simplified Chap 1 Intro

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Environmental Science: study of humans interaction with environment Interdisciplinary : includes ecology, chemistry, economics, political science, ethics, etc. 1- 1

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09/22/10 Environment circumstances and conditions that surround an organism Science Process of answering questions Uses scientific method Human condition: how do humans affect the environment? Values Poverty or affluence Economics Politics

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Science Used to answer questions about natural phenomena Methodical and unbiased B ased on empirical world Measurable No supernatural Skepticism: cautious until there is substantial evidence of support for an ideas. Reproducibility : same result consistently 1- 3

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2 types of reasoning: Deductive reasoning : ‘ Logical’ reasoning general to specific Inductive reasoning Specific to general 1- 4

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Scientific method Step by step process of doing science Always starts with an OBSERVATION of a problem! My car won’t start! Form a Question about the observations . Why won’t my car start? Propose Hypothesis = tentative explanation Must be testable I think… my car won’t start because my battery is dead.

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Experiment : test the hypothesis and gather data If I change the battery, then my car should start! 2 types of experiments Natural experiment : observations about events that have happened i.e. Studying grizzly bears in the wild Manipulative experiment : conditions are deliberately altered; can compare results. Usually done in lab Contain variables

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09/22/10 Types of Variables in an experiment Independent Variable: what is being varied Graphed on X axis Dependent variable: What is measured, what changes; graphed on Y axis Controlled variables: everything else that must be the same!! Control: known outcome “used to compare” Bias = unfair influence or prejudice Double Blind: neither the subject and experimenter know who is in each group Placebo : “sugar pill” to remove bias

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5. Interpret results and Conclusions Peer Review and Publish results Science is CUMULATIVE consensus is important Can change Theory: widely accepted, plausible generalization about fundamental scientific concepts Scientific law: uniform or constant fact of nature that describes what happens in nature.

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Probability Used in science Often expressed numerically (percent) measure of how likely something is to occur. does not tell you what will happen , but it tells you what is likely to happen. Example: Smoking will not absolutely give you lung cancer; but there is a higher probability that you will get lung cancer if you smoke. 1- 9

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Sound science vs. Junk science Junk science is where controversy comes from ! 1- 10

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Critical Thinking ability to think clearly, and analytically about a problem logical, orderly, analytical assessment of ideas, evidence, and arguments. If you ask "How do I know that what I just said is true?" then you are practicing critical thinking. Identify and evaluate premises and conclusions Acknowledge and clarify uncertainties, vagueness, equivocation, and contradictions Distinguish between facts and values Recognize and assess assumptions. Distinguish source reliability and unreliability Recognize and understand conceptual frameworks 1- 11

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The Earth is considered a “Goldilocks planet” Perfect for the existence of life as we know it . Plentiful supplies of clean air, fresh water, and fertile soil are constantly regenerated by biological communities. Balance must be maintained 1- 12

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8 Principle Problems of our Earth POPULATION Impact of many people causes or compounds environmental issues. ~ 7 billion people on Earth adding ~ 80 million/year. World population = 8 to 10 billion by 2050. Need more resources, create more pollution, etc.. 1- 13

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2. Climate Change “greenhouse” gases Carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane In Earth’s atmosphere naturally Trap heat making the planet inhabitable . human activities have increased concentrations of Carbon dioxide 30 percent during the last 200 yrs. Increased carbon dioxide = increased global temperature = climate change 1- 14

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3. Food Supply Global food production has increased faster than human population growth 850 million people are undernourished . 60 million people face food shortages uneven distribution Weather Politics/war Degredation of soil 1-12

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4. Clean Water 1.1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water . 2X have inadequate sanitation >15 million people die each year due to polluted water. 40% of the population live in countries where water demands now exceed supplies. Quality and Quantity issues 1- 16

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5. Energy Resources Fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas) Provide 80 percent of the energy used in industrialized countries. Limited Supplies Problems with their acquisition and use. Pollution, environmental damage, politics, etc. Renewable energy and energy conservation cleaner, less destructive options. 1- 17

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6. Air Quality Worsened in many areas, esp. Southern Asia. >3 million people die/year from diseases triggered by air pollution. > 2 billion metric tons of air pollutants are released each year. Far reaching….doesn’t disappear, but spreads out— makes it a global problem! 1- 18

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Biodiversity Loss Species are disappearing at a rate comparable to the great extinction that marked the end of the age of dinosaurs. Causes: Habitat destruction Overexploitation Pollution Introduction of exotic organisms 1- 19

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8. Marine Resources Irreplaceable food source > billion people use as main source of animal protein. 3/4 of the 441 fish stocks are severely depleted or in urgent need of better management. 90% of large predators (tuna, marlin, swordfish, sharks, cod, halibut) have been removed from the ocean. 1- 20

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The human condition affects the environment 1. Poverty lack the basic necessities for a decent, healthy, productive life. 1.4 billion people--1/5 of the world’s population- - live in acute poverty with an income of less than $1 (U.S.)/day . Concerned with short-term survival; rather than long-term sustainability 1- 21

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2. Affluence richer countries consumes an inordinate share of the world’s natural resources and produces a shockingly high proportion of pollutants and wastes. U.S.: < 5% of the total population consumes about 25% of resources produces 25-50% of the industrial wastes . 1- 22

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Sustainability = search for ecological stability and human progress that can last over the long term. Sustainable development = “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” 1- 23

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History of Natural Protection in North America George Perkins Marsh 1864 published Man and Nature beginning of environmental protection in North America. warned of the ecological consequences to the waste and destruction of resources Largely because of his book , national forest reserves were established in the U.S. in 1873 to protect dwindling timber supplies and endangered watersheds. 1- 24

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President Theodore Roosevelt Gifford Pinchot, chief conservation adviser Influenced by Marsh argued that forests should be saved to provide homes and jobs for the greatest number of people for the longest time . Pinchot implemented natural resource management on a rational and scientific basis. 1- 25

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Preservation Movement John Muir 1 st president of the Sierra Club Believed in Aesthetic and spiritual values argued that nature deserves to exist for its own sake opposed Pinchot’s utilitarian policies . 1- 26

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“ Land Ethic ” Aldo Leopold Wildlife Ecologist planted trees in a practical experiment aimed at restoring the health and beauty of the land . wrote a collection of environmental essays espousing a respect for the land founded the Wilderness Society . 1- 27

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Modern Environmental Movement Rising Pollution Levels Rachel Carson 1962 published Silent Spring. response to pollution from the chemical industries after World War II awakened the public to the threats of toxic chemicals to humans as well as other species launched the modern environmental movement. 1- 28

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Global Environmentalism developing nations poverty and environmental degradation are rampant. leaders are pushing sustainable development idea that economic improvement is possible without devastating the environment. Dr. Wangari Maathai notable example has supported sustainable development in Kenya founded the Green Belt Movement . 29

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