HUMAN CONCEPTION : HUMAN CONCEPTION Bambang Widjanarko
Jakarta-Indonesia HUMAN CONCEPTION : HUMAN CONCEPTION Human Conception : union of a human EGG and SPERM , usually occurring in the AMPULA of the fallopian tube CONCEPTION : CONCEPTION CONCEPTION ( also known as fertilization, fecundation and syngamy ), is the FUSION OF GAMETES to produce a new organism.
The process involves a sperm fusing with an ovum , which eventually leads to the development of an EMBRYO. OOGENESIS : OOGENESIS OOGENESIS Slide 6: FOLIKEL D’GRAAF Slide 7: SPERMATOGENESIS SPERMATOGENESIS : SPERMATOGENESIS Spermatogenesis requires about 74 days
Together with transportation, a total about 3 months elapses before sperm are ejaculated Slide 10: The average ejaculation contain 2 to 5 ml of semen
40 to 300 million sperm may be deposited in the vagina
50 – 90% of which are morphologically normal
Fewer than 200 sperm achieve proximity to the egg.
Only one sperm fertlilizes a single egg released at ovulation CAPACITATION of the SPERM : CAPACITATION of the SPERM Capacitation is the physiologic change that sperm must undergo in the female reproductive tract before conception
The acrosome reaction is one of the principal component of capacitation It is when first of all the acrosome at the head tip SPERM produces enzymes, which cuts through the outer jelly coat of the EGG. After that has happened, the sperm plasma fuses with the egg’s plasma membrane. Finally, the Head disconnects with the body, and the egg can now travel down the FALLOPIAN TUBE to reach the UTERUS, where the baby grows. : It is when first of all the acrosome at the head tip SPERM produces enzymes, which cuts through the outer jelly coat of the EGG. After that has happened, the sperm plasma fuses with the egg’s plasma membrane. Finally, the Head disconnects with the body, and the egg can now travel down the FALLOPIAN TUBE to reach the UTERUS, where the baby grows. Fertilization may or may not involve sexual intercourse. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process by which egg cells are fertilized by sperm outside the uterus , in vitro. Sperm is propelled through the female reproductive tract by flagellation and may get through the jelly coat through a process called sperm activation . The oocyte and sperm fuse once the sperm is through the corona radiata and the zona pellucida; two layers covering and protecting the oocyte from fertilization by more than one sperm. : Fertilization may or may not involve sexual intercourse. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process by which egg cells are fertilized by sperm outside the uterus , in vitro. Sperm is propelled through the female reproductive tract by flagellation and may get through the jelly coat through a process called sperm activation . The oocyte and sperm fuse once the sperm is through the corona radiata and the zona pellucida; two layers covering and protecting the oocyte from fertilization by more than one sperm. Cell membranes : Cell membranes The cell membranes of the secondary oocyte and sperm fuse together. Implantation : Implantation After fertilisation the single cell splits into two, then the two cells double to four, four to eight, eight to sixteen and so on.
Because the cell cluster looks superficially like a berry it is called the morula ( Latin for "mulberry") , but the new life is always biologically human (species Homo sapiens). PREGNANCY fromTIME TO TIME : PREGNANCY fromTIME TO TIME 3rd Week of Pregnancy : 3rd Week of Pregnancy Zygote is just a tiny ball consisting of several hundred cells that are multiplying madly.
Once the ball of cells ( blastocyst ) takes up residence in uterus, the part of it that will develop into the placenta starts producing the pregnancy hormone hCG -human chorionic gonadotropin), which tells ovaries to stop releasing eggs and triggers increased production of estrogen and progesterone (which keep uterus from shedding its lining — and its tiny passenger — and stimulates placental growth). 3rd Week of Pregnancy : 3rd Week of Pregnancy HCG is the hormone that turns a pregnancy test positive;
by the end of this week, the patient may be able to take one and get a positive result! (If a test is negative and still haven't gotten the period in two or three days, try again then.) 3rd Week of Pregnancy : 3rd Week of Pregnancy Meanwhile, amniotic fluid is beginning to collect around ball of cells in the cavity that will become the amniotic sac.
Right now, a little blastocyst is receiving oxygen and nutrients (and discarding waste products) through a primitive circulation system made up of microscopic tunnels that connect the developing baby to the blood vessels in uterine wall.
The placenta won't be developed enough to take over this task until the end of next week. 5th week of pregnancy : 5th week of pregnancy Deep in the uterus embryo is growing at a furious pace. At this point, he's about the size of a sesame seed.
He's now made up of three layers — the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm — which will later form all of his organs and tissues. 5th week of pregnancy : 5th week of pregnancy The neural tube — from which the baby's brain, spinal cord, nerves, and backbone will sprout — is starting to develop in the top layer, called the ectoderm.
This layer will also give rise to his skin, hair, nails, mammary and sweat glands, and tooth enamel. 5th week of pregnancy : 5th week of pregnancy Heart and circulatory system begin to form in the middle layer, or mesoderm. (This week, in fact, his tiny heart begins to divide into chambers and beat and pump blood.)
The mesoderm will also form your baby's muscles, cartilage, bone, and subcutaneous (under skin) tissue. 5th week of pregnancy : 5th week of pregnancy The third layer, or endoderm, will house his lungs, intestines, and rudimentary urinary system, as well as his thyroid, liver, and pancreas.
In the meantime, the primitive placenta and umbilical cord, which deliver nourishment and oxygen to baby, are already on the job. 6th Week of pregnancy : 6th Week of pregnancy This week's major developments: The nose, mouth, and ears
If you could see into uterus, you'd find an oversize head and dark spots where your baby's eyes and nostrils are starting to form. 6th Week of pregnancy : 6th Week of pregnancy His emerging ears are marked by small depressions on the sides of the head, and his arms and legs by protruding buds. 6th Week of pregnancy : 6th Week of pregnancy His heart is beating about 100 to 160 times a minute — almost twice as fast as yours — and blood is beginning to course through his body.
His intestines are developing, and the bud of tissue that will give rise to his lungs has appeared.
His pituitary gland is forming, as are the rest of his brain, muscles, and bones.
Right now, the baby is a quarter of an inch long, 7th weeks of pregnancy : 7th weeks of pregnancy Hands and feet are emerging from developing arms and legs
Technically, baby is still considered an embryo and has something of a small tail, which is an extension of her tailbone..
The baby has doubled in size since last week and now measures half an inch long, about the size of a blueberry. 7th weeks of pregnancy : 7th weeks of pregnancy Both hemispheres of your baby's brain are growing, and her liver is churning out red blood cells until her bone marrow forms and takes over this role.
She also has an appendix and a pancreas, which will eventually produce the hormone insulin to aid in digestion. 8th weeks of pregnancy : 8th weeks of pregnancy Webbed fingers and toes are poking out from your baby's hands and feet, his eyelids practically cover his eyes, breathing tubes extend from his throat to the branches of his developing lungs, and his "tail" is just about gone. 8th weeks of pregnancy : 8th weeks of pregnancy In his brain, nerve cells are branching out to connect with one another, forming primitive neural pathways.
The external genitals still haven't developed enough to reveal whether you're having a boy or a girl. Either way, your baby is constantly moving and shifting, though you still can't feel it. 12 weeks of pregnancy : 12 weeks of pregnancy 5 cm long of fetus
Uterus start palpability can be touched on the lower abdomen.
With special equipment, can be heard heartbeat fetus
Genitals already begin clear . 16 weeks of pregnancy : 16 weeks of pregnancy Long fetus around 11-12 cm and weight about 250 grams
Uterus around mid simfisis and umbilicus
Eyes can blink and the formation of the heart and blood vessel is complete.
Hand fingers have fingerprints. 20 weeks of pregnancy : 20 weeks of pregnancy Length about 25 cm and weight about 450 grams
Uterus around umbilicus
Fetus can suck thumb, grimace.
Feel fetus movement ULTRASONOGRAFI : ULTRASONOGRAFI Ultrasonografi generally done in the 20 weeks of pregnancy
Observed the situation and location plasenta
The embryo growth rate in the uterus
Can be seen movement of theheart and the movement fetus
Generally be viewed sex 24 weeks of pregnancy : 24 weeks of pregnancy Fetus weight about 600 grams.
Provide response to sound and movement.
Can often feel a movement occurs when the fetus "hiccups“
Can feel the movement up and down. 28 weeks of pregnancy : 28 weeks of pregnancy Weight about 1 kg fetus
Generally already be in position
The opportunity is big enough if life had to be born as a premature baby
Alert to the symptoms of preterm labor 32 weeks of pregnancy : 32 weeks of pregnancy Fetus weight around 2 kg.
Skin wrinkles are not unduly because there had already started the formation of fat under the skin
Ask about the doctor notes the movement fetus.
Prepare lactation. 36 weeks of pregnancy : 36 weeks of pregnancy The size of each depending on a number of factors (gender, number of siblings, parents).
Normal overall growth in 36 weeks around 2.5 kg weight and length of 50 cm)
Generally presentation of the fetus is vertex
It is considered aterm when you reach the age of 37 weeks of pregnancy – The fetusi is ready to be born. ThankYou : ThankYou e-mail: