Nutrition of racing sled dogs Part 2

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Slideshow presented at the International Sled Dog Veterinary Medical Association congress; october 2008; Barcelona

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Prof. Dominique GRANDJEAN K9 Breeding and Sport Medicine National Veterinary School of Alfort Tom Cooley ISDVMA Memorial Award Pride Lifetime Achievement Award NUTRITION A keyword to performance and prevention in the racing sled dog Part 2

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NUTRITION OF RACING SLED DOGS 1/ Historical approach 2/ Energy : from quantity to quality 3/ A mandatory protein/energy ratio 4/ Oxidative stress : a key concept 5/ Nutrition as a prevention tool 6/ Practical feeding 7/ The key points of sled dog nutrition

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PROTEINS  Increased structures turn over  Increased demand for essential amino-acid [peptidic hormones]  Long term stress impact  Glucogenic amino-acids

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[Kronfeld, 1988] Beware of Proteins / Calories ration [PCR] End of racing season Time (weeks) Hemoglobin (g/dlr) 32 to 40% PROTEINS / MS 26 to 28% PROTEINS / MS

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REYNOLDS, 1999 Effect of protein intake during training on biochemical and performance variables in sled dogs Proteins [% of ME] (% in a 4500 kcal ME/kg dry food) Hematocrit (p100) VO2max (ml/min/kg) Muscle problems on dogs 18 (20) 46 ± 0.1 128 ± 80 8/8 23 (26) 48 ± 2 174 ± 12 1/8 29 (33) 50 ± 1 180 ± 12 0/8 35 (40) 50 ± 1 174 ± 12 1/8

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Low absorption of water and electrolytes Poor digestion and absorption of nutrients Modification in gastro-intestinal transit time High intestinal and colon permeability Excessive bacterial fermentation Digestibility of proteins Possible causes of poor digestive tolerance

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Proteins: 32 % Energy: 3 800 kcal/kg Digestibility : 87 % Availability: ≈ 73 g/1000 kcal Proteins: 32 % Energy: 3 800 kcal Digestibility: 97 % Availability: ≈ 81 g/1000 kcal Food A Food B Digestibility of proteins

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Proteins with a very high assimilation  90 % Digestibility of proteins

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Undigested proteins in the colon leads to : putrefaction production of gas, biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine…) perturbation of the colon ecosystem Pathogenic strains of bacteria Toxic effect on colon mucosa Importance of indigestible protein

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Indigestible protein in ingredients

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25p100 63 125 188 250** 313 375 438 500 ME/d 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 p 100 Proteins/ME *  Light training ; Sprint race **  Hard training ; Mid distance ***  Long distance PCR = 75 PCR = 62 PCR = 50 30p100 75 150* 225 300 375 450 525 600 20p100 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400*** Prot/Cal. Ratio : from theory to practice...

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2 kg dry food 4000 kcalME/kg et 30 p.100 Prot  Osmotic diarrhoa  SDDS ! 500 g dry food + 3 kg meat/fatty fish Volume  fraction PCR = 75 PCR = 50 500 g dry food 4000 kcalME/kg and 30 p.100 Prot Maximal digestive tolerance threshold of nordic dogs for dry food Need for purified protein sources - high quality (milk, egg isolates, hydr) - powder (volume) Prot/Cal. Ratio : from theory to practice...

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Balance of essential amino-acids Biologic value of proteins

EAA : Tryptophane : 

EAA : Tryptophane Brain food Indispensable in synthesis of serotonin (TSM) Appetite Memory - Learning Thermoregulation Heart function Endocrine functions Carrier competition with other amino-acids

NEAA : Glutamine : 

NEAA : Glutamine

NEAA : Glutamine : 

Urea synthesis, neo gluco synthesis (liver) Ammonio synthesis (kidney) Source of nitrogen and energy (quick recovering tissues) Maintain acid base balance (kidney) Regulate protein synthesis (muscle) etc. NEAA : Glutamine

NEAA : Glutamine : 

500 400 800 700 600 jejunum ileum Villi µ - Gln + Gln - Gln + Gln (Smith & O’dwver, 1988) NEAA : Glutamine

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NUTRITION OF RACING SLED DOGS 1/ Historical approach 2/ Energy : from quantity to quality 3/ A mandatory protein/energy ratio 4/ Oxidative stress : a key concept 5/ Nutrition as a prevention tool 6/ Practical feeding 7/ The key points of sled dog nutrition

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Oxygen: Vital but Dangerous... about oxidative stress in the dog

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STRESS A KEY WORD FOR SLED DOGS Stamina Situation Oxygen Metabolic stress Mental stress Cellular stress Specific pathological problems

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 Slows down gastric emptying  Inhibits antral motricity  Diminishes small intestine transit  Increases colonic muscular activity  Reduces absorption of electrolytes  Modifies intestinal permeability  intestinal inflammation  Decreases splanchnic blood flow  Modifies physical properties of intestinal mucus  Induces production of hydroperoxides and free radicals IMPACT OF EXERCISE INDUCED STRESS

OXIDATIVE STRESS : 

OXIDATIVE STRESS State within oxidative reactions overpass the anti-oxidant defenses of the organism Disturbances of cell functions Pathology Acute Chronic

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Base Level Level of Oxidative Stress Acute pathological problems [Sport Medicine] Chronic diseases Muscle Heart Intestin Cancer Nervous syst Eye Heart Joints Acute and temporary oxidative stress Long term dysbalance or chronic oxidative stress

Oxidative stress in racing sled dogsConsequences and Prevention : 

Free Radicals Production ; consequences Main related pathological problems Dogs working in extreme conditions: a model Nutritional and environmental consequences Oxidative stress in racing sled dogsConsequences and Prevention

Free Radicals(toxic reactive species of oxigen) : 

Cellular lesions Lipoperoxidations Degradation of proteins Destruction of DNA Free Radicals(toxic reactive species of oxigen) ’O2 O2- H2O2 OH . Antiradicals defense systems Enzymes Chelators of minerals Vitamins

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Free Radicals What are their biological actions? Inactivations of enzymes Destruction of cell membranes Destruction of mitochondrias Hemolysis of red cells Impairment of protein synthesis Lesions of nucleic acids

Oxidative stress in racing sled dogsConsequences and Prevention : 

Free Radicals Production; consequences Main related pathological problems Dogs working in extreme conditions: a model Nutritional and environmental consequences Oxidative stress in racing sled dogsConsequences and Prevention

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DIGESTIVE TRACT SPORT ANEMIA MUSCLE-TENDONS PROBLEMS STRESS FRACTURES STRESS RELATED MEDICAL PROBLEMS IN RACING SLED DOGS CHRONIC JOINT PROBLEMS RESPIRATORY FRAGILITY SUDDEN DEATH SYNDROM Gastric ulcers Stress diarrhea Sensitivity to pneumania « Ski-asthma » Like Syndrom

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Stress related dysfunctions  Protein level in food  Antioxidants in food Evolution of hemoglobinemia as a function of the percentage of protein in the ration during the racing season « Work » anemia

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Cramp Rupture Lesion No Lesion Inflammation Rupture Rhabdomyolysis consequence Tendon rupture Precise diagnosis Muscle rupture Stress related dysfunctions Pathology of muscles and tendons

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NORMAL MUSCLE FIBERS OXIDATIVE STRESS Destruction of muscle fibers Dysfunction of muscle vessels

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Muscle lesions induced by Cellular Oxidative Stress

Oxidative stress in racing sled dogsConsequences and Prevention : 

Free Radicals Production; consequences Main related pathological problems Dogs working in extreme conditions : a model Nutritional and environmental consequences Oxidative stress in racing sled dogsConsequences and Prevention

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Stamina in aerobiosis  oxidation processes High level of oxygen consumption  free radicals Source of energy  oxidation of lipids Extreme environments  environmental stress Intense work, motivation  psychological stress Conditions for an intense cellular oxidative stress WHY ???

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Production of free radicals O2- ., H2 O2 , OH. Antioxidants Vit E, Vit C, Glutathion, SOD... Pathology Health

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6000 m Licancabur (Chile) 1996 «Chiens des cimes - Licancabur»

Licancabur ; Chile ; 6000 meters : 

Group 2 >> Group 1 Biological and nutritional consequences of worrk at high altitude in search and rescue dogs : The scientific expedition Chiens des Cimes-Licancabur The journal of nutrition, Vol. 128, No 12S, December 1998, 2694S-2697S  Plasma vitamin E   Peroxidation Resistance Index   Oxygen transfer to working cells   Clinical problems   - stress diarrhea - muscle stiffness and rhabdomyolysis - acute pulmonary oedema Licancabur ; Chile ; 6000 meters

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4500 m Chamonix (France) 2004 «Chiens des cimes Mont-Blanc»

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Total Plasma Anti-Oxidant) Sea level vs Altitude Placebo Propentofylline TPAO (mmol/l)

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ECG Under segment ST : Base line / segment ST => Whitnesses an heart muscle hypoxia 0,2 mV < NORM < + 0,15 mV Intense altitude work Treated group : OK P P Q Q S S R R T T Dog : Patcho PQRS complex – Work in altitude – Treated group Base line Mont-Blanc 2004 : Results

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ECG PQRS complex – Work in altitude – Placebo group Dog : Malouk P P Q Q S R R T S T Under segment ST : Segment ST => Whitnesses a heart muscle hypoxia 0,2 mV < NORM < + 0,15 mV Intense altitude work Placebo group: severe hypoxia of the heart muscle -0,4 mV Base line Mont-Blanc 2004 : Results

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ANTIOXIDANT STATUS OF RACING SLED DOGS

ALASKA COME BACK RACE 1997 RESEARCH PROTOCOLE UMES-ROYAL CANIN : 

Jacques PHILIP Helmuth PEER No supplement 800mg Vitamin E / day ALASKA COME BACK RACE 1997 RESEARCH PROTOCOLE UMES-ROYAL CANIN Monique BENE

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40 30 20 10 0 PRI [s] Before [Alaska Come Back 97] After 41,4 42,3 41,0 30,1 Suppl. [800mg Vit. E / dog/day] no suppl. EVOLUTION OF THE PEROXIDATION RESISTANCE INDEX IN TESTED TEAMS DURING THE ALASKA COME BACK RACE 1997

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NOATAK Kennel 1999 RESEARCH PROTOCOLE UMES-ROYAL CANIN Design of the protocole - 16 alaskan huskies 4 groups of 4 by random - Untrained for 6 months - 3 to 5 years old - 7 males, 9 females C D A B

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Trials on Super Oxide Dismutase Source of SOD : purified watermelon SOD vectorized by gliadins 300 mg 30 g active SOD 70 p100 mitochondrial 30 p100 peroxisomal 50 p100 Mn-SOD 50 p100 CuZn-SOD

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Design of the protocole

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Superoxide Dismutase Trials [58.9] [10.7] [13.6] [19.1] + - 1* 2 3 4 * Stat. Signif p<0.05 Evolution D10 / D0 Results : Red cells SOD activity [U/g Hb ]

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Superoxide Dismutase Trials [6.49] [7.61] [14.48] [27.49] + - 1* 2 3 4 Evolution D10 / D0 Results : Production of Superoxide Ions [Bpm/106 polynuclears] * Stat. Signif p<0.05

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22 Alaskan Huskies randomized in 2 groups :[3400 km training] Group 1 : race diet + 800 IU Vit E Group 2 : race diet + 800 IU Vit E + 300 mg SOD NOATAK Kennel 2000 RESEARCH PROTOCOLE UMES-ROYAL CANIN Wyoming IRMSSSDR

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SOD-UMES 2000 (U/mol Hb) NOATAK Kennel 2000 RESEARCH PROTOCOLE UMES-ROYAL CANIN

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Clinical Datas Distance (km) Dogs dropped definitely Dogs dropped temporarely Group SOD # 250/dog 0 2** Group P # 120/dog 3* 12*** * - 1 stress fracture - 2 acute pumonary oedema ** - stress diarrheas *** - muscle pain, stress diarrheas NOATAK Kennel 2000 RESEARCH PROTOCOLE UMES-ROYAL CANIN

Oxidative stress in racing sled dogsConsequences and Prevention : 

Free Radicals Production; consequences Main related pathological problems Dogs working in extreme conditions: a model Nutritional and environmental consequences Oxidative stress in racing sled dogsConsequences and Prevention

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‘70s ‘80s ‘90s 1997 Rhabdomyolisis on Dunlap’s dogs Kronfeld moves to high fat diets Grandjean : High fat diets enhance endurance Kronfeld : Protein / Energy Ratio Reynolds : Fat adaptation in racing dogs Reinhart : Quality of fatty acids, omega 3 Grandjean : L carnitine, antioxidants Back to rhabdomyolisis related to high fat diets Hinchkliff : Antioxidants Reynolds : Antioxidants Grandjean : Antioxidants BIOLOGY IS IRONIC 2000

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Life in Kennel Musher’s Stress Perception competition / training Psychological Intensive Training Performance (races) Repetition of competitions Physical Nutritional Prevention OXIDATIVE STRESS Celles and Organs Lesions

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TARGETS DNA Intracell memb Cell memb hydro soluble liposoluble both 1 2 3 Nutritional Anti oxidants

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carotenoids Vitamin E Vitamin E Vitamin E + C+carotenoids Vitamin E+ carotenoids Action sites of antioxidant nutrients and antioxidant enzymes Cellular membrane