Stem CellsClinical Applications : Stem CellsClinical Applications Dr T.V.Rao MD Nerve Cell Cannot Regenerate ? : Nerve Cell Cannot Regenerate ? In 1913 the great Spanish neuroscientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal pronounced “that in adult centres the nerve paths are something fixed, ended, immutable. Everything may die, nothing may be regenerated”. For many years neuroscientists believed not just that brain damage was irreparable, but also that no process to replace lost neurons existed in our brain. antiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) : antiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) Both beliefs turned out to be false as several types of cells can regenerate : Both beliefs turned out to be false as several types of cells can regenerate Cell – A complex Organ : Cell – A complex Organ Cell Theory: all living things are composed of one or more cells
Cells fall into two basic types prokaryotic and eukaryotic.
Prokaryotic cells are smaller and lack much of the internal compartmentalizin and complexity of eukaryotic cells. History of Adult Stem Cell Research : History of Adult Stem Cell Research Since the 1970’s, bone marrow transplants have been used for treatment of Immunodeficient and leukemia. History of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research : History of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research In 1998, James Thomson (University of Wisconsin-Madison) isolated cells from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, and developed the first human embryonic stem cell line in culture. Stem Cell History : Stem Cell History 1998 - Researchers first extract stem cells from human embryos
1999 - First Successful human transplant of insulin-making cells from cadavers
2001 - President Bush restricts federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research
2002 - Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International creates $20 million fund-raising effort to support stem-cell research
2003?? - California ok stem cell research
2004 - Harvard researchers grow stem cells from embryos using private funding
2004 - Ballot measure for $3 Billion bond for stem cells History of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research : In 1998, James Thomson (University of Wisconsin-Madison) isolated cells from the inner cell mass of the early embryo, and developed the first human embryonic stem cell lines, History of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research In 1998, John Gearhart (Johns Hopkins University) derived human embryonic germ cells from cells in fetal gonadal tissue (primordial germ cells).
Pluripotent stem cell “lines” were developed from both sources Stem Cell/Cloning Topics : Stem Cell/Cloning Topics What are stem cells?
History of stem cell/cloning research
Possible uses of the technology
Questions and known problems
Moral considerations What Are Stem Cells? : What Are Stem Cells? Stem cells are the raw material from which all of the body’s mature, differentiated cells are made. Stem cells give rise to brain cells, nerve cells, heart cells, pancreatic cells, etc. Stem Cell – Definition : Stem Cell – Definition A cell that has the ability to continuously divide and differentiate (develop) into various other kind(s) of cells/tissues Stem Cell – are Dynamic : Stem Cell – are Dynamic Are undifferentiated “master” cell that do not yet have a specific function
Can change to one or several different cell types (differentiate) under proper conditions
Can undergo unlimited cell division, self-renewal) One Cell - Several lineages : One Cell - Several lineages Embryogenesis and Differentiation : Embryogenesis and Differentiation Specific regions of the embryo give rise to the specific organ systems
Ectoderm generates the outer layer of the embryo and produces the surface layer (epidermis) of the skin and forms the nerves
Endoderm becomes the innermost layer of the embryo and produces the digestive tube and its associated organs (including the lungs)
Mesoderm becomes sandwiched between the ectoderm and endoderm and generates the blood, heart, kidney, gonads, bones, and connective tissues. Stages of Development : Stages of Development Early Human Development : Early Human Development An Overview of Early Development modeled with Play-Dough : An Overview of Early Development modeled with Play-Dough Fertilized egg Multipotent Slide 20: Somatic Cell Endoderm Ectoderm Mesoderm Liver
stem cell Germ stem
germ cell Gametes Pluripotent
Embryonal stem cell Totipotent
stem cells Pluripotent
stem cells Adult Multipotent
stem cell Courtesy of Dr F. Prosper Cardoso. Bone Marrow Stem Cells : Bone Marrow Stem Cells How to Derive an Embryonic Stem Cell Line? : How to Derive an Embryonic Stem Cell Line? An embryonic stem cell clone The Science of Stem Cells : The Science of Stem Cells Stem cells have the ability to continually reproduce themselves while maintaining the capacity to give rise to other more specialized cells.
Stem cells are found at all stages of development, from embryonic stem (ES) cells that can differentiate into all specialized cells found in the human body, to adult stem cells capable of regenerating their tissue of origin.
Stem cells occur from the earliest stages of development and provide the starting material for every organ and tissues. Embryonic stem (ES) cells : Embryonic stem (ES) cells ES cells are found at the blastocyst stage, four to five days after the union of the sperm and egg, before the embryo implants in the uterus. ES Cells are "pluripotent" - i.e. capable of forming embryonic tissues : ES Cells are "pluripotent" - i.e. capable of forming embryonic tissues Source of Stem cells : Source of Stem cells Stem cells may be derived from autologus, allogeneic or xenogenic sources. Histocompatability is prerequisite for transplantation of allogeneic stem cells. Fatal tissue is the best current tissue source for human neural stem cells, however ethical issues are a major concern. Placenta a Source of Stem Cells : Placenta a Source of Stem Cells Placental stem cells, like umbilical cord blood and bone marrow stem cells, can be used to cure chronic blood-related disorders such as sickle cell disease, Thalasemia, and leukaemia. Placental Blood as a Source of Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Transplantation into Unrelated Recipients : Report of preliminary results of transplantation using partially HLA-mismatched placental blood from unrelated donors.
Joanne Kurtzberg, M.D.et al Placental Blood as a Source of Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Transplantation into Unrelated Recipients Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant : Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants are less prone to rejection than either bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells. This is probably because the cells have not yet developed the features that can be recognized and attacked by the recipient's immune system Kinds of Stem Cells : Kinds of Stem Cells What’s So Special About Stem Cells? : What’s So Special About Stem Cells? They have the potential to replace cell tissue that has been damaged or destroyed by severe illnesses.
They can replicate themselves over and over for a very long time.
Understanding how stem cells develop into healthy and diseased cells will assist the search for cures. Two Kinds of Stem Cells : Two Kinds of Stem Cells Embryonic (also called “pluripotent”) stem cells are capable of developing into all the cell types of the body.
Adult stem cells are less versatile and more difficult to identify, isolate, and purify. Stages of Embryogenesis : Stages of Embryogenesis Derivation and Use of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines : Derivation and Use of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Embryonic Stem Cells: : Embryonic Stem Cells: Researchers extract stem cells from a 5-7 days old blastocyst. Stem cells can divide in culture to form more of their own kind,
thereby creating a stem cell line. The research aims to induce these cells to generate healthy tissue needed by patients. How Many Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines are There? : How Many Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines are There? The actual number of human embryonic stem cell lines is a matter of some debate.
To date, more than 100 human embryonic stem cell lines have been derived worldwide.
However, most of those lines are not adequately characterized yet.
Only 22 cell lines are eligible for federal funding in the USA. Autologous – Stem Cells : Autologous – Stem Cells Sources of the patient's own stem cells (autologous) are either the cells from patient's own body or his or her cord blood. For autologous transplants physicians now usually collect stem cells from the peripheral blood rather than the marrow
This procedure is easier, unlike a bone marrow harvest, it can take place outside of an operating room and the patient does not have to be under general anaesthesia. Allogeneic – Stem Cells : Allogeneic – Stem Cells Sources of stem cells from another donor (allogeneic) are primarily relatives (familial-allogeneic) or completely unrelated donors (unrelated-allogeneic). The stem cells in this situation are extracted from either the donor's body or cord blood Xenogenic - Stem Cells : Xenogenic - Stem Cells In this stem cells from different species are transplanted, e.g. striatal porcine fetal ventral mesencephalic (FVM) xenotransplants for Parkinson's disease. This has no major ethical concerns and a large amount of tissue is available, however life long immunosupression and risk of rejection are the major limitations How Does Cell Therapy Work? : How Does Cell Therapy Work? Stem cells can be used to generate healthy and functioning specialized cells, which can then replace diseased or dysfunctional cells.
It is similar to the process of organ transplantation only the treatment consists of transplanting cells instead of organs. How Does Cell Therapy Work? : How Does Cell Therapy Work? Bone marrow transplants are an example of cell therapy in which the stem cells in a donor's marrow are used to replace the blood cells of the victims of leukemia.
Cell therapy is also being used in experiments to graft new skin cells to treat serious burn victims, and to grow new corneas for the sight-impaired.
In all of these uses, the goal is for the healthy cells to become integrated into the body and begin to function like the patient's own cells. What Diseases Can be Cured by Stem Cell Therapies : What Diseases Can be Cured by Stem Cell Therapies Any disease in which there is tissue degeneration can be a potential candidate for stem cell therapies Major Progress in Several Important Health problems : Major Progress in Several Important Health problems Alzheimer’s disease
Spinal cord injury
Diabetes Alzheimer’s disease and can stem cells help? : Alzheimer’s disease and can stem cells help? Stem cells could, however, be genetically modified so as to deliver substances to the Alzheimer brain, to stop cells from dying and stimulate the function of existing cells. A recent clinical trial (Phase I) has shown this approach to be of some benefit to patients with Alzheimer’s disease, by slowing down the progression of the disease. Drug Testing : Drug Testing Stem cells could allow scientists to test new drugs using human cell line which could speed up new drug development.
Only drugs that were safe and had beneficial effects in cell line testing would graduate to whole animal or human testing.
It would allow quicker and safer development of new drugs. Major types of Stem Cells : Major types of Stem Cells The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells that are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells that are found in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialized embryonic tissues. I Stem cells act as Progenitor cells : Stem cells act as Progenitor cells In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin or intestinal tissues. History of Animal Cloning : History of Animal Cloning Since then, animals including mice (1998), cows (1998), pigs (2000), cats (2001), and rabbits (2002) were successfully cloned. Cattle How Successful Was Animal Cloning? Very low (~1-3%) : How Successful Was Animal Cloning? Very low (~1-3%) First Success of Human Embryo Cloning : First Success of Human Embryo Cloning On February 12, 2004, South Korean scientists, Dr. Woo Suk Hwang and Dr. Shin Young Moon of Seoul National University, reported the successful creation of 30 cloned human embryos developed to the blastocyst stage and then destroyed by stem cell extraction, yielding one embryonic stem cell line. Source of Stem Cells for Medical therapies : Source of Stem Cells for Medical therapies Tens of thousands of frozen embryos are routinely destroyed when couples finish their treatment.
These surplus embryos can be used to produce stem cells.
Regenerative medical research aims to develop these cells into new, healthy tissue to heal severe illnesses. Stem Cell Research Worldwide : Stem Cell Research Worldwide Adult multipotent stem cells : Adult multipotent stem cells Slide 55: Adult Stem Cells Autologus – Stem Cells : Autologus – Stem Cells While most blood stem cells reside in the bone marrow, a small number are present in the bloodstream. These multipotent peripheral blood stem cells, or PBSCs, can be used just like bone marrow stem cells to treat leukaemia, other cancers and various blood disorders Slide 57: multipotent Speculation Treatments becomes specific : Treatments becomes specific Applications of Stem Cells : Applications of Stem Cells Cell Replacement Therapies
Cells could be stimulated to develop into specialized cells that represent renewable sources of cells and tissue for transplantation.
Cell replacement therapy could treat injuries and various genetic and degenerative conditions including muscular dystrophies, retinal degeneration, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson's disease, arthritis, diabetes, spinal cord injuries, and blood disorders such as hemophilia. Understanding Cell Specialization : Understanding Cell Specialization Studying human pluripotent stem cells can lead to the identification of factors responsible for differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types.
these factors may ultimately be used to drive tissue regeneration and repair if administered therapeutically.
This work will provide basic knowledge on cell determination and differentiation, human development, genomic imprinting and somatic cell aging. Development and Testing of Drugs : Development and Testing of Drugs Researchers could study the beneficial and toxic effects of new medications on human pluripotent stem cells that have been developed to mimic the disease processes. Can Sex Make difference in Stem cell Therapy ? : Can Sex Make difference in Stem cell Therapy ? Are there sex-specific differences in the biology of stem cells? (short-long term
• How do sex-specific differences play out in terms of self-renewal and differentiation? (mid-long term)
Is there existing evidence that the sex of stem cells affects success of the transplant? XX
XY Stem cells – Blindness : Stem cells – Blindness In clinical trials at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London, surgeons restored eye sight for six patients who lost their sight after chemical accidents and genetic diseases. The patients went under successful stem-cell transplant. Limbal stem Cell therapy : Limbal stem Cell therapy The treatment is known as limbal stem cell therapy, and the patients who received the treatment suffered from chemical burn or genetic disease know as aniridia
By replacing the limbal stem cells, the cornea begins to clear up as the cells are replaced with the healthy transparent layer again. Current possible uses : Current possible uses Research in stem cells has opened up new horizons in the area of treatment of disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, neuro-degeneration and trauma. Current research is aimed at finding the appropriate source of stem cells for a given indication, ways of expanding and perpetuating these cells in culture, best route of administration of these cells and methods to overcome rejection Possible Uses of Stem Cell Technology : Possible Uses of Stem Cell Technology Replaceable tissues/organs
Repair of defective cell types
Delivery of genetic therapies
Delivery chemotherapeutic agents Future –Making cells and replacing the diseased cells ? : Future –Making cells and replacing the diseased cells ? Obstacles of Stem Cell Research : Obstacles of Stem Cell Research How to find the right type of stem cells?
How to put the stem cells into the right place?
Will the stem cells perform the desired function in the body?
Differentiation protocols for many cell types have not been developed. Embryonic Stem Cells are Unstable and Mutate in Culture : Embryonic Stem Cells are Unstable and Mutate in Culture Like ordinary cells, stem cells accumulate significant numbers of mutations over time, including several that could cause them to become tumors. Ethical debate : Ethical debate Harvesting ES cells destroys the blast cyst
“This is murder”
ES cell research requires human cells
Could create a commercial market for human cells
“This devalues life” Reproduced by permission of Dave Catrow and Copley News Service Destroying life to cure some one – Ethical ? : Destroying life to cure some one – Ethical ? If stem cells have such potential to relieve suffering, why are so many people so upset about their use? The reason is that the most powerful type of stem cell ? embryonic stem (ES) cells ? can only be obtained from human embryos. Many people think that it's wrong to create and destroy human embryos to treat disease Religious Debate over Harvesting Embryonic Stem Cells : Religious Debate over Harvesting Embryonic Stem Cells The pro-life group generally believes that:
Personhood happens at, or shortly after, conception.
Thus, they consider the removal of stem cells from an embryo -- a procedure which kills the stem cells -- to be a form of murder of a human being.
They argue that no potential health benefits to even hundreds of millions of people can justify the murder of other humans. Religious Debate over Harvesting Embryonic Stem Cells : Religious Debate over Harvesting Embryonic Stem Cells The pro-choice group generally believes that:
Personhood is attained much later in pregnancy, perhaps when the fetal brain develops consciousness during the third trimester.
Thus, extracting stem cells from an five or ten-day old pre-embryo is not murder.
Killing a pre-embryo, which is only a potential human being, is justified if it has the potential to cure diseases and extend the lives of people. Why we should supportCan help several disabled : Why we should supportCan help several disabled Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research offers great promise of cures for otherwise incurable conditions: spinal cord injuries, ALS, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, etc. Shall be Clone Humans ? : Shall be Clone Humans ? Arguments for and against human cloning research. Should we ban human cloning? Why investors are moving away from human cloning and why human cloning now looks a last-century way to fight disease. Why some people want to clone themselves or even to clone the dead. Research on Stem Cells is progressing in spite of several restrictions : Research on Stem Cells is progressing in spite of several restrictions Created for awareness to Medical and Paramedical Medical Students in Developing World : Created for awareness to Medical and Paramedical Medical Students in Developing World Dr.T.V.Rao MD