Typhoid Fever( Enteric Fevers )an update : Typhoid Fever( Enteric Fevers )an update Dr.T.V.Rao MD Typhoid fevers are prevalent in many regions in the World : Typhoid fevers are prevalent in many regions in the World Enteric Fevers : Enteric Fevers The syndrome associated with enteric fevers are produced only by a few of the Salmonella
Salmonella typhi most important
Salmonella paratyphi A, B,C Historical landmarks in Typhoid : Historical landmarks in Typhoid In 1880s, the typhoid bacillus was first observed by Eberth in spleen sections and mesenteric lymph nodes from a patient who died from typhoid. Robert Koch confirmed a related finding by Gaffky and succeeded in cultivating the bacterium in 1881. But due to the lack of differential characters, separation of the typhoid bacillus from other enteric bacteria was uncertain.
. History of Sero Diagnosis : History of Sero Diagnosis In 1896, it was demonstrated that the serum from an animal immunized with the typhoid bacillus agglutinated (clumped) the typhoid bacterial cells, and it was shown that the serum of patients afflicted with typhoid likewise agglutinated the typhoid bacillus. Serodiagnosis of typhoid was thus made possible by 1896. Typhoid Mary : Typhoid Mary A famous example is “Typhoid” Mary Mallon, who was a food handler responsible for infecting at least 78 people, killing 5. These highly infectious carriers pose a great risk to public health. Typhoid Mary : Typhoid Mary "Typhoid Mary," real name Mary Mallon, worked as a cook in New York City in the early 1900s. Public health pioneer Sara Josephine Baker, MD, PhD tracked her down after discovering that she was the common link among many people who had become ill from typhoid fever She was traced to typhoid outbreaks a second time so she was put in prison again where she lived until she died. Etiology of Typhoid fever : Etiology of Typhoid fever Typhoid fever is a bacterial disease, caused by Salmonella typhi. It is transmitted through the ingestion of food or drink contaminated by the faeces or urine of infected people.
Para typhoid fevers are produced by other species named
Paratyphi A, B, C Changing taxonomy of Salmonella species : Changing taxonomy of Salmonella species Salmonella are Gram-negative bacteria which cause intestinal infections. The taxonomy of Salmonella species is complicated. Formally, there are only two species within this genus: S. bongori and S. enterica (formerly called S. choleraesuis), which are divided into six subspecies: Different types of Salmonella : Different types of Salmonella I - entericaII - salamaeIIIa -arizonaeIIIb -diarizonaeIV - houtenaeV - bongoriVI - indica Bacteriology –Typhoid fever : Bacteriology –Typhoid fever The Genus Salmonella belong to Enterobactericiae
Gram negative bacilli
Distinguished from other bacteria by Biochemical and antigen structure Antigenic structure of Salmonella : Antigenic structure of Salmonella Two sets of antigens
Detection by serotyping
1 Somatic or 0 Antigens contain long chain polysaccharides ( LPS ) comprises of heat stable polysaccharide commonly.
2 Flagellar or H Antigens are strongly immunogenic and induces antibody formation rapidly and in high titers following infection or immunization. The flagellar antigen is of a dual nature, occurring in one of the two phases. Paratyphoid fevers on rise : Paratyphoid fevers on rise Paratyphoid fever can be caused by any of three serotypes of S. paratyphi A, B and C. It is similar in its symptoms to typhoid fever, but tends to be milder, with a lower fatality rate. How a Typhoid fever spreads : How a Typhoid fever spreads Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. In addition, a small number of persons, called carriers , recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shed S. Typhi in their feces (stool). Clinical features : Clinical features Typhoid fever (enteric fever) is a septicemia, illness characterized initially by fever, bradycardia, splenomegaly, abdominal symptoms and 'rose spots' which are clusters of pink mauls on the skin.
Complications such as intestinal hemorrhage or perforation can develop in untreated patients or when treatment is delayed. Pathology and Pathogenesis of Enteric fever : Pathology and Pathogenesis of Enteric fever Caused by
A B C
The organisms penetrate ileal mucosa reach mesentric lymph nodes via Lymphatics , Multiply,
Invade Blood stream via thoracic duct
In 7 – 10 days through blood stream infect
Liver, Gall Bladder,, spleen, Kidney, Bone marrow.
After multiplication bacilli pass into blood causing secondary and heavier bactermia Fever : Fever All the events coincides with Fever and other signs of clinical illness
From Gall bladder further invasion occurs in intestines
Involvement of peyr’s patches, gut lymphoid tissue
Lead to inflammatory reaction, and infiltration with monocular cells
Leads to Necrosis, Sloughing and formation of chacterstic typhoid ulcers Clinical presentation : Clinical presentation Ingestion to onset of fever varies from 3 – 50 days. ( 2 weeks )
Insidious start, early symptoms are vague
Dull continuous head ache
Abdominal tenderness discomfort may present with constipation.
May progress and present with step ladder pattern temperature
Temperature fall by crisis in 3 – 4th week Events in a Typical typhoid Fever : Events in a Typical typhoid Fever Other manifestations : Other manifestations Relative bradycardia
Splenomegaly Rashes in Typhoid : Rashes in Typhoid May present with rash, rose spots 2 -4 mm in diameter raised discrete irregular blanching pink maculae's found in front of chest
Appear in crops of upto a dozen at a time
Fade after 3 – 4 days Complication in Typhoid : Complication in Typhoid Severe intestinal hemorrhage and intestinal perforation
If not diagnosed can lead to fatal complications. Relapse : Relapse Apparent recovery can be followed by relapse in 5 – 10 % of untreated patients
On few occasions relapses can be severe and may be fatal. Immune Response in Typhoid : Immune Response in Typhoid Morbidity and Mortality : Morbidity and Mortality In untreated patients mortality can be up to 20 %
Occasionally present with diarrhea may mimic other infections, which is particularly common in paratyphoid fever.
Patient may present as gastro enteritis no different from that caused by other S.enterica serotypes. Typhoid carriers : Typhoid carriers Salmonella enterica causes approximately 16 million cases of typhoid fever worldwide, killing around 500,000 per year. One in thirty of the survivors, however, become carriers. In carriers the bacteria remain hidden inside cells and the gall bladder, causing new infections as they are shed from an apparently healthy host. Academic progress on carrier state in Typhoid : Academic progress on carrier state in Typhoid The factors that enable the bacteria to establish chronic infection were unclear. However, in a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, researchers at the Institute of Food Research in Norwich and the Karolinska Institute in Sweden found that the change of a single base pair in one Salmonella gene can determine if the bacteria cause short-term illness or a long-term carrier state. Diagnosis of Enteric Fever : Diagnosis of Enteric Fever Blood cultures in Typhoid fever : Blood cultures in Typhoid fever In Adults 5- 10 ml of Blood is collected by venepuncture inoculated into 50 – 100 ml of Bile broth ( 0.5 % )
Several other media are available used as per the availability of medium to suit their laboratory conditions. Blood Cultures in Typhoid Fevers : Blood Cultures in Typhoid Fevers Bacteremia occurs early in the disease
Blood Cultures are positive in
1st week in 90%
2nd week in 75%
3rd week in 60%
4th week and later in 25% Identification of Salmonella : Identification of Salmonella Sub cultures are done after overnight incubation at 370c,and subcultures are done on Mac Conkey's agar
Subcultures are repeated upto 10 days after futher incubation. Salmonella on Mac Conkey's agar : Salmonella on Mac Conkey's agar Salmonella on XLD agar : Salmonella on XLD agar Identifying Enteric Organisms : Identifying Enteric Organisms Isolates which are Non lactose fermenting
Motile, Indole positive
Donot ferment Lactose, Sucrose
Typhoid bacilli are anaerogenic
Some of the Paratyphoid form acid and gas
Further identification done by slide agglutination tests Slide agglutination tests : Slide agglutination tests In slide agglutination tests a known serum and unknown culture isolate is mixed, clumping occurs within few minutes
Commercial sera are available for detection of A, B,C1,C2,D, and E. Clot culture : Clot culture Clot cultures are more productive in yielding better results in isolation.
A blood after clotting, the clot is lysed with Streptokinase ,but expensive to perform in developing countries. Bactek and Radiometric based methods are in recent use : Bactek and Radiometric based methods are in recent use Bactek methods in isolation of Salmonella is a rapid and sensitive method in early diagnosis of Enteric fever.
Many Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratories are upgrading to Bactek methods Other methods in Isolation of Enteric Pathogens : Other methods in Isolation of Enteric Pathogens Feces Culture
Bone marrow cultures ( Highly Sensitive ) Emerging Methods in Diagnosis of Enteric fevers. : Emerging Methods in Diagnosis of Enteric fevers. Detection of circulating antigen by Co - agglutination methods with use of Cowan’s strain Staphylococcus coated with antibodies
PCR. The advent of PCR technology has provided unparalleled sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of typhoid Diagnosis of Carriers : Diagnosis of Carriers Useful in public health purpose.
Useful in screening food handlers, cooks, to detect carrier state
Typhoid bacilli can be isolated from feces or from bile aspirates
Detection of Vi agglutinins in the Blood can be determinant of carrier state. Widal Test : Widal Test In 1896 Widal A professor of pathology and internal medicine at the University of Paris (1911–29), he developed a procedure for diagnosing typhoid fever based on the fact that antibodies in the blood of an infected individual cause the bacteria to bind together into clumps (the Widal reaction). Diagnosis of Enteric FeverWidal test : Diagnosis of Enteric FeverWidal test Serum agglutinins raise abruptly during the 2nd or 3rd week
The widal test detects antibodies against O and H antigens
Two serum specimens obtained at intervals of 7 – 10 days to read the raise of antibodies.
Serial dilutions on unknown sera are tested against the antigens for respective Salmonella
False positives and False negative limits the utility of the test
The interpretative criteria when single serum specimens are tested vary
Cross reactions limits the specificity Significant Titers helps in Diagnosis : Significant Titers helps in Diagnosis Following Titers of antibodies against the antigens are significant when single sample is tested
O > 1 in 160
H > 1 in 320
Testing a paired sample for raise of antibodies carries a greater significance Widal test – Still a popular test : Widal test – Still a popular test The Widal test (Widal’s agglutination reaction) is routinely practised for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever by most of the laboratories. Several workers have expressed doubt regarding the reliability of the test. Several factors have contributed to this uncertainty. These include poorly standardised antigens, the sharing of antigenic determinants with other Salmonellae and the effects of immunisation with TAB vaccine. Another major problem relates to the difficulty of interpreting Widal test results in areas where Salmonella typhi is endemic and where the antibody titres of the normal population are often not known. Limitations of Widal test : Limitations of Widal test Classically, a four-fold rise of antibody in paired sera Widal test is considered diagnostic of typhoid fever. However, paired sera are often difficult to obtain and specific chemotherapy has to be instituted on the basis of a single Widal test. Furthermore, in areas where fever due to infectious causes is a common occurrence the possibility exists that false positive reactions may occur as a result of non-typhoid Antimicrobial Therapy in Typhoid : Antimicrobial Therapy in Typhoid With prompt antibiotic therapy, more than 99% of the people with typhoid fever are cured, although convalescence may last several months. The antibiotic chloramphenicolSome Trade Names CHLOROMYCETINis used worldwide, but increasing resistance to it has prompted the use of other antibiotics (such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole BACTRIMSEPTRAor ciprofloxacin Drug resitance an Emerging concern : Drug resitance an Emerging concern Previously Choramphenicol was the drug of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. However, with the development more safer and more effective drugs the use of Choramphenicol has declined these days. 3rd generation cephalosporins, like Ceftriaxone, and Flouroquinolones, like ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin are the drugs of choice for treatment of typhoid fever .Once again many strains are sensitive to Choramphenicol Vaccines for Typhoid Prevention : Vaccines for Typhoid Prevention Two types of vaccines are available
Oral and Inject able
Oral – A live oral vaccine ( typhoral ) is a stable mutant of S.typhi strain Ty 21a lacking the enzyme UDP Galactose -4-epimerase.
One capsule given orally taken before food, with glass of water or milk, on 1, 3, 5 days ( three doses )
No antibiotics should be taken during the period of administration of vaccine Vaccine - injectable : Vaccine - injectable The inject able vaccine, ( typhim –vi) contains purified Vi polysaccharide antigen derived from S.typhi strain ty21
Given as single subcutaneous or intramuscular injection
Single dose is adequate. Vaccines for Typhoid : Vaccines for Typhoid Both vaccines are given to only > 5 years of age.
Immunity lasts for 3 years
Need a booster
Vaccines are not effective in prevention of Paratyphoid fevers Simple hand hygiene and washing can reduce several cases of Typhoid : Simple hand hygiene and washing can reduce several cases of Typhoid Created for Health and Educational awareness on Typhoid Fever : Created for Health and Educational awareness on Typhoid Fever Dr.T.V.Rao MD