Self-Management Group Project-Lisa, Andrew, Renee

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Self-Management An Overview of Three Self-Management Studies


In t roduction “Perhaps one of the most important skills [students with learning disabilities] need to learn… is how to learn .” Sturomski , 1997

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We also learn that behaviors that are appropriate in one context may not be appropriate in another. As we mature, most of us have the grace to synthesize these experiences into a framework that allows us to function harmoniously and productively in society .

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We know that there are a number of epigenetic factors that may lead to misbehaviors, such as genetic polymorphisms, ( D’Adamo , et al 2011) environmental toxicities, (Shelton et al, 2014; Rauh et al, 2011; Blaylock, 2003; Cambell , 2004) nutritional deficiencies (Logan & Jacka , 2014) and setting events such sleep deprivation, familial conflicts and medical issues, that can drastically affect our students yet are beyond our control as behaviorists or as educators .

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The literature suggests that without the implementation of support procedures, placements of children with special needs in full-inclusion classrooms are often unsuccessful. What kind of support is recommended? There is a growing body of evidence that indicates Behavioral Self-Monitoring (BSM) procedures can lead to effective behavioral changes in the classroom, creating a safe learning environment for all students. (Goodman & Williams, 2007)

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New educators ordinarily enter the field with limited training in classroom management, and research demonstrates that training alone is not enough to result in improved practice.   Typically, researchers have relied on time-intensive training programs that include performance feedback to improve educators’ use of classroom management practices; however, evidence suggests that Behavioral Self-Management may be an effective and efficient alternative to these otherwise costly training efforts . ( McDougall , 2008, 1998)

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“ The first and foremost “rule #1” is to engage and motivate the child.” ( Deschler , 2014) Choosing and consistently implementing Behavioral Self-Management Strategies can help engage and motivate our youth with special needs, and help them learn to independently regulate and act appropriately in a variety of home, school, and community-based environments.

As Self-Management is considered pivotal to the development of other skills (Koegel & Koegel, 2006), our group has chosen to focus upon the following three studies: Self-Monitoring for Comprehension, the Effects of Teacher vs. Student Self- Direction, and the use of Prompts and Self-Modeling in an inclusion classroom.:

As Self-Management is considered pivotal to the development of other skills ( Koegel & Koegel , 2006), our group has chosen to focus upon the following three studies: Self-Monitoring for Comprehension, the Effects of Teacher vs. Student Self- Direction, and the use of Prompts and Self-Modeling in an inclusion classroom. Ms. Lisa will present her summary first:

Self-Monitoring used to Improve Reading Comprehension and Immediate Recall :

Self-Monitoring used to Improve Reading Comprehension and Immediate Recall Reading comprehension is an extremely important skill. Without adequate reading comprehension, it’s difficult to succeed in school. “90% of students with learning disabilities experience significant difficulties acquiring reading skills…” (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman, & Bos , 2002) Most lack effective strategies that help with comprehension.

Evidence-Based Practices for Increasing Reading Comprehension Specifically for Adolescents:

Evidence-Based Practices for Increasing Reading Comprehension Specifically for Adolescents Using explicit instruction to teach text structure. Teaching students the following 3 things: Summarizing Self-questioning Self-monitoring

The Effects of Story Elements on the Reading Comprehension of High School Seniors with Learning Disabilities:

The Effects of Story Elements on the Reading Comprehension of High School Seniors with Learning Disabilities A study that used self-monitoring as an intervention to increase reading comprehension. Target Population Adolescents with learning disabilities and ADHD. Students who struggle with reading comprehension. Students who score below average on standardized tests in reading.

4 Phases of the Study:

4 Phases of the Study Baseline Training Self-Monitoring Maintenance

Baseline Phase:

Baseline Phase Students read short stories. Filled out immediate-recall worksheets at the end of the stories. “What is the story about?” “Who are the main characters ?” Students took a 10-question comprehension quiz.

Training Phase:

Training Phase Students educated about the importance of reading comprehension. 2. Instructions for the intervention were provided via modeling and guided practice.

Intervention Phase:

Intervention Phase Students were given short stories divided into 3 sections separated into prompts . Each prompt asked questions such as: “Who are the main characters?” “What is the story about?” Prompts consisted of 5 one or two-answer questions .

Intervention Phase:

Intervention Phase After reading the passage, students filled out immediate-recall worksheets. 4. Students took the 10 question comprehension quiz.

Maintenance Phase:

Maintenance Phase Began once students met the goal of: At least 5 self-monitoring sessions and a criterion of 80% quiz accuracy on 3 consecutive sessions. 2. Students were given short passages to read- same as in the baseline and intervention phases. 3 . Prompts were removed 4 . Student decided independently when and where to self-monitor. 5 . Students took the quiz.


Results All 3 young men showed improvements in both reading comprehension and immediate recall. Quiz scores went from 0-60% range to an 84% average. Immediate recall worksheets went from ranging 1 to 5 out of 20 correct to averaging 10.4 to 13 out of 20 correct.

Evaluation and Analysis:

Evaluation and Analysis The results demonstrate a functional relation between the self-monitoring intervention and increased reading comprehension. All three participants showed an immediate and substantial improvement on the number of story facts they were able to remember and the percentage of quiz questions answered correctly. All three participants continued to perform at or above their intervention levels during the maintenance condition when they were asked to self-monitor independently.


Discussion This study was conducted in a classroom and the technique (or variants of it) can be easily carried out in our own classrooms. Adding prompts to students’ readings is a simple procedure any teacher can implement. Very few tools/materials are needed to carry out this technique. Students can use the technique on their own and reduces dependency on teachers for prompting.

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In the next experiment, Ms. Renee will show you how teacher-directed vs. student-directed instruction effects self-management.

Student-Directed Instruction Impacts Effectiveness of Self-Management:

Student-Directed Instruction Impacts Effectiveness of Self-Management Instructing students in self-management strategies improves behavior and academic performance Areas of self-management that are impacted greatly goal setting self- monitoring self- evaluation self- reinforcement

Student-Directed Instruction Impacts Effectiveness of Self-Management:

Student-Directed Instruction Impacts Effectiveness of Self-Management Self-management strategies promote independent work and allows student to take responsibility for behaviors and choices Student-directed instruction takes self-management to the next level The student has a say in own goals, monitoring progress, evaluating completion, and selecting reinforcers Allows for greater independence with higher achievement

Student-Directed v. Teacher-Directed:

Student-Directed v. Teacher-Directed Teacher-directed instruction has all the decisions in the hands of the teacher Student-directed instruction has the teacher less involved in the decisions The question is would student-directed instruction produce higher achievement.

Effects of Teacher-Directed Versus Student-Directed Instruction on Self-Management of Young Children:

Effects of Teacher-Directed Versus Student-Directed Instruction on Self-Management of Young Children A study that evaluated the importance of the student-directed component of self-management by determining whether independent goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-evaluation were higher after student-directed instruction than after teacher-directed instruction


Method Participants 4 young children with disabilities 2 diagnosed with Autism 1 diagnosed with ADHD 1 with Emotional Disability Setting School for young children with severe learning and behavior problems


Materials Materials 4-column self-record card “Subject”, which included pictures of the subject areas for the student to circle “What I will do” “What I did” “Completed Assignments” with “Yes or No” for the student to circle to complete the column 5 colored folders for each subject area Each folder with 2 worksheets, for a total of 10 sheets

Response Measurement:

Response Measurement Student completed on the sel f-record card # of worksheets to be completed and # of worksheets completed When # of “What I will do” matched “What I did”, the student circled “Yes” in completed assignments column Teacher Assistant scored a correct self-management response when: # of completed worksheets recorded matched # assigned # of assignments, “What I did” column, matched # of assignments completed The “Yes” or “No” circled matched the # recorded in the previous columns NOTE: Second TA independently scored self-record card for inter-observer reliability


Procedure Independent variable Type of instruction Student-directed Teacher-directed Dependent Variable Self-management behavior during subsequent individual work session

Intervention Phase:

Intervention Phase Teacher- or student - directed instructional sessions were conducted daily and independent work sessions were conducted 2 hours later Baseline Students received no instruction, feedback or reinforcers Teacher-directed instruction, the teacher demonstrated the self-management skills to the student by setting goals, assigning work, and recording and evaluating results on the self-record card for the student Student-directed instruction, the teacher prompted the student to set goals, assign work, and record and evaluate results on the self-record card In both conditions, th e students selected an item from the prize box for each correct “Yes” response circled on the self-record card


Results Number of correct self-management responses during independent work was higher following student-directed instruction than following teacher-directed instruction for all students Students are more likely to exhibit independent self-management in non-training situations when teachers use a student-directed approach to self-management training


Discussion Possible explanations Similarity in student-directed instruction and independent work, where students are required to choose a goal and a behavior to monitor and evaluate and then to respond to those choices independently Student-directed instruction is more reinforcing than under teacher-directed instruction because of more opportunities to make choices Choice opportunities alone have been found to increase responding in some situations

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In the next experiment, Mr. Andrew will introduce you to an inclusionary study using self-prompts and modeling.

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In our third summary, we review a study that explored Self-Modeling Prompts for special needs students, and how this facilitated Self-Monitoring in a g eneral educational inclusion classroom. " Inclusion is a process, not an event: successful problems and solutions evolve rather than occur." (Hobbs and Wrestling, 2014) This ABAB design or reversal study, published in 2010, was designed to evaluate a combined Self-Management strategy on the achievements of three middle school autistic students in an inclusion classroom . (Wright & Ayres, 2010)

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Inclusion Federal law requires that children with disabilities be educated with children who do not have disabilities in the least restrictive environment (LRE) possible. (IDEA, 2004; Valenti & Loiacono , 2010) Most students tend to learn better in inclusive settings. (Goodman & Williams, 2007) Inclusion promotes the growth of self-esteem. (Goodman & Williams, 2007 ) It helps all students learn, first hand, the meaning of equal worth and equal rights . (IDEA, 2004) Inclusion settings are mandatory for special learners to encourage and allow social skills development, establishing social validity. (Case-Smith, 6 th Ed.)

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Why did I choose this particular study? Inclusion: The authors chose to measure a real-life condition: an inclusionary setting in a public school. Few studies have studied self-management in these settings. (McDougall, 1998 ) Multiple Probe design: This allowed a deeper insight into the relevance and generalization of the prompts: Can this intervention work in other settings as well? (Barlow & Hersen , 1984) Social Validation: The authors chose to study self-management in the context of self-prompting for autistic students. This allows students to feel a sense of empowerment and autonomy due to reduced behaviors, thereby increasing self esteem and social acceptance from their peers. (Foster & Mash, 1999)

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The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a handheld computer to deliver self-model static-picture prompts to facilitate the acquisition of self-monitoring for three students, 11-13 years of age with high-functioning autism in a general education classroom . What does this mean in plain language? Pictures were taken of the students modeling reading, writing and listening to the teacher. These pictures were then uploaded to the hand held computer in a slide-show format . The teachers told the students to turn the units on after the first 15 minutes of class. The students were then told to self-record their ‘on-task’ behavior by circling ‘yes’ or ‘no’ on an index card, when their own picture appeared on the screen, which cycled every 30 seconds throughout the class period. Teacher prompts were also recorded during the remaining 50 minutes of the period (‘target period ’). Da k ine

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Methods: This study was a multi-probe across settings (other programming classes) with an embedded ABAB for three participants. (Barlow & Hersen , 1984) What was the experimental design? Duration: Three students were observed between 26 and 32 class periods. Their task engagement was measured during the first 15 minutes of each class period using a partial interval technique, while teacher prompts were measured during the remaining 50 minutes of each class period using event recording. A B A B

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In this type of study, intermittent measures are taken at the beginning of the experiment and thereafter each time the student has mastered one or more sequential skills. This process allows one to assess generalization or ‘across settings’, a critical component with special learners. Baselines for the different settings (subject classes) were established prior to intervention with the independent variable, or prompts. The purple lines reveal where there were dramatic increases in on-task behavior , known as the dependent variable, in different classrooms. Baseline Baseline A B A B Intervention Intervention Intervention

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I. By reducing behaviors, will this intervention help the students learn more? II. Can the results be generalized to other settings? III. Will this intervention be feasible, effective and socially acceptable? (Foster & Mash, 1999) Three Important Questions

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During the intervention phases, the percentage of intervals in which on-task behavior was demonstrated increased 39% to 91% across all settings for every student. This was concurrent with a decrease in the number of teacher prompts delivered to the students, ranging from 33 to 2 during the 50 minute class periods. Social validity measures indicated that both teachers and students felt the use of handheld self modeling picture prompts were socially acceptable. (Martens et al.,1985) What were the results?

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This clever and elegant study clearly revealed that autistic students can effectively self monitor and self regulate using a handheld “ iphone ” type device that reminds them to stay on task at 30 sec intervals. By reinforcing the tablet prompt with a simple self-recording instrument, on task behaviors skyrocketed showing a clear functional relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Researchers have observed that students with autism often struggle with self-management skills such as controlling, maintaining and generalizing behaviors. ( Tantam , 2003 ) Such difficulties often lead to increased teacher prompting in educational settings.  Researchers have documented a variety of interventions, including the use of visual cues and self-management instruction, that have been found to increase the independence of students with disabilities, thus reducing reliance on adults. 

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As educators and students become more successful with these techniques, increasing implementation will shift responsibilities from teachers, families, and other practitioners to the learners themselves . Not only is this new-found independence and ability to self-regulate beneficial to the students, it also benefits their peers around them, as well as their teachers, because they save time that would otherwise have been spent managing the misbehaviors. Self-Management interventions meet evidence-based standards for K-12 special needs students, and can be utilized to help learners acquire key life skills, enabling them to function constructively and productively in the classroom and society. Summary

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Apple , A. L., Billingsley, F., & Schwartz, I. S. (2005). Effects of video modeling alone and with self-management on compliment-giving behaviors of children with high-functioning ASD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7, 33-46 . Ayres, K., Wright, R., Cihak , D., (2010). Use of Self-Modeling Static-Picture Prompts via a Handheld Computer to Facilitate Self-Monitoring in the General Education Classroom. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 2010, 45(1), 136–149 Busick , M., & Neitzel , J. (2010). Self-management for children and youth with autism spectrum disorders: Online training module. (Chapel Hill: National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC). In Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence (OCALI), Autism Internet Modules , Columbus, OH: OCALI. Coyle, C., & Cole, P. (2004). A videotaped self-modeling and self-monitoring treatment program to decrease off-task behaviour in children with autism. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 29, 3-16 . . Crabtree , T., Alber -Morgan, S. R., & Konrad, M. (2010). The effects of self-monitoring of story elements on the reading comprehension of high school seniors with learning disabilities . Education and Treatment of Children , 33 (2), 187-203. Kern, L., Marder , T. J., Boyajian , A. E., Elliot, C. M., & McElhattan , D. (1997). Augmenting the independence of self-management procedures by teaching self- initiation across settings and activities. School Psychology Quarterly, 12, 23-32. References

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Koegel , R. L., & Frea , W. D. (1993). Treatment of social behavior in autism through the modification of pivotal social skills. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26 , 369-377. Koegel , R. L., & Koegel , L. K. (1990). Extended reductions in stereotypic behavior of students with autism through a self-management treatment package. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 119-127. Koegel , R. L., & Koegel , L. K. (2006). Pivotal response treatments for autism: Communication, social, and academic development . Baltimore: Brookes. Koegel , L. K., Koegel , R. L., Hurley, C., & Frea , W. D. (1992). Improving social skills and disruptive behavior in children with autism through self-management. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 341-353. Mancina , C., Tankersley , M., Kamps , D., Kravits , T., & Parrett, J. (2000). Reduction of inappropriate vocalizations for a child with autism using a self-management treatment program . Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 599-606 . Mithaug , D. K., & Mithaug , D. E. (2003). Effects of teacher-directed versus student-directed instruction on self-management of young children with disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 133-136 . Newman, B., Buffington, D. M., & Hemmes , N. S. (1996). Self-reinforcement used to increase the appropriate conversation of autistic teenagers. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 31, 304-309. Newman, B., Buffington, D. M., O'Grady, M. A., McDonald, M. E., Poulson , C. L., & Hemmes , N. S. (1995). Self-management of schedule following in three teenagers with autism . Behavioral Disorders, 20, 190-196.

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Newman, B., Reinecke , D. R., & Meinberg , D. L. (2000). Self-management of varied responding in three students with autism. Behavioral Interventions, 15, 145-151. Pierce, K. L., & Schreibman , L. (1994). Teaching daily living skills to children with autism in unsupervised settings through pictorial self-management. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 471-481. Reinecke , D. R., Newman, B., & Meinberg , D. L. (1999). Self-management of sharing in three pre-schoolers with autism. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 34, 312-317. Stahmer , A. C., & Schreibman , L. (1992). Teaching children with autism appropriate play in unsupervised environments using a self-management treatment package. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 447-459. Vaughn, S., Linan -Thompson, S., & Hickman, P. (2003). Response to instruction as a means of identifying students with reading/learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 69 , 391--409

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Selected Additional References Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., & Parks, D. R. (1992). How to teach self-management to people with severe disabilities: A training manual. (Available from The Behavior Management Student Organization at the University of California at Santa Barbara, Mithaug, D. K., & Mithaug, D. E. (2003). Effects of teacher-directed versus student-directed instruction on self-management of young children with disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 133-136. Newman, B., Tuntigian, L., Ryan, C. S., & Reinecke, D. R. (1997). Self-management of a DRO procedure by three students with autism. Behavioral Interventions, 12, 149-156. Shearer, D. D., Kohler, F. W., Buchan, K. A., & McCullough, K. M. (1996). Promoting independent interactions between preschoolers with autism and their nondisabled peers: An analysis of self-monitoring. Early Education and Development, 7, 205-220. Todd, R., & Reid, G. (2006). Increasing physical activity in individuals with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 21, 167-176.

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