A sentence is… : A sentence is… A sentence is a complete thought. One sentence is one thought or idea. A sentence is one ‘unit’ of thought that should be complete in sense and structure.
A sentence should be written with the correct punctuation marks and word order. Click here! home page Each sentence should start with a capital letter and end with: : Each sentence should start with a capital letter and end with: a full stop .
a question mark ?
an exclamation mark ! Different types of sentence:
a statement is a sentence that ends in a full stop
an exclamation is a sentence that ends with an exclamation
mark (to show feeling)
a question is a sentence that begins with a questioning word
and ends in a question mark. Click here home page Slide 3: 1: SIMPLE SENTENCES Seamus is asleep. Seamus likes warmth. Old Seamus used to be fun. Old Seamus is positively knackered. Seamus smells rather badly. For a sentence to be complete it should have a subject and a verb. : For a sentence to be complete it should have a subject and a verb. A verb is a ‘doing’
or ‘being’ word, for
Tom is happy.
Tom rides his
I am happy.
is, rides and am
are the verbs. Sheila cooks tea.
Jamil likes beer.
Angela loves Roy. Activity:
type the verb from each sentence into each box and
then ask your tutor to check your work. home page Revision on complete sentences - checklist Slide 5: 1: SIMPLE SENTENCES Statements:
The beach is beautiful.
The sea is calm. Questions:
Where are we?
Why is the sea calm? Commands – use the imperative:
Go to the beach.
Buy me a choc-ice. Simple sentences : Simple sentences Here are another example of using simple sentences:
My name is Anna. I am thirty years old. I come from Ghana. I like to dance.
Come up with some simple sentences in your group. home page Slide 7: So are simple sentences always short …? Seamus is asleep. Old smelly Seamus used to be soundly asleep on the old fur rug. Slide 8: 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES Essential ingredients:
Simple sentences joined by the conjunctions
Or Conjunctions for writing compound sentences : Conjunctions for writing compound sentences Example:
Michael likes his work. (simple sentence)
Michael works hard. (simple sentence)
Michael likes his job and works hard. (compound sentence) A compound sentence is made up of two simple sentences joined together. They are joined using the co-ordinate conjunctions:
and, but, so, for, nor, yet, so home page Activity on compound sentences More on conjunctionssubordinate conjunctions : More on conjunctionssubordinate conjunctions These conjunctions explain why: because as since
Question: Why are you so happy today?
Answer: I am happy because the sun is
Answer: As it’s my birthday today, I’m
buying a new car!
Answer: Since it’s my birthday, I’m going to the salon. home page More on conjunctions More on conjunctionssubordinate conjunctions : More on conjunctionssubordinate conjunctions These conjunctions are to do with time ( when):
after, when and since.
Question: Are you doing anything nice this evening?
Answer: When I have done all of my work, I will go to the
After I have finished my work, I will go running. home page Writing complex sentences Slide 12: In the English language, a compound sentence is composed of at least two independent clauses, but no dependent clauses.
The clauses are joined by a conjunction (with or without a comma), or a semicolon with no conjunction. Slide 13: He finally bought the book, or so I thought.
The two independent clauses are joined by a comma and the conjunction "or".
Either he goes or I go.
The compound sentence is held together by the conjunction "either…or".
Mary understands math; she has studied it for years.
Here the two are joined by a semicolon with no conjunction. Slide 14: Compound sentences in context ... Create longer sentences
Coordinate ideas (equal weighting)
Can become repetitive
Can sound colloquial, conversational
Are great for personal writing, stories, information texts …
… But must be used with care Complex sentences : Complex sentences A complex sentence is usually made up of an independent clause (that
would make sense on its own) joined by one or more dependent
clauses (could not be a sentence on their own).
He left the office early (independent), bought a paper (dependent)
and had a leisurely lunch (dependent clause).
The meaning of these sentences is shown by the relationship between
the dependent clause and the independent clause (often shown by the
use of a subordinating conjunction).
Since I came back from my holiday, I have had a horrible cold. home page Writing complex sentences Conjunctions for complex sentences Slide 16: When I saw what you had done, I was happy.
Independent clause: I was happy.
Dependent clause: When I saw what you had done Slide 17: COMPLEX SENTENCES The sea bass, which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean. Slide 18: The sea bass, which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean. SUBORDINATION 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES SUBORDINATE CLAUSE Slide 19: The sea bass, which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean. SUBORDINATION 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES MAIN CLAUSE Decide whether these are simple, compound or complex : Decide whether these are simple, compound or complex I was scared, but I didn't run away.
He finally read the book that I gave him.
Complex because that I gave him is a dependent clause.
The girl ran into her bedroom.
Simple Comma splicing : Comma splicing Where two simple sentences are joined with a comma.
John went to the shop, he had run out of milk. There are 3 ways to fix this… : There are 3 ways to fix this… Create two simple sentences : Create two simple sentences John went to the shop. He had run out of milk. Use a conjunction : Use a conjunction John went to the shop because he had run out of milk.
John went to the shop as he had run out of milk.
John went to the shop since he had run out of milk. Use a semi-colon : Use a semi-colon John went to the shop; he had run out of milk.