Unit_4_Laser_and_CMM

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Unit 4:

LASER AND ADVANCES IN METROLOGY Unit 4

Syllabus :

Syllabus Precision instruments based on laser Principle laser interferometer application in linear, angular measurements and machine tool metrology Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) Constructional features – types Applications digital devices Computer aided inspection

PRINCIPLE OF LASER:

PRINCIPLE OF LASER The sequence of triggered identical photon from stimulated atom is known as stimulated emission This multiplication of photon through stimulated emission leads to coherent, powerful, monochromatic, collimated beam of light emission The photon comes in contact with another atom or molecule in the higher energy level E2 then it will cause the atom to return to ground state energy level E1 by releasing another photon

LASER INTERFEROMETRY:

LASER INTERFEROMETRY Two frequency Laser source Optical elements Beam splitter Beam benders Retro reflectors Laser head’ s measurement receiver Measurement display

USE OF LASER:

USE OF LASER Laser Telemetric system Laser and LED based distance measuring instruments Scanning Laser gauge Diffraction pattern technique Gauging wide diameter from the diffraction pattern formed in a laser

Laser Telemetric system:

Laser Telemetric system

LASER AND LED BASED DISTANCE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS:

LASER AND LED BASED DISTANCE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

Scanning Laser gauge:

Scanning Laser gauge

Diffraction pattern technique:

Diffraction pattern technique These are used to measure small gaps and small diameter parts A parallel coherent laser beam is diffracted by a small part and a lens on a linear diode array focuses the resultant pattern. The measurement accuracy is more for smaller parts

Gauging wide diameter from the diffraction pattern formed in a laser:

Gauging wide diameter from the diffraction pattern formed in a laser

LASER INTERFEROMETER:

LASER INTERFEROMETER

Beam splitter :

Beam splitter

Various version of ACLI:

Various version of ACLI Standard Interferometer Signal beams Interferometer

MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER:

MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER

TWYMAN-GREEN INTERFEROMETER:

TWYMAN-GREEN INTERFEROMETER

MACHINE TOOL TESTING:

MACHINE TOOL TESTING The accuracy of manufactured parts depends on the accuracy of machine tools It can be classified into Static tests Dynamic tests

Slide 17:

Static tests - If the alignment of the components of the machine tool are checked under static conditions then the test are called static test Dynamic tests - If the alignment tests are carried out under dynamic loading condition. The accuracy of machine tools which cut metal by removing chips is tested by two types of test namely. Geometrical tests Practical tests

Slide 18:

Geometrical tests : In this test, dimensions of components, position of components and displacement of component relative to one another is checked. Practical tests : In these test, test pieces are machined in the machines. The test pieces must be appropriate to the fundamental purpose for which the machine has been designed

PURPOSE OF MACHINE TOOL TESTING:

PURPOSE OF MACHINE TOOL TESTING The dimensions of any work piece Surface finishes and geometry depends on the accuracy of machine tool for its manufacture High accuracy

TYPE OF GEOMETRICAL CHECKS ON MACHINE TOOL:

TYPE OF GEOMETRICAL CHECKS ON MACHINE TOOL Straightness. Flatness. Parallelism, equi-distance and coincidence. Rectilinear movements or squareness of straight line and plane. Rotations

MAIN SPINDLE IS TO BE TESTED FOR:

MAIN SPINDLE IS TO BE TESTED FOR Out of round. Eccentricity Radial throw of an axis. Run out Periodical axial slip Camming

VARIOUS TESTS CONDUCTED ON ANY MACHINE TOOLS:

VARIOUS TESTS CONDUCTED ON ANY MACHINE TOOLS Test for level of installation of machine tool in horizontal and vertical planes. Test for flatness of machine bed and for straightness and parallelism of bed ways on bearing surface. Test for perpendicularity of guide ways to other guide ways. Test for true running of the main spindle and its axial movements. Test for parallelism of spindle axis to guide ways or bearing surfaces. Test for line of movement of various members like spindle and table cross slides etc

CMM:

CMM

Slide 24:

Measuring machines are used for measurement of length over the outer surfaces of a length bar or any other long member It is more useful and advantageous than vernier calipers, micrometer, screw gauges The co-ordinate measuring machine is used for contact inspection of parts Savings in inspection 5 to 10 percent of the time is required on a CMM compared to manual inspection methods

TYPES OF MEASURING MACHINES:

TYPES OF MEASURING MACHINES Length bar measuring machine Newall measuring machine Universal measuring machine Co-ordinate measuring machine Computer controlled co-ordinate measuring machine

Types of CMM:

Types of CMM

Working:

Working

CAUSES OF ERRORS IN CMM:

CAUSES OF ERRORS IN CMM The table and probes are in imperfect alignment. The probes may have a degree of run out and move up and down in the Z-axis may occur perpendicularity errors Dimensional errors of a CMM is influenced by Straightness and perpendicularity of the guide ways. Scale division and adjustment. Probe length. Probe system calibration, repeatability, zero point setting and reversal error. Error due to digitization. Environment

Slide 29:

The length of the probe should be minimum to reduce deflection The weight of the work piece may change the geometry of the guide ways Variation in temperature of CMM

CALIBRATION OF THREE CO-ORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE:

CALIBRATION OF THREE CO-ORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE

APPLICATION:

APPLICATION Automobile, machine tool, electronics, space etc., Machines are best suited for the test and inspection of test equipment, gauges and tools Aircraft and space vehicles determination of shape

ADVANTAGES:

ADVANTAGES The inspection rate is increased. Accuracy is more. Operators error can be minimized. Skill requirements of the operator is reduced. Reduced inspection fixturing and maintenance cost. Reduction in calculating and recording time. Reduction in set up time. No need of separate go / no go gauges for each feature. Reduction of scrap and good part rejection

DISADVANTAGES:

DISADVANTAGES The table and probe may not be in perfect alignment. The probe may have run out. The probe moving in Z-axis may have some perpendicular errors. Probe while moving in X and Y direction may not be square to each other. There may be errors in digital system

COMPUTER CONTROLLED CMM:

COMPUTER CONTROLLED CMM

Types :

Types

CNC-CMM:

CNC-CMM

FLEXIBLE INSPECTION SYSTEM:

FLEXIBLE INSPECTION SYSTEM

MACHINE VISION:

MACHINE VISION A Vision system can be defined as a system for automatic acquisition and analysis of images to obtain desired data for interpreting or controlling an activity Machine vision can be defined as a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human system with electronic and electro mechanical techniques

Four types of machine vision system:

Four types of machine vision system Image formation Processing of image in a form suitable for analysis by computer Defining and analyzing the characteristic of image Interpretation of image and decision-making

Slide 42:

Compiled by: D.Vasanth Kumar Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jansons Institute of Technology, Coimbatore.

authorStream Live Help