C) Healthy DURATION A)Temporary B)Chronic PORTAL OF EXIT A) Urinary B) Intestinal C) Respiratory

FEATURES OF CARRIER : 

FEATURES OF CARRIER Presence of specific microbes in the body Absence of apparent symptoms and signs Shedding of micro-organisms in the discharges or excretions As a source of infection to others

INCUPATION PERIOD : 

INCUPATION PERIOD THE TIME INTERVAL BETWEEN INVASION BY AN INFECTIOUS AGENT AND APPEARANCE OF THE FIRST SIGN OR SYMPTOM OF THE DISEASE IN QUESTION

FACTORS AFFECTING THE INCUPATION PERIOD : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE INCUPATION PERIOD DOSE OF INOCULUM SITE OF MULTIFICATION RATE OF MULTIFICATION HOST DEFENCE MECHANISM

FACTORS TO DETERMINE THE INCUBATION PERIOD : 

FACTORS TO DETERMINE THE INCUBATION PERIOD GENERATION TIME INFECTIVE DOSE PORTAL OF ENTRY INDIVIDUAL SUCEPTIBILITY

IMPORTANCE OF INCUPATION PERIOD : 

IMPORTANCE OF INCUPATION PERIOD Tracing the source of infection and contact Period of surveillance Immunization Identification of point source or propagated epidemics Prognosis

MEDIAN INCUPATION PERIOD : 

MEDIAN INCUPATION PERIOD IT IS DEFINED AS THE TIME REQUIRED FOR 50% OF THE CASES TO OCCUR FOLLOWING EXPOSURE

LATENT PERIOD : 

LATENT PERIOD IT HAS BEEN DEFINED AS THE PERIOD FROM DISEASE INITIATION TO DISEASE DETECTION

GENERATION TIME : 

GENERATION TIME IT IS DEFINED AS THE INTERVAL OF TIME BETWEEN RECEIPT OF INFECTION BY A HOST AND MAXIMAL INFECTIVITY OF THAT HOST

SERIAL INTERVAL : 

SERIAL INTERVAL THE GAP IN TIME BETWEEN THE ONSET OF THE PRIMARY CASE AND THE SECONDARY CASE

COMMUNICABLE PERIOD : 

COMMUNICABLE PERIOD It is defined as the time during which an infectious agent may be transferred directly or indirectly from an infected person to another person, from an infected animal to man , or from an infected person to an animal, including arthropods

SECONDARY ATTACK RATE : 

SECONDARY ATTACK RATE It is defined as the number of exposed persons developing the disease within the range of the incubation period, following exposure to the primary case

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Number of exposed persons developing the SAR = disease within the range of the incubation period  100 Total number of exposed /susceptible

HERD IMMUNITY : 

HERD IMMUNITY IT IS THE LEVEL OF RESISTENCE OF A COMMUNITY OR GROUP OF PEOPLE TO A PARTICULAR DISEASE

BEHAVIOUR OF DISEASE IN THE COMMUNITY : 

BEHAVIOUR OF DISEASE IN THE COMMUNITY EXOTIC SPORADIC ENDEMIC EPIDEMIC PANDEMIC OUTBREAK

EPIDEMIC : 

EPIDEMIC It is the unusual occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior, or other health related events clearly in excess of normal expectancy (LAST,1995)

OUT BREAK : 

OUT BREAK TWO OR MORE RELATED CASES IN INFECTIONS, SUGGESTING THE POSSIBILITY OF A COMMON SOURCE OR TRANSMISSION BETWEEN CASES

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DISEASE : 

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DISEASE PLACE TIME DISTRIBUTION AGENT DETERMINANTS HOST DETERMINANTS ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS INCUPATION PERIOD MODE OF TRANSMISSION PORTAL OF ENTRY NATURAL HISTORY OF DISEASE SECONDARY ATTACK RATE

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