Who is afraid of peer review [Review-Rupendra Shrestha]

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Who’s Afraid of Peer Review? :

Who’s Afraid of Peer Review?  John Bohannon and  Kelly Servick Prepared by Rupendra Shrestha

HISTORY OF PEER REVIEW:

HISTORY OF PEER REVIEW Method of evaluation science ancient Greece. P hysician Ishaq bin Ali al- Rahwi (854-931 CE) of Syria In 17th century, scientific societies of gentleman scholars argued over the origin and validity of different theories and discoveries, helped establish a formal process for announcing, validating accrediting scientific discovery to the appropriate person. . The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society first journal to formalize the peer review process. No standard practise in science until the mid-20th century .

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The publication of an article in a peer reviewed journal is an essential building block in the development of a coherent and respected network of knowledge. It is a direct reflection of the quality of the work of the authors and the institutions that support them.

AWARNESS AND UNDERSTANDING:

N eed to be aware of a range of professional journals and understand that how scientific developments are communicated to the scientific world. Validation by peers and publication in a scientific journal continues to be the method through which authors register, validate, disseminate and archive their discoveries and results. AWARNESS AND UNDERSTANDING

TYPES OF PEER REVIEW:

TYPES OF PEER REVIEW Single blind review Double blind review Open review

PEER REVIEW PROCESS:

PEER REVIEW PROCESS

PAPER BACKGROUND:

PAPER BACKGROUND

OPEN ACCESS SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS:

OPEN ACCESS SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS M ushroomed into a global industry, driven by author publication fees rather than traditional subscriptions . NO details of the identity and location of the journals’ editors, as well as the financial workings of their publishers. The acceptances and rejections of the paper provide the first global snapshot of peer review across the open-access scientific enterprise.

DOWN THE RABBIT HOLE:

DOWN THE RABBIT HOLE David Roos, a biologist at the University of Pennsylvania. Aline Noutcha, a biologist at the University of Port Harcourt in Nigeria. study of Culex quinquefasciatus, a mosquito that carries West Nile virus and other pathogens. open-access journal (Public Health Research); Scientific & Academic Publishing Co. (SAP ).

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According to its website, “SAP serves the world’s research and scholarly communities, and aims to be one of the largest publishers for professional and scholarly societies.” 200 journals American Journal of Polymer Science “a continuous forum for the dissemination of thoroughly peer-reviewed, fundamental , international research into the preparation and properties of macromolecules.” copy/paste from Journal of Polymer Science, a respected journal published by Wiley since 1946.

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American Journal of Polymer Science. SAP’s website claims that the journal is published out of Los Angeles . Editors of SAP, Charles Duke respond SAP is an American publisher based in California . IP ADDRESS in email reveal that the operation is based in China, and the invoice they sent me asked for a direct transfer of $200 to a Hong Kong bank account Maria Raimo, a chemist at the Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Polymers in Naples, Italy, had received an e-mail invitation to be a reviewer. Single paper for review:- paper rejected but published by chief of editor

GOALS:

GOALS To create a credible but mundane scientific paper, one with such grave errors that a competent peer reviewer should easily identify it as flawed and un-publishable. Submitting identical papers to hundreds of journals would be asking for trouble. AIM To get the lay of this shadowy publishing landscape

FLAWED ARTICLE DESIGN:

FLAWED ARTICLE DESIGN FLAWED ARTICLE TITLE DESIGN FICTIONAL AUTHORS NAME AND AFFILATION. FLAWED METHODS DESIGN

TITLE DESIGN OR FORM:

TITLE DESIGN OR FORM TITLE:- Molecule X from lichen species Y inhibits the growth of cancer cell Z. To substitute for those variables, a database of molecules, lichens, and cancer cell lines and generate hundreds of unique papers.

AUTHORS NAME AND AFFILATION:

AUTHORS NAME AND AFFILATION Authors, such as Ocorrafoo M. L. Cobange , ( africian first and last name from online database and random middle name) Affiliations , such as the Wassee Institute of Medicine, randomly combined Swahili words and African names with generic institutional words and African capital cities.

METHODS DESIGN:

METHODS DESIGN In first experiment, cancer cells grow more slowly in a test tube when treated with increasing concentrations of a molecule . In a second experiment, the cells were also treated with increasing doses of radiation to simulate cancer radiotherapy. The graph’s caption and data are OPPOSITE

OUTLANDISH RESULT:

OUTLANDISH RESULT For first expt. The molecule was dissolved in a buffer containing an unusually large amount of ethanol. The control group of cells should have been treated with the same buffer, but they were not. Thus, the molecule’s observed “effect” on cell growth is nothing more than the well-known cytotoxic effect of alcohol For second expt. The control cells were not exposed to any radiation at all. So the observed “interactive effect” is nothing more than the standard inhibition of cell growth by radiation.

FATALLY FLAWED PAPER CONFIRMATION:

FATALLY FLAWED PAPER CONFIRMATION Two independent groups of molecular biologists at Harvard University volunteered to be virtual peer reviewers . T ranslated the paper into French with Google Translate , and then translated the result back into English. After correcting the worst mistranslations, the result was a grammatically correct paper with the idiom of a non-native speaker . Paper was made interesting

THE TARGETS:

THE TARGETS Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ ). Lars Bjørnshauge , a library scientist at Lund University in Sweden 8250 tiles Predatory publishers Jeffrey Beall , a library scientist at the University of Colorado, Denver . 225 tiles

JOURNAL SELECTION:

JOURNAL SELECTION Took only English and free. DOAJ:- 2054 journals associated with 438 publishers. Beall’s:- 181 publishers. Both overlap:- 35 publishers Remove publishers lacking a general interest in scientific journal or at least one biological, chemical, or medical title. Final list of targets:- 304 open-access publishers DOAJ 167 Beall’s 121 Both 16

THE STING:

THE STING Between January and August of 2013 Paper submission:- 10/weeks and 1paper/journal/publisher Choice:- journal of pharmaceutical science or cancer biology , followed by general medicine, biology, or chemistry. Yahoo e-mail addresses for the submission process , Fee before submission:- removed Fee after acceptance:- standard open-access “gold” model .

CRITERIA:

CRITERIA JOURNAL paper rejected, end of line Sent for review comments for change, compiled and resubmitted. Addressed serious scientific problems, sent revised version with superficial change few more photos of lichens, fancier formatting, extra details on methodology—but without changing any of the fatal scientific flaws . AFTER ACCEPTED Sent a standard e-mail to the editor : DISCOVER embarrassing mistake in manuscript, serious flaws in experiment invalidates conclusion, then withdrew the paper.

RESULTS:

RESULTS More than half of the journals accepted the paper, failing to notice its fatal flaws.

INDIAN SENERIO:

INDIAN SENERIO About 1/3 rd of targeted journals are based in India 64 accepted the fatally flawed papers and only 15 rejected it. UNITED STATES The United States is the next largest base, with 29 acceptances and 26 rejections.

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a peer reviewed journal aiming to communicate high quality research articles, short communications , and reviews in the field of natural products with desired pharmacological activities.” Jourrnal of Medknow , a company based in Mumbai, India. >2 million of its articles are downloaded by researchers every month. Medknow was bought by Wolters Kluwer , a multinational firm headquartered in the Netherlands.

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TITLE:- Anticancer properties of a chemical that Cobange had extracted from a lichen BIOLOGIST:- Ocorrafoo Cobange, at Wassee Institute of Medicine in Asmara Editor-in-Chief Ilkay Orhan a professor of pharmacy at Eastern Mediterranean University in Gazimagosa , Cyprus accepted with certain change in abstract. M anaging editor Mueen Ahmed a professor of pharmacy at King Faisal University in Al- Hasa , Saudi Arabia, he will permanently shut down the journal by the end of the year. “I am really sorry for this ,” he said.

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Wolters Kluwer Health is adherence to the LATEST peer-review processes and policies of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Association of Medical Editors ,” taken immediate action and closed down the Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals.

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American Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences Pakistan No response European Journal of Chemistry Turkey Editor in chief H akan A rslan, a professor of chemistry at M ersin University, Turkey Is not a failure of peer review but rather a breakdown in trust . After paper was submitted , he writes in an e-mail, “We believe that your article is original and provided information is correct Both journal accepted the paper

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. Journal of International Medical Research . ACCEPTED without any change in scientific contents the journal sent an acceptance letter and an invoice for $3100. Editor-in-Chief Malcolm Lader, a professor of psychopharmacology at King’s College London and a fellow of the Royal Society of Psychiatrists responsible for the fact that this spoof paper slipped through the editing process. He notes acceptance would not have guaranteed publication requested payment because the second phase, the technical editing, is detailed and expensive. These activities here detract from trust .”

ELSEVIER JOURNAL:

ELSEVIER JOURNAL Drug Invention Today Tom Reller , vice president for Elsevier global corporate relations says it is not actually owned by Elsevier They publish it for someone else, editor-in-chief , Raghavendra Kulkarni , a professor of pharmacy at the BLDEA College of Pharmacy in Bijapur , India As a result of the sting, he says, they will conduct another review .

KOBE JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES:

KOBE JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES Editor-in-chief, Shun- ichi Nakamura, a professor of medicine at Kobe University in Japan: NO RESPONSE A ssistant , R. Kharbas , says that, Upon receiving the letter of acceptance, Dr. Obalanefah withdrew the paper. Therefore , the letter of acceptance we have sent … has no effect whatsoever .

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER AND TUMOR:

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER AND TUMOR Accepted the paper requested for withdrawn as lead author ( Alimo Atoa)

Acceptance was the norm but not the exception:

Acceptance was the norm but not the exception Scholarly society journals. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Assisted Reproduction . It was even accepted by journals for which the paper’s topic was inappropriate.

JOURNAL OF PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE – PLOS ONE :

JOURNAL OF PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE – PLOS ONE Gave attention to the paper’s potential ethical problems, such as its lack of documentation about the treatment of animals used to generate cells for the experiment. rejected on the basis of its scientific quality.

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Hindawi has a 1000-strong editorial staff handling more than 25,000 articles per year from 559 journals. Chemotherapy Research and Practice & ISRN Oncology rejected paper after identifying its glaring faults. Paul Peters, chief strategy officer of Hindawi. HAPPY THAT THEIR SYSTEM IS WORKING

The papers used for this project were created with help from Nicholas Douris (1), Shangyu Hong (1), ffolliott Martin Fisher (1), Olga Dudchenko (2),(3),(4), Elena Stamenova (2),(3),(4), Jim Robinson (2),(3),(4), Miriam Huntley (2),(3),(4), Benjamin MacDonald Schmidt (2),(3),(4),(5),(6), Adrian Sanborn (2),(3),(4), Ivan Bochkov (2),(3),(4), and Erez Lieberman Aiden (2),(3),(4). :

The papers used for this project were created with help from Nicholas Douris (1), Shangyu Hong (1), ffolliott Martin Fisher (1), Olga Dudchenko (2),(3),(4), Elena Stamenova (2),(3),(4), Jim Robinson (2),(3),(4), Miriam Huntley (2),(3),(4), Benjamin MacDonald Schmidt (2),(3),(4),(5),(6), Adrian Sanborn (2),(3),(4), Ivan Bochkov (2),(3),(4), and Erez Lieberman Aiden (2),(3),(4). ( 1) Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (2) School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (3) Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (4) Rice University, Houston, Texas (5) Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts (6) College of Social Science and Humanities, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts

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Grateful to my classmate for their continuous support

What we decide about publication? Easy or Tough:

What we decide about publication? Easy or Tough Thanks for kind attention!!!! Lets discuss on peer review process and publication. Albert Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis" was not peer reviewed

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