DISINFECTION byChemical Approach : DISINFECTION byChemical Approach Dr.T.V.Rao MD A tribute to Ignaz Semmelweis : A tribute to Ignaz Semmelweis A Hygienic and Scientific Hand Washing continues to be best prayer in the Hospital : A Hygienic and Scientific Hand Washing continues to be best prayer in the Hospital What is Disinfection : What is Disinfection Disinfection may be defined as: Cleaning an article of some or all of the pathogenic organisms which may cause infection
Perfect disinfectant would also offer complete and full sterilization, without harming other forms of life, be inexpensive, and non-corrosive. Unfortunately ideal disinfectants do not exist. Most disinfectants are also, by their very nature, potentially harmful (even toxic) to humans or animals. DEFINITIONS : DEFINITIONS Terminology : Terminology Antisepsis: chemical destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissue
Degerming: mechanical removal of microbes from limited area
Sanitization: lowering microbial counts on eating and drinking utensils to safe levels Terminology : Terminology Biocide or germicide: kills microorganisms
Fungicide: kills fungi
Virocide: inactivates viruses
Bacteriostatic agent: stops growth of bacteria Terminology : Terminology Sepsis: bacterial contamination
Asepsis: absence of significant contamination
Aseptic technique minimizes contamination Antiseptics versus Disinfectants : Antiseptics versus Disinfectants Antiseptics:
Use on skin and mucous membranes to kill microorganisms
Not for use on inanimate objects
Use to kill microorganisms on inanimate objects
Not for use on skin or mucous membranes
High-level versus low-level disinfectants Chemicals – Disinfection : Chemicals – Disinfection Antiseptics - chemicals that kill microorganisms on living skin or mucous membranes.
Bactericidal - chemical agents capable of killing bacteria. Similarly agents that are virucidal, fungicidal or sporicidal are agents capable of killing these organisms.
Bacteriostatic - Chemical agents that inhibit the growth of bacteria but do not necessarily kill them. Cleaning : Cleaning Cleaning - the physical removal of foreign material, e.g., dust, soil, organic material such as blood, secretions, excretions and microorganisms. Cleaning generally removes rather than kills microorganisms. It is accomplished with water, detergents and mechanical action. The terms “decontamination” and “sanitation” may be used for this process in certain settings, e.g., central service or dietetics. Cleaning reduces or eliminates the reservoirs of potential pathogenic organisms Decontamination : Decontamination Decontamination: the removal of disease-producing microorganisms to leave an item safe for further handling Disinfection : Disinfection Disinfection: the inactivation of disease-producing microorganisms. Disinfection does not destroy bacterial spores. Disinfectants are used on inanimate objects in contrast to antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfection usually involves chemicals, heat or ultraviolet light. The nature of chemical disinfection varies with the type of product High level disinfection : High level disinfection High level disinfection processes destroy vegetative bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi and enveloped (lipid) and nonenveloped (non lipid) viruses, but not necessarily bacterial spores. High level disinfectant chemicals (also called chemical sterilants) must be capable of sterilization when contact time is extended. Items must be thoroughly cleaned prior to high level disinfection. Intermediate level disinfection: : Intermediate level disinfection: Intermediate level disinfectants kill vegetative bacteria, most viruses and most fungi but not resistant bacterial spores. Low level disinfection : Low level disinfection Low level disinfectants kill most vegetative bacteria and some fungi as well as enveloped (lipid) viruses (e.g., hepatitis B, C, hantavirus, and HIV). Low level disinfectants do not kill mycobacteria or bacterial spores. Low level disinfectants are typically used to clean environmental surfaces. Chemical Methods : Chemical Methods Disinfectants and antiseptics
Surface-active agents (surfactants)
Chemical food preservatives
[Antibiotics] Disinfectants : Disinfectants Kill/inhibit growth of microbes on surfaces
Phenols and phenolics: damage lipid membranes
Active in presence of organic matter
Persist for long periods after application Antiseptics : Antiseptics Biguanides: Chlorhexidine
Used on skin and mucous membranes Antiseptics : Antiseptics Alcohol : protein denaturation and membrane damage
ethanol and isopropanol
[not effective if taken internally] Disinfectants : Disinfectants Halogens: iodine and chlorine
Iodine used in solution : Betadine® and Isodine®
Chlorine is a gas that forms bleach (hypochlorite) in water
Chloramines are chlorine and ammonia Selection and Use of Disinfectants : Selection and Use of Disinfectants Sterilization – An absolute Procedure : Sterilization – An absolute Procedure The destruction of all forms of microbial life including bacteria, viruses, spores and fungi. Items should be cleaned thoroughly before effective sterilization can take place. Noncritical items : Noncritical items That either come in contact with only intact skin but not mucous membranes or do not directly contact the patient. Reprocessing of noncritical items involves cleaning and/or low level disinfection Sanitation : Sanitation Process that reduces microorganisms on an inanimate object to a level below that of infectious hazard (e.g., dishes and eating utensils are sanitized Semi critical items : Semi critical items Devices that come in contact with no intact skin or mucous membranes but ordinarily do not penetrate them. Reprocessing semi critical items involves meticulous cleaning followed preferably by high-level disinfection Disinfectant effectiveness depends on many factors. : Disinfectant effectiveness depends on many factors. Type of contaminating microorganism. Each disinfectant has unique antimicrobial attributes.
• Degree of contamination. This determines the quality of disinfectant required and time of exposure.
• Amount of proteinaceous material present. High protein based materials absorb and neutralize some chemical disinfectants.
• Presence of organic matter and other compounds such as soaps may neutralize some disinfectants.
• Chemical nature of disinfectant. It is important to understand the mode of action in order to select the appropriate disinfectant. Disinfectant effectiveness depends on many factors. : Disinfectant effectiveness depends on many factors. Concentration and quantity of disinfectant. It is important to choose the proper concentration and quantity of disinfectant that is best suited to each situation.
• Contact time and temperature. Sufficient time and appropriate temperature must be allowed for action of the disinfectant and may depend on the degree of contamination and organic matter load.
• Residual activity and effects on fabric and metal should be considered for specific situations.
• Application temperature, pH and interactions with other compounds must be considered.
• Toxicity to the environment and relative safety to people that may be exposed.
5 Microbial Characteristics and Microbial Control : Microbial Characteristics and Microbial Control Figure 7.11 PHENOLICS : PHENOLICS Examples: Benzyl-4-chlorophenol, Amyl phenol, Phenyl phenol
Advantages and disadvantages: good general purpose disinfectants, not readily inactivated
by organic matter, active against wide range of organisms (including mycobacterium), but not sporicidal. Phenol as Disinfectant : Phenol as Disinfectant Phenolic disinfectants are effective against bacteria (especially gram positive bacteria) and enveloped viruses. They are not effective against nonenvelopedd viruses and spores. These disinfectants maintain their activity in the presence of organic material. Phenol as Disinfectant : Phenol as Disinfectant They are not effective against nonenvelopedd viruses and spores. These disinfectants maintain their activity in the presence of organic material. This class of compounds is used for decontamination of the hospital environment, including laboratory surfaces, and noncritical medical items Phenol as Disinfectant : Phenol as Disinfectant Phenolics are not recommended for semi critical items because of the lack of validated efficacy data for many of the available formulations and because the residual disinfectant on porous materials may cause tissue irritation even when thoroughly rinsed. Alcohols : Alcohols “Alcohol" refers to two water-soluble chemicals: ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol. These alcohols are rapidly bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic against vegetative forms of bacteria (Gram + and Gram -); they also are tuberculocidal, fungicidal, and virucidal against enveloped viruses. Alcohols are not effective against bacterial spores and have limited effectiveness against nonenveloped viruses Alcohols : Alcohols Their cidal activity drops sharply when diluted below 50% concentration and the optimum bactericidal concentration is in the range of 60-90% solutions in water (volume/volume). The antimicrobial activity of alcohols can be attributed to their ability to denature proteins. Alcohols : Alcohols Higher concentrations are less effective as the action of denaturing proteins is inhibited without the presence of water Alcohols : Alcohols Alcohols are commonly used topical antiseptics. They are also used to disinfect the surface of medical equipment. Alcohols require time to work and they may not penetrate organic material. Alcohols : Alcohols They also evaporate rapidly which makes extended exposure time difficult to achieve unless the items are immersed. Alcohol irritates tissues. They are generally too expensive for general use as a surface disinfectant Soap, Water and common sense are yet the best antisepticsWilliam Osler : Soap, Water and common sense are yet the best antisepticsWilliam Osler Gaining importance in Hand Washing with Alcohols : Gaining importance in Hand Washing with Alcohols The use of either ethyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol in a 60-90% solution has recently gained wide acceptance in health care settings as hand antiseptics. They can be used as a reasonable substitute for handwashing as long as hands are not visibly soiled Hypochlorite's : Hypochlorite's Hypochlorites are the most widely used of the chlorine disinfectants and are available in a liquid (e.g. sodium hypochlorite) or solid (e.g. calcium hypochlorite, sodium dichloroisocyanurate) form. The most common chlorine products in are aqueous solutions of 4 to 6% sodium hypochlorite, which are readily available as “household bleach”. Hypochlorite's : Hypochlorite's They have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, are unaffected by water hardness, are inexpensive and fast acting, and have a low incidence of serious toxicity Hypochlorite's : Hypochlorite's Other disadvantages of hypochlorites include corrosiveness to metals in high concentrations (>500 ppm), inactivation by organic matter, discoloring or “bleaching” of fabrics, and release of toxic chlorine gas when mixed with ammonia or acid. Hypochlorite's : Hypochlorite's Hypochlorites can eliminate both enveloped and nonenveloped viruses if used in correct dilution and contact time. They are also is effective against fungi, bacteria, and algae but not spores. Household bleach is typically diluted using 1:50 with water (1000ppm) for surface disinfection. Bleach solutions have been recommended for use in both hospitals and the community as disinfecting solutions. Hypochlorite's Most recommended in : Hypochlorite's Most recommended in They are included in most recommendation for decontamination of hepatitis and AIDS viruses Hypochlorite's : Hypochlorite's Hypochlorites are also the agent of choice in disinfecting surfaces used for food preparation or in bathrooms. Organic material such as feces or blood inactivate chlorine based disinfectants, therefore, surfaces must be clean before their use. Hypochlorite's : Hypochlorite's Chlorinated drinking water should not exceed 6 to 10 ppm of free chlorine with the lower value being in continuous flow or low volume reservoir systems. Iodine And Iodophor Disinfectants : Iodine And Iodophor Disinfectants These compounds have been incorporated in time release formulations and in soaps (surgical scrubs). Simple iodine tinctures (dissolved in alcohol) have limited cleaning ability. These compounds are bactericidal, sporicidal, virucidal and fungicidal but require a prolonged contact time. Iodine And Iodophor Disinfectants : Iodine And Iodophor Disinfectants Besides their use as an antiseptic, iodophors have been used for the disinfection of blood culture bottles and medical equipment such as hydrotherapy tanks, thermometers, and endoscopes Iodine And Iodophor Disinfectants : Iodine And Iodophor Disinfectants The disinfective ability of iodine, like chlorine, is neutralized in the presence of organic material and hence frequent applications are needed for thorough disinfection. Iodine tinctures can be very irritating to tissues, can stain fabric and be corrosive. HIGH LEVEL DISINFECTANTS : HIGH LEVEL DISINFECTANTS Hydrogen Peroxide : Hydrogen Peroxide Peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide are often used as antiseptics to clean wounds. The activity of peroxides is greatest against anaerobic bacteria. Hydrogen peroxide at high concentrations is in some cases is damaging to tissues, resulting in a prolonged healing time. It is useful for cleaning surgical sites after closure, but use sparingly to avoid penetrating suture lines, which would inhibit healing. Hydrogen Peroxide : Hydrogen Peroxide Stabilized hydrogen peroxides can be used to disinfect environmental surfaces. The literature contains several accounts of the properties, germicidal effectiveness, and potential uses for stabilized hydrogen peroxide in the hospital setting Hydrogen Peroxide : Hydrogen Peroxide Stabilized peroxides may also be blended with iodophors or quaternary ammonia. Hydrogen peroxide is also blended with paracetic acid in high concentrations for use as a high-level disinfectant Gluteraldehyde : Gluteraldehyde Aldehydes have a wide germicidal spectrum. Gluteraldehydes are bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, sporicidal and parasiticidal. They are used as a disinfectant or sterilant in both liquid and gaseous forms. They have moderate residual activity and are effective in the presence of limited amounts of organic material Formaldehyde : Formaldehyde Gluteraldehydes are very potent disinfectants, which can be highly toxic. Use them only as a last resort and then under trained supervision in a well-ventilated setting and with appropriate personal protective equipment. Formaldehyde : Formaldehyde Formaldehyde is used as a disinfectant and sterilant both in the liquid and gaseous states. Formaldehyde is sold and used principally as a water-based solution called formalin, which is 37% formaldehyde by weight. The aqueous solution is bactericidal, tuberculocidal, fungicidal, virucidal and sporicidal Formaldehyde : Formaldehyde Formaldehyde should be handled in the workplace as a potential carcinogen with an employee exposure standard that limits an 8 hour time-weighted average exposure to a concentration of 0.75 ppm. For this reason, employees should have limited direct contact with formaldehyde and these considerations limit its role in sterilization and disinfection processes Ortho-phthalaldehyde : Ortho-phthalaldehyde Ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) is a chemical sterilant similar to Gluteraldehydes with similar antimicrobial activity. OPA has several potential advantages compared to Gluteraldehydes. It has excellent stability over a wide pH range (pH 3-9), is not a known irritant to the eyes and nasal passages, does not require exposure monitoring, has a barely perceptible odor, and requires no activation. OPA, like Gluteraldehydes, has excellent material compatibility Ortho-phthalaldehyde : Ortho-phthalaldehyde A potential disadvantage of OPA is that it stains proteins gray (including unprotected skin) and thus must be handled with caution. However, skin staining would indicate improper handling that requires additional training and/or personal protective equipment (PPE) (gloves, eye and mouth protection, fluid-resistant gowns). Per acetic Acid : Per acetic Acid Peracetic, or peroxyacetic, acid is characterized by a very rapid action against all microorganisms. A special advantage of peracetic acid is it has no harmful decomposition products (i.e., acetic acid, water, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide) and leaves no residue. It remains effective in the presence of organic matter and is sporicidal even at low temperatures Per acetic Acid : Per acetic Acid It is used in automated machines to chemically sterilize medical, surgical, and dental instruments (e.g., endoscopes, arthroscopes). Per acetic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide : Per acetic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide Two chemical sterilants are available that contain peracetic acid plus hydrogen peroxide (0.08 peracetic acid plus 1.0% hydrogen peroxide [no longer marketed], 0.23% peracetic acid plus 7.35% hydrogen peroxide). The bactericidal properties of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide have been established. Per acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide useful in Hemodialyzers : Per acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide useful in Hemodialyzers Findings demonstrated that this product inactivated all microorganisms with the exception of bacterial spores within 20 minutes. The combination of per acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide has been used for disinfecting hem dialyzers. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds : Quaternary Ammonium Compounds The quaternaries are good cleaning agents but high water hardness and materials such as cotton and gauze pads may make them less microbiocidal because these materials absorb the active ingredients. As with several other disinfectants (e.g., phenolics, iodophors) gram-negative bacteria have been found to survive or grow in these preparations Quaternary Ammonium Compounds : Quaternary Ammonium Compounds They are not effective against non-enveloped viruses, fungi and bacterial spores. QA disinfectants carry a very strong positive charge that makes good contact with negatively charged surfaces. This characteristic makes most very good cleaning agents. QA compounds are generally low in toxicity, but prolonged contact can be irritating. The quaternaries are commonly used in ordinary environmental sanitation of noncritical surfaces such as floors, furniture, and walls Work with Caution : Work with Caution A wide range of microorganisms is destroyed by varying concentrations of aqueous formaldehyde solutions. Although formaldehyde-alcohol is a chemical sterilant and formaldehyde is a high-level disinfectant, the hospital uses of formaldehyde are limited by its irritating fumes and the pungent odor that is apparent at very low levels (<1 ppm). Gas plasma Sterilization : Gas plasma Sterilization What is Gas Plasma : What is Gas Plasma Plasma is a fourth state of matter which is distinguishable from liquid, solid, or gas. In nature, plasma is widespread in outer space.
Gas plasma generated in an enclosed chamber under deep vacuum using Radio frequency or Microwave emery to excite gas molecules are produced charged particles How Gas Plasma works. : How Gas Plasma works. Many particles are in the form of free radicals
A free radical is an Atom with an unpaired electron and is a highly reactive species
The mechanism of action of this device is the production of free radicals within a plasma field that are capable of interacting with essential cell components, ie is enzymes and nucleic acids. And thereby disrupt the metabolism of microorganisms. Gas Plasma - Sterilization : Gas Plasma - Sterilization Plasma sterilization operates differently because of its specific active agents, which are ultraviolet (UV) photons and radicals (atoms or assembly of atoms with unpaired electrons, therefore chemically reactive, e.g., O and OH, respectively BASIC MECHANISMS OF PLASMA STERILIZATION : BASIC MECHANISMS OF PLASMA STERILIZATION Destruction by UV irradiation of the genetic material of the microorganism; this is a statistical process requiring a sufficient number of lesions of the DNA strands.
Erosion of the microorganism, atom by atom, through intrinsic photo desorption Advantage of the plasma method : Advantage of the plasma method An advantage of the plasma method is the possibility, under appropriate conditions, of achieving such a process at relatively low temperatures (≤50 °C), preserving the integrity of polymer-based instruments, which cannotbe subjected to autoclaves and ovens Furthermore, plasma sterilization is safe, both for the operatorand the patient, in contrast to EtO. Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Offers Fast Cycle Times : Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Offers Fast Cycle Times Benefits of gas plasma (vaporized hydrogen peroxide) sterilization are fast cycle times, the absence of toxic residuals, and a low-moisture environment not exceeding 50ºC, a New CDC guidelines Factors Related To Infection Risk : New CDC guidelines Factors Related To Infection Risk Endoscope contamination accounts for more health care related infections than any other medical instrument and is responsible for consequences ranging from bacterial colonization to death. Disinfection and sterilization are affected by : Disinfection and sterilization are affected by Initial cleaning of the device
Physical complexity of the device
Biofilms and microbial load
Microbe type and quantity
HLD exposure time and concentration When things go wrong : When things go wrong Inadequate cleaning
Using the wrong disinfectant
Failure to follow procedures Guideline ExcerptsInfection Risks : Guideline ExcerptsInfection Risks “Multiple studies in many countries have documented lack of compliance with established guidelines for disinfection and sterilization.
Failure to comply with scientifically-based guidelines has led to numerous outbreaks. Biofilms interfere in effective antimicrobial action : Biofilms interfere in effective antimicrobial action “Biofilms are microbial communities that are tightly attached to surfaces and cannot be easily removed...Bacteria within biofilms are up to 1,000 times more resistant to antimicrobials than are the same bacteria in suspension Biofilms interfere in effective antimicrobial action : Biofilms interfere in effective antimicrobial action “One multistate investigation found that 23.9% of the bacterial cultures from the internal channels of 71 gastrointestinal endoscopes grew ≥100,000 colonies of bacteria after completion of all disinfection and sterilization procedures No Disinfectant is substitute for the following Procedures : No Disinfectant is substitute for the following Procedures Hand washing (hand hygiene);
The use of personal protective equipment (e.g. gloves) when handling blood, body
substances, excretions and secretions;
Appropriate handling of patient care equipment and soiled linen;
The prevention of needle stick/sharp injuries;
Appropriate handling of waste and
Taking care of yourself (e.g. immunization) Hand Washing : Hand Washing Yet no substitute for washing hands Do not forget to Wash Your Hands:
Immediately on arrival at work
Before and after examining each client
After touching anything that might be contaminated
After handling specimens
Before putting on gloves for clinical procedures
After removing gloves
After using the toilet or latrine
Before leaving work Make your contributions for safe Hospitals : Make your contributions for safe Hospitals Created for Dr.T.V.Rao MD’s “e” learning programme : Created for Dr.T.V.Rao MD’s “e” learning programme Email