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Premium member Presentation Transcript Hospital acquired infections our role in prevention, and personal safety: Dr.T.V.Rao MD Hospital acquired infections our role in prevention, and personal safety Dr.T.V.Rao MD 1Microbiology - scientific era: Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1722) Dutch linen draper Amateur scientist Grinding lenses, magnifying glasses, hobby First to see bacteria “little beasties” No link between bacteria and disease Microbiology - scientific era Dr.T.V.Rao MD 2Scientific era continues . . . . .: Ignaz Semmelweiss (1818-1865) Obstetrician, practised in Vienna Studied puerperal (childbed) fever Established that high maternal mortality was due to failure of doctors to wash hands after post-mortems Reduced maternal mortality by 90% Ignored and ridiculed by colleagues Scientific era continues . . . . . Dr.T.V.Rao MD 3Scientific era continues . . . . .: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) French professor of chemistry Studied how yeasts (fungi) ferment wine and beer Proved that heat destroys bacteria and fungi Proved that bacteria can cause infection - the “germ theory” of disease Scientific era continues . . . . . Dr.T.V.Rao MD 4Scientific era continues . . . . .: Joseph Lister (1827-1912) Scottish surgeon Recognised importance of Pasteur’s work Concerned about infection of compound fractures and post-operative wounds Developed carbolic acid spray to disinfect instruments, patient’s skin, surgeon’s skin Largely ignored by medical colleagues Scientific era continues . . . . . Dr.T.V.Rao MD 5Scientific era continues: Robert Koch (1843-1910) German general practitioner Grew bacteria in culture medium Showed which bacteria caused particular diseases Classified most bacteria by 1900 Scientific era continues Dr.T.V.Rao MD 6Defining a Nosocomial infection: Defining a Nosocomial infection A nosocomial infection (nos-oh-koh-mi-al), also known as a hospital-acquired infection or HAI , is an infection whose development is favored by a hospital environment, such as one acquired by a patient during a hospital visit or one developing among hospital staff. Such infections include fungal and bacterial infections and are aggravated by the reduced resistance of individual patient Dr.T.V.Rao MD 7When you say Hospital acquired infection: When you say Hospital acquired infection Infection which was neither present nor incubating at the time of admission Includes infection which only becomes apparent after discharge from hospital but which was acquired during hospitalisation (Rcn, 1995) Also called nosocomial infection Dr.T.V.Rao MD 8When the Hospital acquired infections increase: When the Hospital acquired infections increase Nosocomial infections are commonly transmitted when hospital officials become complacent and personnel do not practice correct hygiene regularly. Also, increased use of outpatient treatment means that people who are hospitalized are more ill and have more weakened immune systems than may have been true in the past. Moreover, some medical procedures bypass the body's natural protective barriers. Since medical staff move from patient to patient, the staff themselves serve as a means for spreading pathogens. Essentially, the staff act as vectors. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 9 Sources of Hospital acquired infections: 1.Patients own flora - Endogenous (50%) Autoinfection ( Greatest source of potential danger) 2.Environment - Exogenous(15%) (Air-5%; Instruments-10%) 3.Another Patient/Staff - Cross Infection (35%) Sources of Hospital acquired infections Dr.T.V.Rao MD 10Slide 11: H.A.I. are INCREASING : in compromised patients ward and inter-hospital transfers antibiotic resistance (MRSA, resistant Gram negatives) increasing workload staff pressures lack of facilities ? lack of concern HAI is inevitable but some is preventable (irreducible minimum) realistically reducible by 10-30% Dr.T.V.Rao MD 11The nature of infection: The nature of infection Micro-organisms - bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa and worms Most are harmless [non-pathogenic] Pathogenic organisms can cause infection Infection exists when pathogenic organisms enter the body, reproduce and cause disease Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12HAI - common bacteria: HAI - common bacteria Staphylococci - wound, respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections Escherichia coli - wound and urinary tract infections Salmonella - food poisoning Streptococci - wound, throat and urinary tract infections Proteus - wound and urinary tract infections (Peto, 1998) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 13HAI - common viruses: Hepatitis A - infectious hepatitis Hepatitis B - serum hepatitis Human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS] (Peto, 1998) HAI - common viruses Dr.T.V.Rao MD 14Modes of spread: Modes of spread Two sources of infection: Endogenous or self-infection - organisms which are harmless in one site can be pathogenic when transferred to another site e.g., E. coli Exogenous or cross-infection - organisms transmitted from another source e.g., nurse, doctor, other patient, environment (Peto, 1998) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 15Spread - entry and exit routes: Spread - entry and exit routes Natural orifices - mouth, nose, ear, eye, urethra, vagina, rectum Artificial orifices - such as tracheostomy, ileostomy, colostomy Mucous membranes - which line most natural and artificial orifices Skin breaks - either as a result of accidental damage or deliberate inoculation/incision. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 16Chain of infection: Chain of infection Source/reservoir of micro-organisms infected person [host] or other source Method of transmission hands, instruments, clothing, coughing, sneezing, dust etc. Point of entry orifices, mucous membranes, skin Susceptible host low resistance to infection. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 17Cdc estimates major infections are caused common microbes: According to the CDC, the most common pathogens that cause nosocomial infections are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli. Some of the common nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections, respiratory pneumonia, surgical site wound infections, bacteremia, gastrointestinal and skin infections. Cdc estimates major infections are caused common microbes Dr.T.V.Rao MD 18Other etiological agents in nosocomial infections: Nosocomial infections are not just limited to bacteria; certain fungi such as Candida albicans and aspergillus, as well as, viruses such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus and influenza have also been implicated in a number of hospital acquired infections. Other etiological agents in nosocomial infections Dr.T.V.Rao MD 19Antibiotic resistance: Antibiotic resistance Not a new problem - Penicillin in 1944 Hospital “superbugs” Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus [MRSA] Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus Aureus [VISA] Tuberculosis - antibiotic resistant forms on rise Dr.T.V.Rao MD 20MRSA: MRSA Discovered in 1981 Found on skin and in the nose of 1 in 3 healthy people - symptomless carriers Widespread in hospitals and community Resistant to most antibiotics When fatal - often due to septicaemia Dr.T.V.Rao MD 21MRSA: Discovered in 1981 Found on skin and in the nose of 1 in 3 healthy people - symptomless carriers Widespread in hospitals and community Resistant to most antibiotics When fatal - often due to septicaemia MRSA Dr.T.V.Rao MD 22IMPLICATIONS OF BIOFILM INFECTIONS: Total resistance to host defenses Highly resistant to antimicrobials Involve antimicrobial resistant organisms High rate of exchange of resistant plasmids Rapid development of antimicrobial resistance IMPLICATIONS OF BIOFILM INFECTIONS Dr.T.V.Rao MD 23Hospital acquired infection continues ..: Incidence of 10% Effective hand washing is the most effective preventative measure Dirty wards and re-use of disposable equipment also blamed Hospital acquired infection continues .. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 24Improving hospitals and reducing infections a priority : Dr.T.V.Rao MD 25 Improving hospitals and reducing infections a priorityUniversal infection control precautions: Universal infection control precautions Devised in US in the 1980’s in response to growing threat from HIV and hepatitis B Not confined to HIV and hepatitis B Treat ALL patients as a potential bio-hazard Adopt universal routine safe infection control practices to protect patients, self and colleagues from infection Dr.T.V.Rao MD 26Universal precautions: Universal precautions Hand washing Personal protective equipment [PPE] Preventing/managing sharps injuries Aseptic technique Isolation Staff health Linen handling and disposal Waste disposal Spillages of body fluids Environmental cleaning Risk management/assessment Dr.T.V.Rao MD 27Many Personnel Don’t Realize When They Have microbes on Their Hands: Many Personnel Don’t Realize When They Have microbes on Their Hands Healthcare workers can get 100s to 1000s of bacteria on their hands by doing simple tasks like: pulling patients up in bed taking a blood pressure or pulse touching a patient’s hand rolling patients over in bed touching the patient’s gown or bed sheets touching equipment like bedside rails, overbed tables, IV pumps Casewell MW et al. Br Med J 1977;2:1315 Ojajarvi J J Hyg 1980;85:193 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 28Hand washing: Hand washing Single most effective action to prevent HAI - resident/transient bacteria Correct method - ensuring all surfaces are cleaned - more important than agent used or length of time taken No recommended frequency - should be determined by intended/completed actions Research indicates: poor techniques - not all surfaces cleaned frequency diminishes with workload/distance poor compliance with guidelines/training Dr.T.V.Rao MD 29Why we are not washing hands ???: Why we are not washing hands ??? Working in high-risk areas Lack of hand hygiene promotion Lack of role model Lack of institutional priority Lack of sanction of non-compliers Dr.T.V.Rao MD 30Optimal “hand hygiene” requirements: Optimal “hand hygiene” requirements R unning water: large washbasins which require little maintenance, with ant splash devices and hands-free controls products: soap or antiseptic depending on the procedure facilities for drying without contamination ( disposable towels if possible). For hand disinfection: specific hand disinfectants: alcoholic rubs with antiseptic and emollient gels which can be applied to physically clean hands Dr.T.V.Rao MD 31Successful Promotion : Successful Promotion Education Routine observation & feedback Engineering controls Location of hand basins Possible, easy & convenient Alcohol-based hand rubs available Patient education ( Improving Compliance with Hand Hygiene in Hospitals . Didier Pittet. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. Vol. 21 No. 6 Page 381) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 32SKIN ANTISEPSIS: A 2 STEP PROCESS: Disinfect clean skin with an appropriate antiseptic before insertion and at the time of dressing changes. A 2% chlorhexidine ispreferred . SKIN ANTISEPSIS: A 2 STEP PROCESS Dr.T.V.Rao MD 33Personal protective equipment: Personal protective equipment PPE when contamination or splashing with blood or body fluids is anticipated Disposable gloves Plastic aprons Face masks Safety glasses, goggles, visors Head protection Foot protection Fluid repellent gowns Dr.T.V.Rao MD 34Sharps injuries: Prevention correct disposal in appropriate container avoid re-sheathing needle avoid removing needle discard syringes as single unit avoid over-filling sharps container Management follow local policy for sharps injury (May, 2000) Sharps injuries Dr.T.V.Rao MD 35Aseptic technique: Aseptic technique Sepsis - harmful infection by bacteria Asepsis - prevention of sepsis Minimise risk of introducing pathogenic micro-organisms into susceptible sites Prevent transfer of potential pathogens from contaminated site to other sites, patients or staff Follow local policy of your hospital Dr.T.V.Rao MD 36Isolation: Isolation Single room or group Source or protective Source - isolation of infected patient mainly to prevent airborne transmission via respiratory droplets respiratory MRSA, pulmonary tuberculosis Protective - isolation of immune -suppressed patient (May, 2000) Significant psychological effects (Davies et al, 1999) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 37Staff health: Staff health Risk of acquiring and transmitting infection Acquiring infection immunisation cover lesions with waterproof dressings restrict non-immune/pregnant staff Transmitting infection advice when suffering infection Report accidents/untoward incidents Follow local policy (May, 2000) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 38Linen handling and disposal: Linen handling and disposal Bed making and linen changing techniques Gloves and apron - handling contaminated linen Appropriate laundry bags Avoid contamination of clean linen Hazards of on-site ward-based laundering NHS Executive guidelines (1995) Follow local policy of your hospital Dr.T.V.Rao MD 39Waste disposal: Waste disposal Clinical waste - HIGH risk potentially/actually contaminated waste including body fluids and human tissue yellow plastic sack, tied prior to incineration Household waste - LOW risk paper towels, packaging, dead flowers, other waste which is not dangerously contaminated black plastic sack, tied prior to incineration Follow local policy of your Hospitals Dr.T.V.Rao MD 40Spillage of body fluids: Spillage of body fluids PPE - disposable gloves, apron Soak up with paper towels, kitchen roll Cover area with hypochlorite solution e.g., Milton, for several minutes Clean area with warm water and detergent, then dry Treat waste as clinical waste - yellow plastic sack Follow local policy (May, 2000) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 41Environmental cleaning: Environmental cleaning Recent concern regarding poor hygiene in hospital environments (NHSE, 1999) Some pathogens survive for long periods in dust, debris and dirt Poor hygiene standards - hazardous to patients and staff (May, 2000) Report poor hygiene to Domestic Services (UKCC, 1992) “Hospitals should do the sick no harm” (Nightingale, 1854) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 42Risk assessment: Risk assessment No risk of contact/splashing with blood/body fluids - PPE not required Low or moderate risk of contact/splashing - wear gloves and plastic apron High risk of contact/splashing - wear gloves, plastic apron, gown, eye/face protection (Rcn, 1995) Cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, synovial fluid, amniotic fluid, semen, vaginal secretions, and Any other fluid containing visible blood e.g., urine, faeces (Rcn, 1995) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 43In spite many developments in medicine and asepsis hand washing still the best solution : In spite many developments in medicine and asepsis hand washing still the best solution Hand hygiene is the simplest, most effective measure for preventing hospital-acquired infections. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 44Slide 45: Dr.T.V.Rao MD 45Ways to overcome the nosocomial infections: Ways to overcome the nosocomial infections Besides, hospitals need to have infection control committees to conduct outcome and process surveillance for nosocomial infections. This committee should meet regularly and publish the results of their surveillance. At the same time, healthcare institutions should adopt new and better technology, like closed system IV fluids, in order to reduce the rates of infections. Further, training the paramedical staff on various aspects of HAIs and measures of infection prevention will help tremendously in reducing the morbidity & mortality resulting from nosocomial infections . Dr.T.V.Rao MD 46Basic hygiene is key to control infections: Basic hygiene is key to control infections Ignaz Semmelweis in 1847 demonstrated that washing hands saves lives Old bacteria are causing new problems New viral and prion diseases are causing new problems Reluctance to wash hands still the single most important cause of HAI (ICNA, 1998) Growing concern about poor hospital hygiene Dr.T.V.Rao MD 47Let us support our hospitals with clean hands: Let us support our hospitals with clean hands Dr.T.V.Rao MD 48 go through the manual published by WHO: Prevention of hospital-acquired infections A practical guide 2nd edition World Health Organization Department of Communicable Disease, Surveillance and Response go through the manual published by WHO Dr.T.V.Rao MD 49On line information Internet sites: On line information Internet sites http://www.icna.co.uk/ http://www.nursing-standard.co.uk/ http://www.medscape.com/ http://www.anes.uab.edu/medhist.htm http://www.shef.ac.uk/~nhcon/ http://medweb.bham.ac.uk/nursing/ http://www.healthcentre.org.uk/hc/library/default.htm Dr.T.V.Rao MD 50Slide 51: Dr.T.V.Rao MD 51 The programme created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and Paramedical Professionals in the Developing World Email firstname.lastname@example.org You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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