circulatory system

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THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM:

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM The transport system to facilitate the movement of materials in our body and also in other large animals is often referred to as the circulatory system . Blood vessels circulate blood from the heart to the body tissues and back to the heart again. I n this way, the circulatory system efficiently transports nutrients and other useful substances to all body cells and removes waste they produce. Consists of blood vessels (artery, vein and capillary), blood and the heart.

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The pulmonary artery carries blood from the heart to the lungs. The right side of the heart – receives deoxygenated blood (with very little oxygen) form the body and pumps blood to the lungs. The vena cava (main vein) returns blood to the heart. The pulmonary vein returns blood from the lungs to the heart. The left side of the hea rt – receives oxygenated blood (with plenty of oxygen) from the lungs and pumps blood to the rest of the body. The aorta (main artery) carries blood away from the heart.

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THE HEART - the incredible pump It is about the size of a clenched fist. It weighs about 300 grams. It is made up of muscles. It pumps throughout a lifetime at about 70 times. How does the hear carry out its incredible function as a pump? If we look into a section of the heart, we will see four chambers and four valves. The two upper chambers are called atria (singular atrium) or auricles and the two lower chambers are called ventricles.

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THE CHAMBERS The atria push blood into the ventricles and the ventricles push blood out of the heart. The ventricles require a greater force to push blood out of them. They have thicker walls than the atria. The left ventricle has a thicker wall than the right ventricle. Why do you think is so? A muscular wall called the septum completely separates the left side of the heart from the right. This prevents the mixing of oxygenated blood in the left chambers with deoxygenated blood in the right chambers. THE VALVES There are two heart valve and two semi-lunar valves in the heart. These valves act as doors. They ensure that blood flows in one direction and prevent blood from flowing backwards. THE PUMPING HEART The pumping of the heart involves two main stages which repeat in cycles. When the heart contracts (atria contract followed by ventricles), it pumps blood out of it and into the arteries. When the hear relaxes (atria and ventricles relax), it fills up with blood from the veins. One contraction and one relaxation of the heart make one heartbeat. The “ lub -dub” sound of each heartbeat is caused by he closing of valves. During the contraction, the heart valves close. This make a “ lub “ sound. When the semil-unar valves close during a relaxation, they make a “ dub” sound.

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ARTERY VEIN CAPILLARY Structure *thick, muscular and elastic wall *small lumen *valves absent *thin, less muscular and less elastic wall than the artery *large lumen *valves present *very thin wall made of one layer cells *very small lumen *valves absent Function *carries blood away from the heart *returns blood to the heart *Carries blood to and from body cells. Blood Flow *very fast, it spurts and under high pressure *slow, smooth and under low pressure *slow, smooth and under pressure between that of artery and vein. SUMMARY The circulatory system is made up of the heart, blood vessels and blood. The heart is a muscular pump which has four chambers and four valves. When the heart contracts, the right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs while the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Thus it pumps blood out into the body. When the heart relaxes, the deoxygenated blood (from the body) enters the right atrium, while oxygenated blood (from the lungs) enters the left atrium. Thus it fills up with blood. The comparison of the tree main types of blood vessels is summarized as follows:

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*smoking *lack of exercise *high fat diet *being overweight *stress *fatty deposits to build up in arteries *blockage in coronary arteries Coronary heart disease cause cause Coronary heart disease may be prevented by exercising, not smoking, eating a low fat diet, a low stress and active lifestyle. BLOOD – is a life sustaining fluid. Transport many different substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, digested food and waste products. - BLOOD COMPONENT NUMBER IN ONE DROP OF HUMAN BLOOD PERCENTAGE Plasma Red blood cells (RBC) White blood cells (WBC Platelets 55% 0.5 million 13 million 44-45% 0.1 % 250 million 0.17%

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PLASMA = the materials carrier Is a pale yellow liquid It is mostly water and contains several dissolved substances which it carries around the body. Functions of plasma: 1. Carries useful substances such as digested food from the small intestine to other parts of the body. 2. Transports chemicals such as hormones and antibodies from where they are produced to the parts of the body that need them. 3. Transports soluble proteins like fibrinogen which help in the clotting of blood. 4. Transports waste products from the body tissues to where they will be removed from the body. Example, urea is carried to the kidneys and carbon dioxide to the lungs.

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RED BLOOD CELLS (RBC) – the oxygen shuttle They are biconcave and have no nucleus. Each cell is packed with a red pigment called hemoglobin which make blood appear red. RBC are made in the bone marrow ( soft center of the bone ). They transport oxygen for about three to four months before they are worn-out and destroyed.

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WBC are much larger in size but less numerous in number than RBC. For every 500 RBC, there may be only one WBC. They are colourless and have nucleus. They are also made in the bone marrow but live for only a few days. There are 5 kinds of WBC. 1. Neutrophil 2. Basophil 3. Eosinophil 4. Monocyte 5. Lymphocyte Neutrophil , basophil and eosinophil are called phagocytes . They kill bacteria and other organisms that enter the body. They do so by engulfing and digesting them. This process is called phagocytosis . Monocyte and lymphocyte are called leukocytes . When they detect bacteria or poisonous substances in the blood, they produce chemicals called antibodies. Antibodies either kill the bacteria directly or make poisonous substances harmless. In this way, our body is protected against diseases. WHITE BLOOD CELLS (WBC) – the combat team

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PLATELETS – the blood clotter They are bits and pieces of broken down plasma. They have no nucleus. They help in the clotting of blood which prevents excessive loss of blood and entry of bacteria at the wound.

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SUMMARY OF THE COMPONENTS OF BLOOD AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

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Can we donate blood to anyone? Unfortunately, no! Is only possible if both the donor ( gives blood ) and recipient ( accepts blood ) have the same blood group, (type A, B, O, AB) or their blood groups should be “compatible” ( they match each other). White blood cells recognize anything foreign ( that does not belong to the body) and destroy them. This is why they destroy bacteria that have entered the body. If blood cells introduced into the recipient’s body are incompatible, the white blood cell s will consider them as “foreign” They will reject or destroy these blood cell. As a result, the recipient will die. A recipient’s natural defense for destroying “foreign substances” such as the incompatible blood cells is an example of tissue rejection. TISSUE REJECTION

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The following are some of the blood diseases. Find out more about it: (a) definition (b) signs and symptoms (c) treatment (d) prevention. Prepare an illustrative pamphlet or a brochure to inform your friends of you findings. Print (colored) it in an hard bound colored F4 sized paper. Group 1 = AIDS (Acquired Immuno -deficiency Syndrome) Group 2 = Pernicius anemia Group 3 = High Blood Pressure (hypertension) Group 4 = Stroke Group 5 = Hemophilia Group 6 = Cushing’s disease Group 7 = Kawasaki disease Group 8 = Anemia

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CLASS ACTIVITY: Find the answer from surfing the internet. Write your answer in your notebook. 1. What are the human blood components. 2. Give the number in one drop on each of the human blood components 3. Give the percentage on each of the human blood components. 4. What are the 5 types of white blood cells and give the meaning of each. 5. What are the different blood groups in human. The following are some of the blood diseases. Find out more about it: (a) definition (b) signs (c) symptoms (d) treatment (e) prevention. Prepare an illustrative pamphlet of a brochure to inform your friends of you findings. Group 1 = leukemia Group 2 = (SLE) systemic lupus erythematosus Group 3 = diabetes Group 4 = arteriosclerosis Group 5 = Rh disease (incompatibility) Group 6 = erythroblastosis fetalis 6. Find the meaning of the following: 7. 1. red blood cell 2. platelets 3. tissue rejection 4. plasma 5. phagocytes 6. white blood cell 7. blood clot

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