e-learning in Medicine Dr.T.V.Rao MD : e-learning in Medicine Dr.T.V.Rao MD e-Learning: The Challenge for Medicine : e-Learning: The Challenge for Medicine Learning is the sharing or transfer of information between two parties. Over the course of time, many modalities and theories about learning have been elucidated with varying degrees of effectiveness. With an increasing prevalence of computers in and out of the classroom and the development of more sophisticated web-based tools, knowledge transfer is increasing going high-tech. Similar to prior methods of teaching and learning, computer-based, e-Learning, has its own set of problems and potential (Donald M. Voltz, MD) Need for Change in Education : Need for Change in Education Change in Medical and Higher Education with respect to the introduction and growth of e-learning. While the ostensible aim is to use e-learning to improve the quality of the learning experience for students, the drivers of change are numerous.
Many of us working to improve student learning, and seeking to exploit e-learning to do so, have to ride each new wave of technological innovation in an attempt to divert it from its more natural course of traditional type, and drive it towards the quality agenda. The Concepts of Medical Education is Changing : The Concepts of Medical Education is Changing Traditionally, medical education had as its foundation a combination of didactic instruction in the classroom and integrated, hands-on "Socratic Method" learning in the clinical setting. Of late, there has been an increase in the use of problem-based learning discussions (PBLD's) in an effort to integrate basic science knowledge and clinical decision making with a goal of teaching critical decision making skills to upcoming physicians and other health care providers. e-Learning : e-Learning e-learning (or sometimes Electronic Learning or e-Learning) is a term which is commonly used, but does not have a common definition. Most frequently it seems to be used for web-based distance education, with no face-to-face interaction. However, also much broader definitions are common. e-learning supported by Technology : e-learning supported by Technology It may include all types of technology-enhanced learning (TEL), where technology is used to support the learning process. Although pedagogy is usually not part of the definition, some authors do include it e-learning a complex method : e-learning a complex method It is often used interchangeably with various other related terms, such as distance learning, distributed learning, and electronic learning. The meaning of the term also seems to be dependent on the context in which it is used. In companies, it often refers to the strategies that use the company network to deliver training courses to employees Definition and scope : Definition and scope e -learning is commonly referred to the intentional use of networked information and communications technology in teaching and learning. THINK before to become a e-learner : THINK before to become a e-learner E-Learning is a Good Thing
E-Learning is not “Online Training
It’s utility is Value worth time and Manage the Learning Processes Why is e-learning important for Students : Why is e-learning important for Students Internet access to digital versions of materials unavailable locally
Internet access to search, and transactional services
Interactive diagnostic or adaptive tutorials
Remote control access to local physical devices Why is e-learning important for Students : Why is e-learning important for Students Personalised information and guidance for learning support
simulations or models of scientific systems
Communications tools for collaboration with other students and teachers
Tools for creativity and design Why is e-learning important for Students as complex matters can be made simple : Why is e-learning important for Students as complex matters can be made simple Virtual reality environments for development and manipulation
Data analysis, modelling or organisation tools and applications
Electronic devices to assist disabled learners Differs from Pedagogy : Differs from Pedagogy Pedagogy is the art or science of being a teacher. The term generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction
Instructional theory is a discipline that focuses on how to structure material for promoting the education of human beings, particularly youth e- learning misses the Human touch : e- learning misses the Human touch Instructor's own philosophical beliefs of teaching are harboured and governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experiences, d
However e-teaching misses several experiences of the teacher What ‘e’ letter means : What ‘e’ letter means The letter “e” in e-learning stands for the word electronic”, e-learning would incorporate all educational activities that are carried out by individuals or groups working online or offline, and synchronously or asynchronously via networked or standalone computers and other electronic devices. Many constituents of e-learning : Many constituents of e-learning Online learning
Network and web based learning.
However Technology becomes bigger Individualized self-paced e-learning : Individualized self-paced e-learning An individual learner is accessing learning resources such as a database or course content online via an Intranet or the Internet
Learner studying alone or conducting some research on the Internet or a local network Individualized self-paced e-learning offline : Individualized self-paced e-learning offline In this method an individual learner is using learning resources such as a database or a computer-assisted learning package offline (i.e., while not connected to an Intranet or the Internet).
Can be reading a DVD or VCD Group-based e-learning synchronously : Group-based e-learning synchronously Groups of learners are working together in real time via an Intranet or the Internet. It may include text-based conferencing, and one or two-way audio and videoconferencing
It can be real-time chat or an audio-videoconference Can be On line discussions : Can be On line discussions On-line discussions via electronic mailing lists and text-based conferencing within learning managements systems Gaining Acceptance of Teachers : Gaining Acceptance of Teachers Teachers are increasingly using information and communications technology to support their teaching. The contemporary student population (often called the “Net Generation”, or “Millennial”) who have grown up using information and communications technology also expect to see it being used in their educational experiences (Brown, 2000;Oblinger, 2003; Oblinger and Oblinger, 2005). Flexible option to Learner : Flexible option to Learner The main advantage being its ability to enable flexible access to information and resources.
Flexible access refers to access and use of information and resources at a time, place and pace that is suitable and convenient to individual learners rather than the teacher and/or the educational organization. Changing definitions : Changing definitions It is important to realize that the term e-learning is ambiguous. It is nearly impossible to define what it is, as it has different meanings to different people . Furthermore, it is often used interchangeably with various other related terms, such as distance learning, distributed learning, and electronic learning ADVANTAGES OF e-TEACHING AID : ADVANTAGES OF e-TEACHING AID Using E-TEACHING AID methods, students can state and explain the basic concepts in the subject easily and can participate in discussions of advanced concepts related to the subject content. Using visualization techniques, computer graphics images are created. These images display the data and the mathematical relations of the interested subject for the interpretation, particularly of multidimensional cases. Why Teachers critical of e-education : Why Teachers critical of e-education Many are critical of e-learning in the context of education, because the face-to-face human interaction with a teacher has been removed from the process, and thus, some argue, the process is no longer "educational" in the highest philosophical sense (for example, as defined by RS Peters, a philosopher of education). However, these human interactions can be encouraged through web-conferencing programs such as Macromedia Breeze Macromedia creates events in Action and Animations : Macromedia creates events in Action and Animations Adobe Flash (previously called Macromedia Flash) is a multimedia platform Since its introduction in 1996, Flash has become a popular method for adding animation and interactivity to web pages. Flash is commonly used to create animation, e-learning too a part of Pedagogy : e-learning too a part of Pedagogy Although pedagogy is usually not part of the definition, some authors do include it. For example in this definition, where e-learning is said to be: "pedagogy empowered by digital technology" Teachers should adopt to new options. : Teachers should adopt to new options. E-learning, therefore, is an approach to facilitate and enhance learning through based on both computer and communications technology. Such devices can include personal computers, CD ROMs, Digital Television, P.D.A.s and Mobile Phones. Communications technology enables the use of the Internet, email, discussion forums, collaborative software and team learning systems Knowledge transfer becomes easier : Knowledge transfer becomes easier Effective knowledge transfer is of paramount importance for the maintenance and advancement of our health care system. In any discipline, effective knowledge transfers consists of delivery of factual knowledge about the topic and exposure to tools and thinking processes required to make critical decisions about the information at hand. Traditional didactic lectures address the delivery of factual knowledge; however one can question both the effectiveness as well as efficiency of this mode of education E-learning replacing traditional gaps in Education : E-learning replacing traditional gaps in Education The development of sophisticated, web-based learning platforms that are easy to use from a student and a teacher prospective, medical education is beginning to embrace a new modality of knowledge transfer. Web-based, multimedia learning platforms bring about numerous possibilities not easily met with traditional didactic instruction, Tele Medicine : Tele Medicine Telemedicine is a rapidly developing application of clinical medicine where medical information is transferred through the phone or the Internet and sometimes other networks for the purpose of consulting, and sometimes remote medical procedures or examinations. Tele Medicine supported by Internet : Tele Medicine supported by Internet The Internet has revolutionized many aspects of our life. Like many other fields, telemedicine has benefited from the ubiquitous access to (medical) knowledge granted by the Internet. A patient can be monitored without needing to be moved to a health-care centre. Tele Medicine Depends on Telecommunication : Tele Medicine Depends on Telecommunication Telemedicine may be as simple as two health professionals discussing a case over the telephone, or as complex as using satellite technology and video-conferencing equipment to conduct a real-time consultation between medical specialists in two different countries. Telemedicine generally refers to the use of communications and information technologies for the delivery of clinical car Tele Medicine functions… : Tele Medicine functions… Telemedicine system consists of customized medical software integrated with computer hardware, along with medical diagnostic instruments connected to the commercial VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) at each location. Generally, the medical record/history of the patient is sent to the Specialist Doctors, who will in-turn study and provide diagnosis and treatment during video-conference with the patient's end. India’s Telemedicine Network : India’s Telemedicine Network Getting feedback from Learners : Getting feedback from Learners Assessment activities are most effective when they are accompanied with feedback. The feedback can be used to correct errors in performance, feedback is more effective when it follows a student response Moderation from Student learning : Moderation from Student learning Moderation of the learning process comprises supporting learning with the help of a variety of instructional interventions. It is an integral part of any educational context and is often carried out by teachers and tutors as well as students themselves. Moderation of learning can serve several purposes. One of its most important functions is the provision of feedback on learning. Real Time Moderations : Real Time Moderations E-moderation refers to the acts of managing, facilitating and engendering group based computer-mediated communication (CMC). Such communication can be synchronous or asynchronous. In the synchronous mode, even though the participants may be physically separated from one another, the communication takes place in real time (i.e., they are logged on at the same time and reacting to each other’s comments as soon as these are received). Synchronous communication : Synchronous communication Synchronous computer-mediated communication is quite like a telephone conversation except that the communication channel in the former is normally text-based while in the latter it is voice-based. Synchronous voice-based communication that is mediated by computers is becoming possible with Voice over Internet software. Technology Aids e-learning : Technology Aids e-learning There are primarily three ways in which technology aid the process of education and learning: A. Accesses to information - Thousand of pages of information are available on almost every topic on the World Wide Web.
B. Computing power - A range of simulations and personalized tools can be created to aid the learning process of students.
C. Connectivity – Connectivity to experts and peers around the globe, helping the student in problem solving and building exposure and perspective. e-learning in University Education : e-learning in University Education E-learning has been used very effectively in university teaching for enhancing the traditional forms of teaching and administration. Students on many courses in many universities now find they have web access to the lecture notes and selected digital resources in support of their study, they have personalised web environments in which they can join discussion forums with their class or group, and this new kind of access gives them much greater flexibility of study. Changes in Universities for adoption to e-learning and teaching : Changes in Universities for adoption to e-learning and teaching Change in universities is an aspect of their organisation, and again, the opportunities of the new learning technologies, including all their capabilities for information processing, communications, mass participation, design, and creativity, support the kind of system structure that would enable change to be organic and progressive – adaptive rather than mechanistic. e-learning in University Education : e-learning in University Education E-learning could do more. The interactive computer could be used to give students an alternative to writing as a form of active participation in knowledge-building. It can model real-world systems and transactions, and can therefore create an environment in which learners can explore, manipulate, and experiment e- Learning Model Outcomes : e- Learning Model Outcomes Increased student learning
Curricular emphasis on civic engagement
Promotion of university partnership goals
Improvement of student job readiness
Enhanced relationship between the educational institution and the community Outcomes Continued : Outcomes Continued Create opportunities for community organizations that may be geographically or structurally challenged to accommodate traditional learning
Expand possibilities for students to gain real world experience at a variety of organizations
Expand potential community partnerships for the university or college
Reduce geographic constraints for students and partner participants Student Outcomes Associated with e- Learning : Student Outcomes Associated with e- Learning Students are exposed to aspects of a subject that cannot be taught in the classroom or from a textbook
Students apply their knowledge in the real world, but in a supervised context
Students gain a sense of civic responsibility that will be useful in their careers and in their personal lives as well
Students make contacts in the community that may serve as future job prospects
Students augment their resumes with “real” experience
Students grow intellectually through structured reflection Student Outcomes Continued : Student Outcomes Continued Gain experience in e-communication skills in a workplace setting
Augment their skill sets in team management by working on a virtual team
Gain opportunities to work in organizations that would not otherwise be available because of distance and geography
Permits students with disabilities or physically challenged to participate fully Student Outcomes Continued : Student Outcomes Continued Minimizes scheduling conflicts for students
Become more versatile because of opportunities to work in many different sites and types of organizations
Become more marketable because of versatility and also because of acquiring experience in working asynchronously
Demonstrate proficiency in e-service learning, which may be attractive to future employers that value community service and linkages Faculty Outcomes Associated with e- Learning : Faculty Outcomes Associated with e- Learning Faculty gain experience in exploring new and innovative methods of teaching
Faculty enhance their connections with working professionals in the field
Faculty members increase their opportunities for engaging in research, including field research and pedagogical inquiry as well as service activities
Faculty members increase their understanding of teaching by observing their students applying theory and concepts in the real world
Faculty gain opportunities to participate in grant activities for projects Technological Tools Suggested for E-Service Learning Activities : Technological Tools Suggested for E-Service Learning Activities Chat Rooms
Digital Video Streaming
PowerPoint with Audio : e-learning gaining popularity in undergraduate curriclua
Greenhalgh T. CAL in undergraduate medical education BMJ 2001;76:852-5
Educationalists have been encouraged to evaluate the impact of e-learning in the medical setting.
Cook J. The role of virtual learning environments in UK medical Education. 2001;
However, evidence limited in effectiveness of e-learning in basic clinical skills learning Information can be delivered without constrains with Multimedia : Information can be delivered without constrains with Multimedia We are no longer constrained to a given time or location to deliver information and interact with students on a given topic. We can engage students using multimedia material has the added advantage of covering the many learning styles present in the diverse student population in the ever grwoing medical specialities Time is Important factor in Health related Problems : Time is Important factor in Health related Problems Health Care Authorities suffer from the same problems as large companies: large amounts of information to deal with in a very limited amount of time. Of course, hospitals and health care professionals have the additional burden of having people’s lives depend on the information in their system Clarity Content WWW makes everything a Reality : WWW makes everything a Reality With the introduction of the Internet and the World Wide Web, distance education was transformed (Lau, 2000), and instructors were able to teach courses online. E-education is a form of distance education in which teachers and students can be separated by time and space (Belanger & Jordan, 2000). Here, educators utilize the WWW on the Internet as a medium or an intranet. An intranet is a network operating on a server within an organization. Implementation e-teaching can be Frustrating but can be Rewarding : Implementation e-teaching can be Frustrating but can be Rewarding E-teaching can be an overwhelming task at the beginning. Faculty members who are being asked to move their courses to the Web are either excited about the task or fear the new environment. Hopefully, the strategies presented in this article will make the switch to online teaching more manageable and instructors will enjoy teaching on the Web. Teaching online can be rewarding for instructors. Acceptance to e-education to be Adaptive : Acceptance to e-education to be Adaptive Change in universities is an aspect of their organisation, and again, the opportunities of the new learning technologies, including all their capabilities for information processing, communications, mass participation, design, and creativity, support the kind of system structure that would enable change to be organic and progressive – adaptive rather than mechanistic. (E-Learning in Higher EducatioDiana Laurillard) Which learning is Better : Which learning is Better Newer technologies are not necessarily better than traditional methods of teaching…..the choice of technology needs to be driven by the learner, not by its novelty…..”
Bates AW. Technology, open learning and distance education. London: Routledge 1995. Created for Awarness to Medical and Paramedical Students in Developing World : Created for Awarness to Medical and Paramedical Students in Developing World Dr.T.V.Rao MD