CANENCIA (Refrigerants)

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Refrigerants : 


Slide 2: 

What are refrigerants? Classifications of Refrigerants Types of Refrigerants Environmental Effects Safety Precautions Lists of Refrigerants

What are Refrigerants? : 

What are Refrigerants?

Refrigerants : 

Refrigerants Are fluids that absorb heat at low temperatures and reject heat at higher temperatures Compound used in a heat cycle that reversibly undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid. The principles of refrigerant allows heat pumps and straight air conditioners to function properly; because of their pressure temperature relationship. This relationship allows heat transfer. * Refrigerants are sold in disposable containers that include a check valve. This limits the reuse of old refrigerants and prevents mixing refrigerants. Refrigerants are identified by a standard color code. The labels also contain information on which type of refrigerant is in the container along with any safety hazards there are.

A chemical may play as a refrigerant once it satisfies some requirements: : 

A chemical may play as a refrigerant once it satisfies some requirements: Fluid Nature across a wide range of physical conditions (e.g. Pressure, Temperature Data) Low Boiling Point High Evaporation Heat

Classifications of Refrigerants : 

Classifications of Refrigerants

Prefix : 

Prefix The prefix is composed of the letter R (for refrigerant). Examples: R22, R134a, R600a, R717 Sometimes, the letter C is used in the prefix to denote carbon, preceded by B, C or F (or a combination of these letters in the same order) to indicate the presence of bromine, chlorine or fluorine. Compounds containing hydrogen must be preceded by the letter H. Examples: HCFC22, HFC134a These prefixes must only be used in non-technical publications. Note: the name of the brand or of the manufacturer is also used sometimes; these names must not be used in official documents (identification labels, etc.).

Suffix : 

Suffix The first digit on the right (units) is the number of fluorine (F) atoms. The second digit on the right (tens) is one more than the number of hydrogen (H) atoms. The third digit on the right (hundreds) is one less than the number of carbon (C) atoms (when the digit is zero, it is omitted from the number). The fourth digit on the right (thousands) is equal to the number of unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds (when the digit is zero, it is omitted from the number).

RO22 : 

RO22 R22 (chlorodifluoromethane – CHClF2) 0: Number of carbon atoms – 1 2: Number of hydrogen atoms + 1 2: Number of fluorine atoms Number of chlorine atoms : 1 (i.e. 4 minus 1 hydrogen atom and minus 2 fluorine atoms) Example:

Suffix : 

For cyclic derivatives, the letter C is used before the refrigerant’s identification number. Example: RC318 (octafluorocyclobutane – C4F8) In the case of isomers in the ethane series. As the isomers become more and more unsymmetrical, successive lowercase letters (i.e. a, b or c) are appended. Example: R134 and R134a Suffix

Suffix : 

Suffix For refrigerants that contain bromine (Br), the letter B is added after the identification number, followed by the number of atoms present. These refrigerants are no longer manufactured in developed countries since the application of the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer. The number of chlorine (Cl) atoms is found by subtracting the sum of fluorine, bromide, and hydrogen atoms from the total number of atoms that can be connected to the carbon atoms: 4 for methane derivatives (CH4), 6 for ethane derivatives (C2H6), etc.

Refrigerants by Class : 

Refrigerants by Class Refrigerants may be divided into three classes according to their manner or absorption or extraction of heat from the substance to be refrigerated: Class 1: This class that includes refrigerants that cool by phase change (typically boiling), using refrigerant's latent heat. Class 2: These refrigerants cool by temperature change or ‘sensible heat’, the quantity of heat being the specific heat capacity x the temperature change. They are air, calcium chloride brine, sodium chloride brine, alcohol and similar non freezing solutions. The purpose of Class 2 refrigerants is to receive a reduction of temperature from Class 1 refrigerants and convey this lower temperature to the area to be air-conditioned. Class 3: This group consists of solutions that contain absorbed vapors of liquefiable agents or refrigerating media. These solutions function by nature of their ability to carry liquefiable vapors, which produce a cooling effect by the absorption of their heat of solution. They can also be classified into many categories.

Types of Refrigerants : 

Types of Refrigerants Halocarbon Inorganic Azeotropic Zeotropic Hydrocarbon

Halocarbon Refrigerants : 

Halocarbon Refrigerants Are all synthetically produced and were developed as the Freon family of refrigerants. The halocarbons are the compounds formed from methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) molecules (both are pure hydrocarbons) by replacing one or moree hydrogen atoms with halogens like chlorine, flourine or bromine. Examples: CFS’s: R11, R12, R113, R114, R115 HCFC’s: R22, R123 HFC’s: R134a, R404a, R407C, R410a

CFC : 

CFC The chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are formed by replacing some hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbons with chlorine and flourine atoms. Thomas Midgley Jr. invented the chlorofluorocarbon gas, Freon, which was safer for humans but has been found to harm the ozone layer. They are also commonly known by Dupont Trade name Freon. Many CFCs have been widely used as refrigerants, propellants (in aerosol applications) and solvents. The manufacture of such compounds is being phased out by Montreal Protocol because they contribute to ozone depletion.

R-12 : 

R-12 Dichlorodifluoromethane Used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant Popular refrigerant Boiling point of -22 deg. F Containers are color coded white (Small containers purchased with certification Complying with Montreal Protocol, its manufacture was banned in the United States along with many other countries in 1994 due to concerns about damage to the ozone layer.

R-11 : 

R-11 Trichlorofluoromethane (freon-11, CFC -11) Previously used as flushing agents It is colorless, nearly odorless liquid that boils at about room temperature. Because of its high chlorine content and the ease with which the chlorine atoms can be displaced when the molecule is subject to ultraviolet light, has the highest ozone depletion potential of any refrigerant. Production was ended in 1995.


HCFC hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine & carbon

R-22 : 

R-22 Chlorodifluoromethane Is a man-made refrigerant developed for refrigeration installations the need a low evaporating temperature. Not for automotive applications Boiling point of -40 deg. F High vapor pressure Not compatible with hose and seal materials These applications are being phased out due to ozone depletion potential and status as a potent greenhouse gas.

HFC : 

HFC Hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine Organic compounds that contain only one or few fluorine atoms Their atmospheric concentrations are rapidly increasing, causing international concern about rising contribution to anthropogenic radioactive forcing emissions

R-134a : 

R-134a Boiling point -15 deg. F All vehicles produced in 1994 to present. Similar pressure-temperature relationship of R-12 Lighter weight than R-12 Containers color coded blue Requires barrier hoses Has been subject to use restrictions due to its contribution to climate change. In EU, it will be banned as from 2011 in all new cars

Inorganic Refrigerants : 

Inorganic Refrigerants Carbon Dioxide Water Ammonia Air Sulfur Dioxide

Carbon Dioxide (R-744) : 

Carbon Dioxide (R-744) Has been extensively used in the past It is undergoing a popular resurgence and has distinct advantages for low temperature applications. One of the benefits of CO2 in low temperature refrigeration system is the low specific volume of the refrigerant vapor. This has a direct positive impact on the required compressor displacement (ft 3/min or m 3/min) and can help to reduce the installed size of the compressor(s).

Water (R-718) : 

Water (R-718) Is a natural refrigerant The use of water as a refrigerant in industrial chillers is an environment friendly new technology, successfully installed over the recent years. It is absolutely harmless to man and nature. It is easily available and there are no problems disposing it after use. Even though water is one of the oldest refrigerants, it requires state of the art technology to use water as a refrigerant in absorption chillers or in compression chillers with steam injection compressors.

Ammonia (R-717) : 

Ammonia (R-717) Is the most common refrigerant used in industrial refrigeration today. The application of ammonia to refrigeration system has become universally known as the field of refrigeration. It is flammable and highly toxic.

Air (R-279) : 

Air (R-279) Is one of the earliest refrigerants and was widely used in World War I whenever a completely nontoxic material was required. Although air is free of cost and completely safe, its low coefficient of performance makes it unable to complete with the modern nontoxic refrigerants.

Sulfur Dioxide (R-764) : 

Sulfur Dioxide (R-764) Being easily condensed and possesing a high heat of evaporation, sulfur dioxide is a candidate material for refrigerants. Prior to the development of Freons, sulfur dioxide was used as a refrigerant in home refrigerators.

Azeotropic Refrigerants : 

Azeotropic Refrigerants are mainly a blend of two refrigerants. The property that defines this type of refrigerant is it acts as a single refrigerant. This effect the boiling points of both types of refrigerants. Examples : R-500 : 73.8% R12 and 26.2% R152 R-502 : 8.8% R22 and 51.2% R115 R-503 : 40.1% R23 and 59.9% R13

Zeotropic Refrigerants : 

Zeotropic Refrigerants are mainly made of three different types of refrigerants. The characteristic that describes this type of refrigerant is that all three refrigerants keep their own properties; they act as 3 individual refrigerants. Examples :R404a : R125/143a/134a (44%,52%,4%) R407c : R32/125/134a (23%, 25%, 52%) R410a : R32/125 (50%, 50%) R413a : R600a/218/134a (3%, 9%, 88%)

Hydrocarbon Refrigerants : 

Hydrocarbon Refrigerants Many hydrocarbon gases have successfully been used as refrigerants in industrial, commercial and domestic applications. Examples: R170, Ethane, C2H6 R290 , Propane C3H3 R600, Butane, C4H10 R600a, Isobutane, C4H10 Blends of the above Gases

Propane : 

Propane R-290 Have negligible ozone depletion potential and very low Global Warming Potential Use of highly purified propane as a refrigerant is gaining favor, especially in systems designed for R-22

Butane : 

Butane R-600 Have largely replaced the ozone layer-depleting halomethanes, for instance in household refrigerators and freezers. The system operating pressure for butane is lower than for the halomethanes, such as R-12, so R-12 systems such as in automotive air conditioning systems.

Environmental Effects of Refrigerants : 

Environmental Effects of Refrigerants - Depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere Global warming : Refrigerants directly contributing to global warming when released to the atmosphere Indirect contribution based on the energy consumption of among others the compressors ( CO2 produced by power stations )

Safety Hazards : 

Safety Hazards Physiological reaction Asphyxiation Frostbite and blindness Poisoning Combustion Explosion of containers

Lists of Refrigerants : 

Lists of Refrigerants

Methane Series : 

Methane Series R-10 tetrachloromethane R-11 trichlorofluoromethane R-12 dichlorodifluoromethane R-12B1 bromochlorodifluoromethane R-12B2 dibromochlorodifluoromethane R-13 chlorotrifluoromethane R-13B1 bromotrifluoromethane R-14 tetrafluoromethane R-20 trichloromethane (chloroform) R-21 dichlorofluoromethane R-22 chlorodifluoromethane R-22B1 bromodifluoromethane R-23 trifluoromethane R-30 dichloromethane R-31 chlorofluoromethane R-32 difluoromethane R-40 chloromethane R-41 fluoromethane R-50 methane

Ethane Series : 

Ethane Series R-110 hexachloroethane R-111 pentachlorofluoroethane R-112 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane R-112a 1,1,1,2-tetrachloro-2,2-difluoroethane R-113 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane R-113a 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane R-114 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane R-114a 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane R-114B2 1,2-dibromo-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane R-115 chloropentafluoroethane R-116 hexafluoroethane R-120 pentachloroethane

Ethane Series : 

Ethane Series R-123 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane R-123a 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethane R-124 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane R-124a 1-chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane R-125 pentafluoroethane R-133a 2-chloror-1,1,1-trifluoroethane R-134a 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane R-140a 1,1,1-trichloroethane R-141b 1,1-chloro--fluoroethane R-142b 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane R-143a 1,1,1-trifluoroethane R-150a 1,1-dichloroethane R-152a 1,1-difluoroethane R-160 chloroethane R-170 ethane

Propane Series : 

Propane Series R-216ca 1,3-dichloro-1,1,2,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane R-218 octafluoropropane R-245cb 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane R-290 propane Cyclic Organic Compounds C316 1,2-dichloro-1,2,3,3,4,4-hexafluorocuclobutane C317 chloroheptafluorocyclobutane C318 octafluorocyclobutane

Zeotropic Blends : 

Zeotropic Blends R-400 R-12/114 (must be specified) R-401A R-22/152a/124 (53%/13%/34%) R-401B R-22/152a/124 (61%/11%/28%) R-401C R-22/152a/124 (33%/15%/52%) R-402A R-125/290/22 (30%/2%/38%) R-402B R-125/290/22 (38%/2%/60%) R-403A R-290/22/218 (5%/75%/20%) R-403B R-290/22/218 (5%/56%/39%) R-404A R-125/143a/134a (44%/52%/4%) R-405A R-22/152a/142b/C318 (45%/7%/5.5%/42.5%) R-406A R-22/600a/142b (55%/4%/41%)

Zeotropic Blends : 

Zeotropic Blends R-407A R-32/125/134a (20%/40%/40%) R-407B R-32/125/134a (10%/70%/20%) R-407C R-32/125/134a (23%/25%/52%) R-407D R-32.125/134a (15%/15%/70%) R-408A R-125/143a/22 (7%/46%/47%) R-409A R-22/124/142b (60%/25%/10%) R-409B R-22/124/142b (65%/25%/10%) R-410A R-32/125 (50%/50%) R-410B R-32/125 (45%/55%) R-411A R-1270/22/152a (1.5%/87.5%/11.0%) R-411B R-1270/22/152a (3%/94%/3%) R-412A R-22/218/142b (70%/5%/25%)

Azeotropic Blends : 

Azeotropic Blends R-500 R-12/152a (73.8%/26.2%) R-501 R-22/12 (75.0%/25.0%) R-502 R-22/115 (48.8%/51.2%) R-503 R-23/13 (40.1%/59.9%) R-504 R-32/115 (48.2%/51.8%) R-505 R-12/31 (78.0%/22.0%) R-506 R-31/114 (55.1%/44.9%) R-507A R-125/143a (50%/50%) R-508A R-23/116 (39%/61%) R-508B R-23/116 (46%/54%) R-509A R-22/218 (44%/56%)

Slide 44: 

Miscellaneous Organic Compounds Hydrogen R-600 butane R-600a 2-methyl propane Oxygen Compounds R-610 ethyl ether R-611 methyl formate Sulfur Compounds R-620 Reserved for future assignment Nitrogen Compounds R-630 methyl amine R-631 ethyl amine Inorganic Compounds R-702 hydrogen R-704 helium R-717 ammonia R-718 water R-720 neon R-728 nitrogen R-732 oxygen R-740 argon R-744 carbon dioxide R-744A nitrous oxide R-764 sulfur dioxide

Unsaturated Organic Compounds : 

Unsaturated Organic Compounds R-1112a 1,1-dichloro-2,2-difluoroethane R-1113 1-chloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane R-1114 tetrafluoroethene R-1120 trichloroethene R-1130 1,2-dichloroethene (trans) R-1132a 1,1-difluoroethene (vinylidene fluoride) R-1140 1-chloroethene (vinyl chloride) R-1141 1-fluoroethene (vinyl fluoride) R-1150 ethene (ethylene) R-1270 propene (propylene)

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