Molecular Biology

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Molecular BiologyPrinciples and Basic Tools : 

Molecular BiologyPrinciples and Basic Tools Dr.T.V.Rao MD

David H. Bergey, Bergey's Manualidentifies the Bacteria to Minute details : 

David H. Bergey, Bergey's Manualidentifies the Bacteria to Minute details

Traditional Microbial Diagnostic Methods : 

Traditional Microbial Diagnostic Methods Morphology Staining properties Grow on different laboratory condtions and media. Phenotyping protocols use purely biological phenomena and usually refer to study of Proteins and enzymes. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Disadvantages of Phenotyping Methods : 

Disadvantages of Phenotyping Methods Lack of Reproducibility Poor Discriminatory power Difficulties in Typing Genomic changes with Antibiotic resitance patterns Technical manpower costs. (Developed World) Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Molecular Biology - Definition : 

Molecular Biology - Definition Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. The field overlaps with other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry.

Molecular Biology Interdisciplinary Science : 

Molecular Biology Interdisciplinary Science Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis as well as learning how these interactions are regulated Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Beginning of Molecular Biology : 

Beginning of Molecular Biology The Modern of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, and virology. With the hope of understanding life at its most fundamental level, numerous physicists and chemists also took an interest in what would become molecular biology. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Warren Weaver : 

Warren Weaver While molecular biology was established in the 1930s, the term was first coined by Warren Weaver in 1938. Warren was the director of Natural Sciences for the Rockefeller Foundation..

Early Vision on Molecular Biology : 

Early Vision on Molecular Biology

Watson and Crick : 

Watson and Crick The structure of DNA was described by British Scientists Watson and Crick as long double helix shaped with its sugar phosphate backbone on the outside and its bases on inside; the two strand of helix run in opposite direction and are anti-parallel to each other. The DNA double helix is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the bases Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Watson and Crick discovers DNA / Feb 28th 1953 : 

Watson and Crick discovers DNA / Feb 28th 1953

Watson and Crick Builds a Model DNA 7th March 1953 : 

Watson and Crick Builds a Model DNA 7th March 1953

First Document on DNA published in Nature 25th April 1953 : 

First Document on DNA published in Nature 25th April 1953

Watson and Crick - Awarded Nobel Prize in 1962 : 

Watson and Crick - Awarded Nobel Prize in 1962

DNA - Structure : 

DNA - Structure The nucleotide, however, remains as the fundamental unit (monomer) of the nucleic acid polymer. There are four nucleotides: those with cytosine (C), those with guanine (G), those with adenine (A), and those with thymine (T).

DNA : 

DNA A purine always links with a pyrimidine base to maintain the structure of DNA. Adenine ( A ) binds to Thymine ( T ), with two hydrogen bonds between them. Guanine ( G ) binds to Cytosine ( C ), with three hydrogen bonds between them.

Chemical structure of DNA : 

Chemical structure of DNA

DNA is Endless structure : 

DNA is Endless structure The rungs of the ladder can occur in any order (as long as the base-pair rule is followed) Those 4 bases have endless combinations just like the letters of the alphabet can combine to make different words.

DNA makes a Copy of Self : 

DNA makes a Copy of Self Replication is the process where DNA makes a copy of itself. Why does DNA need to copy? Simple: Cells divide for an organism to grow or reproduce, every new cell needs a copy of the DNA or instructions to know how to be a cell. DNA replicates right before a cell divides.

DNA Replication : 

DNA Replication DNA replication is semi-conservative. That means that when it makes a copy, one half of the old strand is always kept in the new strand. This helps reduce the number of copy errors. So we remained what we were ?

DNA to RNA creates functional translations : 

DNA to RNA creates functional translations DNA remains in the nucleus, but in order for it to get its instructions translated into proteins, it must send its message to the ribosome's, where proteins are made. The chemical used to carry this message is Messenger RNA Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

DNA – RNA – DNAa never ending cycle : 

DNA – RNA – DNAa never ending cycle RNA has the job of taking the message from the DNA to the nucleus to the ribosome's. Transcription - RNA is made from DNA Translation - Proteins are made from the message on the RNA Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

RNA = Ribonucleic acid. : 

RNA = Ribonucleic acid. RNA is similar to DNA except: It has one strand instead of two strands. Has uracil instead of thymine3.Has Ribose instead of Deoxyribose

DNA : 

DNA Example First strand GGGTTTAAACCC Second strand CCCAAATTTGGG

What is Gene : 

What is Gene The gene, the basic units of inheritance; it is a segment within a very long strand of DNA with specific instruction for the production of one specific protein. Genes located on chromosome on it's place or locus.

Bacterial Chromosome : 

Bacterial Chromosome The bacterial DNA contains ds DNA arranged in circular form 1,000 microns in length The bacterial DNA is about 4,000 kb The Human genome is about 3 million kb

Chromosomal variation defines the Species : 

Chromosomal variation defines the Species The Chromosome, the storage place for all genetic information, the number of chromosomes varies from one species to another. The human genome is complex contains 3 million kb. Non functional codons called as introns Functional are exons All sequences multiply

Genome defines total Information : 

Genome defines total Information The genome of an organism is the totality of genetic information and is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA).

Genomic DNA Organization : 

Genomic DNA Organization

Biology to Molecular Biology : 

Biology to Molecular Biology Molecular biology; the study of gene structure and functions at the molecular level to understand the molecular basis of hereditary, genetic variation, and the expression patterns of genes. The Molecular biology field overlaps with other areas, particularly genetics and biochemistry Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Data base Librariescan be created : 

Data base Librariescan be created The genome database is organized in six major organism groups: eukaryotes, bacteria, archaea, viruses, viroids and plasmids. All living things are grouped into three domain: eukaryotes; prokaryotes and archaea. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Every body fishing for New Ideas : 

Every body fishing for New Ideas

Central Dogma of Molecular Biology : 

Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

Common Tools of Molecular Biology : 

Common Tools of Molecular Biology Nucleic acid fractionation Polymerase chain reaction Probes, Hybridization Vector, Molecular cloning Nucleic acid enzymes Microarray DNA sequencing Electrophoretic separation of nucleic acid Detection of genes: *DNA: Southern blotting; inSitu hybridization; FISH Technique *RNA: Northern blotting *Protein: Western blotting, immunohistochemistry

Molecular Biology Interdisciplinary approach : 

Molecular Biology Interdisciplinary approach Molecular biology is facilitating research in many field including biochemistry, microbiology, immunology and genetics,…ATGC CGAT saga continues to strengthens the hands of science………………… Various methods in molecular biology diagnose the different human diseases; diagnosis of an infectious agent, in malignancy, the presence of the genetic disease and in transplantation, paternity and forensic analysis.

Current Uses of molecular Biology : 

Current Uses of molecular Biology The most recent applied technologies, genetic engineering, DNA finger-printing in the social and forensic science, pre and postnatal diagnosis of inherited disease, gene therapy and drug Design. Molecular biology allows the laboratory to be predictive in nature, it gives information that the patients may be at risk for disease (future). Major tool in Diagnosis of Infectious

Restriction Endonuleaseschanges the Biology : 

Restriction Endonuleaseschanges the Biology If two organisms differ in the distance between sites of cleavage of a particular restriction endonuclease, the length of the fragments produced will differ when the DNA is digested with a restriction enzyme. The similarity of the patterns generated can be used to differentiate species (and even strains) from one another. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

What are Restriction Endonuleases : 

What are Restriction Endonuleases Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cleave DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences depending on the particular enzyme used. Enzyme recognition sites are usually 4 to 6 base pairs in length. The recognition sequences are randomly distributed through the DNA and recognizes different nucleotide sequences, and snips through DNA molecule. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Types of Endonuleases : 

Types of Endonuleases Type I split the target randomly Type II split the molecule only at recognition site Type III split the DNA at a fixed distance from the recognition site Type II and III played major role in identification of sequence of bases in DNA Today's genetic engineering and genethreapy dependent on Endonuleases. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Arber, Nathans and Smith – Nobel Prize 1978 : 

Arber, Nathans and Smith – Nobel Prize 1978 The restriction endonulease is the basis of science of molecular genetics , genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology Futher advances with Frederick Sanger, Walter Gilbert contribute to Nucleotide sequncesing DNA ligase. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Restriction endonuleases : 

Restriction endonuleases Restriction endonulease is an enzyme which cleave double sequence. The enzyme Eco RI HIND III Taq 1 Causes of entry of foreign substances in cell. Restriction enzymes split DNA strands into fragments varying lengths Separated by gel electrophoresis and stained with ethydium bromide and photographed. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Development of Gel electrophoresis : 

Development of Gel electrophoresis Berg, Sanger and Gilbert awarded Nobel prize in 1980 Gel electrophoresis reads nucleotide sequencing Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Cutting DNA -Sticky ends : 

Cutting DNA -Sticky ends The first type of enzyme are restriction endonulease. Their job is to cut a strand of DNA at a specific area of the code called a recognition site. Genetic engineers have a large number of restriction endonulease for different recognition sites so that cuts can be made in specific places. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Sticky ends an Advantage to propagation of Life : 

Sticky ends an Advantage to propagation of Life After the DNA has been removed using this enzyme you get sticky ends which is at the end of the fragment and is 'sticky' because it wants to become part of a DNA strand again. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Signal Amplification Methods : 

Signal Amplification Methods Combines some type of nucleic acid usually probe with generation of signal. The signal is amplified through enzymatic reaction eg as Signal from fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ) may be directly observed Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Important Methods : 

Important Methods 1 Nucleic acid probes 2 Hybrid capture 3 Branched chain DNA 4 Situ hybridization

Nucleic-acid probes : 

Nucleic-acid probes Nucleic-acid fragment that is complementary to another nucleic-acid sequence and thus, when labelled in some manner, as with a radioisotope, can be used to identify complementary segments present in the nucleic-acid sequences of various microorganisms Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Nucleic acid probe : 

Nucleic acid probe Nucleic acid fragment, labelled by a radioisotope, biotin, etc., that is complementary to a sequence in another nucleic acid (fragment) and that will, by hydrogen binding to the latter, locate or identify it and be detected; a diagnostic technique based on the fact that every species of microbe possesses some unique nucleic acid sequences which differentiate it from all others, and can be used as identifying markers or "fingerprints." Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Hybridization probes : 

Hybridization probes Hybridization probe is a fragment of DNA or RNA of variable length (usually 100-1000 bases long), which is used to detect in DNA or RNA samples the presence of nucleotide sequences (the DNA target) that are complementary to the sequence in the probe. The probe thereby hybridizes to single-stranded nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) whose base sequence allows probe-target base pairing due to complementarily between the probe and target. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Nucleic Acid Probes : 

Nucleic Acid Probes Accu probes from Gene probe, In which it contain Chemiluminescent label and target the rRNA of the Microorganisms of interest. It reads events in vivo or during the multiplication of organims. The presence of light considered positive reaction Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Probes identifies related Molecules : 

Probes identifies related Molecules

Nucleic Acid probe applications : 

Nucleic Acid probe applications Helps the direct detection of bacteria in clinical specimens or culture Helps in N gonorrhea and C.trachomatis, Group A streptococcus Rapid identification of Mycobacterium complex.Listeria Dimorphic fungi Why popular in developed countreis ? Reached a specificity from 90 – 100% Time saving and Labour costs, but expensive Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Hybrid Capture : 

Hybrid Capture Hybrid Capture (HC) technology detects nucleic acid targets directly and uses signal amplification to provide sensitivity that is comparable to target amplification methods Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Hybrid Capture : 

Hybrid Capture It involves a signal amplification technology that consists of retention of DNA – RNA molecule complex in a tube or micro titer plate Useful in detection of Human papilloma virus ( Repeat pap smear positives ), comparable to PCR technology. CMV, HBV C.trachomatis. N.gonnorhea Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Hybrid Capture : 

Hybrid Capture Tests are available to detect Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoea (GC), and blood viruses such as Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). An assay for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is in development. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Branched DNA makes the complicated matters simple : 

Branched DNA makes the complicated matters simple The technology uses variety of branched DNA ( bDNA ) probes and signal amplification reporter molecules And generate Chemiluminescent signal. The signal correlates with target nucleic acid Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Branched DNA applications : 

Branched DNA applications Detection HIV, HBV, and HCV Measures viral loads Less sensitive than PCR Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

In Situ Hybridization : 

In Situ Hybridization More in use Chromosomal translocations Useful in CMV, HSV, VZV Sub types of papilloma virus Useful in Mycobacteria, fungi and parasites Helicobacter pylori from gastric biopsies Legionella pneumophila Pneumocystis jiroveci Tests done on paraffin embedded specimen Need applications in Infectious diseases Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

In Situ Hybridization : 

In Situ Hybridization

Protocols - In Situ Hybridization : 

Protocols - In Situ Hybridization The labelled probe is first denatured (by heating or under alkaline conditions) into single DNA strands and then hybridized to the target DNA (Southern blotting) or RNA (northern blotting) immobilized on a membrane or in situ. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Nucleic acid probe : 

Nucleic acid probe Nucleic acid fragment, labelled by a radioisotope, biotin, etc., that is complementary to a sequence in another nucleic acid (fragment) and that will, by hydrogen binding to the latter, locate or identify it and be detected; a diagnostic technique based on the fact that every species of microbe possesses some unique nucleic acid sequences which differentiate it from all others, and can be used as identifying markers or "fingerprints." Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Blotting Methods : 

Blotting Methods

What is Blotting : 

What is Blotting Blots are techniques for transferring DNA, RNA and proteins onto a carrier so they can be separated, and often follows the use of a gel electrophoresis. The Southern blot is used for transferring DNA, the Northern blot for RNA and the western blot for PROTEIN Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Slide 64: 

TYPES OF BLOTTING TECHNIQUES

Slide 65: 

Professor Sir Edwin Southern, Professor of Biochemistry and Fellow of Trinity developed this method in 1975. Professor Sir Edwin Southern

Nucleic Acid Hybridizations : 

Nucleic Acid Hybridizations The hybridization of a radioactive probe to filter bound DNA or RNA is one of the most informative experiments that is performed in molecular genetics. Two basic types of hybridizations are possible. Southern hybridization - hybridization of a probe to filter bound DNA; the DNA is typically transferred to the filter from a gel Northern hybridization - hybridization of a probe to filter bound RNA; the RNA is typically transferred to the filter from a gel

Southern hybridization : 

Southern hybridization Southern hybridization - hybridization of a probe to filter bound DNA; the DNA is typically transferred to the filter from a gel Under optimal conditions, Southern blotting detects ~ 0.1 pg of the DNA of interest Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Southern Blotworking protocol : 

Southern Blotworking protocol

Uses of Southern Blotting : 

Uses of Southern Blotting Southern blots are used in gene discovery and mapping, evolution and development studies, diagnostics and forensics. In regards to genetically modified organisms, Southern blotting is used as a definitive test to ensure that a particular section of DNA of known genetic sequence has been successfully incorporated into the genome of the host organism. Used in prognosis of cancer and in prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Western blot : 

Western blot The western blot (alternatively, immunoblot) is an analytical technique used to detect specific proteins in a given sample of tissue homogenate or extract. It uses gel electrophoresis to separate native or denatured proteins by the length of the polypeptide (denaturing conditions) or by the 3-D structure of the protein (native/ non-denaturing conditions). The proteins are then transferred to a membrane (typically nitrocellulose or PVDF), where they are probed (detected) using antibodies specific to the target protein Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Western blotting : 

Western blotting Western blotting is an Immunoblotting technique which rely on the specificity of binding between a molecule of interest and a probe to allow detection of the molecule of interest in a mixture of many other similar molecules. In Western blotting, the molecule of interest is a protein and the probe is typically an antibody raised against that particular protein. The SDS PAGE technique is a prerequisite for Western blotting .

Gel electrophoresis : 

Gel electrophoresis The proteins of the sample are separated using gel electrophoresis. Separation of proteins may be by isoelectric point (pI), molecular weight, electric charge, or a combination of these factors. The nature of the separation depends on the treatment of the sample and the nature of the gel.

Western Blot : 

Western Blot The confirmatory HIV test employs a Western blot to detect anti-HIV antibody in a human serum sample. Proteins from known HIV-infected cells are separated and blotted on a membrane as above. Then, the serum to be tested is applied in the primary antibody incubation step; free antibody is washed away, and a secondary anti-human antibody linked to an enzyme signal is added. The stained bands then indicate the proteins to which the patient's serum contains antibody. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Other uses of Western Blot : 

Other uses of Western Blot A Western blot is also used as the definitive test for Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, commonly referred to as 'mad cow disease'). Some forms of Lyme disease testing employ Western blotting

Results documented and user-friendly approaches : 

Results documented and user-friendly approaches

Results Documented : 

Results Documented

SDS PAGE : 

SDS PAGE SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is a technique widely used in biochemistry, forensics, genetics and molecular biology to separate proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility (a function of length of polypeptide chain or molecular weight as well as higher order protein folding Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Documentation of SDS PAGE : 

Documentation of SDS PAGE

Becomes a Legal record : 

Becomes a Legal record

SDS PageReading frames : 

SDS PageReading frames

Northern Blot : 

Northern Blot The northern blot is a technique used in molecular biology research to study gene expression by detection of RNA in a sample. Northern blotting involves the use of electrophoresis to separate RNA samples by size, and detection with a hybridization probe complementary to part of or the entire target sequence. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Northern hybridization : 

Northern hybridization Northern hybridization - hybridization of a probe to filter bound RNA; the RNA is typically transferred to the filter from a gel. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Northern Blot : 

Northern Blot

Eastern Blot : 

Eastern Blot

Eastern Blot in Ehrlichia : 

Eastern Blot in Ehrlichia Developed at the Dept. of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, while working on the intracellular bacteria, Ehrlichia

Eastern Blotting : 

Eastern Blotting The technique was developed to detect protein modifications in two species of Ehrlichia- E. muris and . Cholera toxin B subunit (which detects lipids) Expression of post translated proteins is important in several diseases. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Eastern BlottingMethodology : 

Eastern BlottingMethodology

Far Eastern Blotting : 

Far Eastern Blotting Far-Eastern blotting is a technique developed in the 1990s by T. Taki and colleagues at the Cellular Technology Institute of Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Japan for the analysis of lipids separated by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The lipids are transferred from the HPTLC plate to a PVDF membrane for further analysis, for example by enzymatic or ligand binding assays or mass spectrometry. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Uses of Far Eastern Blotting : 

Uses of Far Eastern Blotting Purification of glycosphingolipids and phospholipids. Structural analysis of lipids in conjunction with direct mass spectrometry. Binding study using various ligands such as antibodies, lectins, bacterium, viruses, and toxins, and Enzyme reaction on membranes. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Restriction fragment length polymorphism : 

Restriction fragment length polymorphism Sir Alec Jeffreys developed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), which quickly became the standard technique for DNA testing throughout the 1980s. RFLP provided the world with the first form of genetic testing based on DNA, the body's genetic material Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) : 

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) is a technique in which organisms may be differentiated by analysis of patterns derived from cleavage of their DNA. Defines how we differ from others Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

RFLP : 

RFLP The basic technique for detecting RFLPs involves fragmenting a sample of DNA by a restriction enzyme, which can recognize and cut DNA wherever a specific short sequence occurs, in a process known as a restriction digest. The resulting DNA fragments are then separated by length through a process known as agarose gel electrophoresis, and transferred to a membrane via the Southern blot procedure. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Creation of fragments and Documentation : 

Creation of fragments and Documentation

Cutting the Desired sequences is basis of success in Molecular Biology : 

Cutting the Desired sequences is basis of success in Molecular Biology

Spoligotyping : 

Spoligotyping Spoligotyping, a new method for simultaneous detection and typing of M. tuberculosis complex bacteria, has been recently developed. This method is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a highly polymorphic direct repeat locus in the M. tuberculosis genome. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Spoligotyping in Tuberculosis : 

Spoligotyping in Tuberculosis Results can be obtained from a M. tuberculosis culture within 1 day. Thus, the clinical usefulness of Spoligotyping is determined by its rapidity, both in detecting causative bacteria and in providing epidemiologic information on strain identities Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Spoligotyping : 

Spoligotyping Spoligotyping is based on the polymorphism in the direct repeat (DR) locus of the mycobacterial chromosome . The DR locus is one of the most well studied loci of the MTC genome showing considerable strain-to-strain polymorphism The function of the DR locus in MTC bacteria is presently unknown. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Spoligotyping in Tuberculosis : 

Spoligotyping in Tuberculosis The well-conserved 36-bp direct repeats are interspersed with unique spacer sequences varying from 35 to 41 bp in size. Currently, 94 different spacer sequences have been identified of which 43 are used for MTC strain differentiation. Clinical isolates of MTC bacteria can be differentiated by the presence or absence of one or more spacers. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

All documentation can be read and compared : 

All documentation can be read and compared

Documentation can be read by computer and results can be interpreted : 

Documentation can be read by computer and results can be interpreted

Documentation of Finger printing for Records : 

Documentation of Finger printing for Records Finger print means translating all the variable number of tandem repeats to visible records All VNTR is tested for restriction length polymorphisim which differ from species to species. All the obtained material is blotted to Nylon or Nitrocellulose membrane ( Southern Blotting ) Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Results analyzed by Computer : 

Results analyzed by Computer

DNA finger printing help the Progress of Biology : 

DNA finger printing help the Progress of Biology Every one of our DNA is equal except for only about 0.10 %. DNA finger printing lies in uniqueness of those regions of DNA that do differ from person to person. Only 5 % of our DNA code rest donot code called in past as Junk DNA and contain repeated sequences of base pairs Called as Variable number of tandem repeats contain 20 to 100 base pairs and the same sequence is repeated one to 3 times in a row Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

Science of Molecular biology progress from RLFP to PCR : 

Science of Molecular biology progress from RLFP to PCR Isolation of sufficient DNA for RFLP analysis is time-consuming and labor intensive. However, PCR can be used to amplify very small amounts of DNA, usually in 2-3 hours, to the levels required for RFLP analysis. Therefore, more samples can be analyzed in a shorter time. Doctortvrao’s ‘e’ learning series

How much we differ from Ape DNA answers ? : 

How much we differ from Ape DNA answers ?

April 25th celebrates the DNA Model DNA continues to the Temple of Science : 

April 25th celebrates the DNA Model DNA continues to the Temple of Science

Madam, are you fiddling with GENES ? : 

Madam, are you fiddling with GENES ?

Be A GENE GeniusBecome Famous : 

Be A GENE GeniusBecome Famous

Life is a Transition from Biology to Molecular BiologyAre you Ready ? : 

Life is a Transition from Biology to Molecular BiologyAre you Ready ?

Created for Basic Understanding on Molecular biology : 

Created for Basic Understanding on Molecular biology Dr.T.V.Rao MD Email doctortvrao@gmail.com

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