Thesis writing

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Thesis writing for ( post graduate Medical students ) :

Dr.T.V.Rao MD Thesis writing for ( post graduate Medical students ) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 1

What is a thesis / Dissertation :

A dissertation or thesis [ is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings . What is a thesis / Dissertation Dr.T.V.Rao MD 2

Why write a thesis?:

Why write a thesis? It is the contribution you make to the academic community You all have to suffer like we too suffered ! In the process, you will learn How to research How to write Dr.T.V.Rao MD 3

Why write a thesis? :

Why write a thesis? Does make you famous Unlikely – yes Look at the statistics and the Seniors Work It will radically change science Unlikely Look at the statistics Dr.T.V.Rao MD 4

What a thesis creates:

What a thesis creates What I did in the lab over the last 2 to 3 years I first read the background material I then implemented an algorithm I did some practical work … A thesis is a logical reconstruction Not a historical narrative Dr.T.V.Rao MD 5

How a Dissertation is conducted:

A postgraduate conducts research on a problem relevant to medical specality under the guidance of Faculty Members and submits a protocol/synopsis in the end of 1st year and the final dissertation at the end of 2½ years. How a Dissertation is conducted Dr.T.V.Rao MD 6

A thesis is an original contribution to knowledge:

A thesis is an original contribution to knowledge An advisor/ guide will expect that: Y ou have identified a worthwhile problem or question which has not been previously answered ? You have solved the problem or answered the question or at least contributed some facts for better understanding on the topic selected. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 7

Who selects the thesis Topic guide or student ?:

On many occasions guide suggest some topics with better understanding, knowing very well the facilities available in the Laboratory / Hospitals. The student has also important role in accepting what has been suggested, Impracticable outdated ideas of guides is catastrophic both to the students and to the department. Who selects the thesis Topic guide or student ? Dr.T.V.Rao MD 8

Conflicts in guide and student relations:

A non committed students and a irrational guides are the real areas of conflict what we see in the working environment . Todays youth too are intelligent wise and well informed they can understand strengths and weakness of the guides in few days of joining the Department Even guides should practice the policy of Humble to learn and wise to teach Conflicts in guide and student relations Dr.T.V.Rao MD 9

Introduction to Thesis:

An average introduction should build up the logic why it was necessary to conduct the study An average Introduction should be approx. 5 A4 pages, double spaced, Times NR, Font size 12 An Introduction may contain Figures needed to build up the logic. These should have a legend mentioning the Source, Year of publication Introduction to Thesis Dr.T.V.Rao MD 10

Choosing a topic – too difficult A task ? :

Choosing a topic – too difficult A task ? Dr.T.V.Rao MD 11

Scope and Objectives:

Scope and Objectives An aim or aims should be 1-3 sentences and as concise as possible: Examples: The present study aims at evaluating the Carbapenemase resistance in ICU patients . Or: * The present study was conducted to study the prevalence of Carbapenemase resistance in severely ill patients. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12

What you choose for dissertation:

Do remember easier topics difficult to work with Do never select an outdated work, as you have to remain in the Profession for > 4 decades Your desertion is the reflection of your hands on experience, Avoid topics which do not give adequate and modern skills What you choose for dissertation Dr.T.V.Rao MD 13

Can Internet search solve the problem of writing a good thesis:

Many postgraduates usually search on the internet to find out information for any thesis. They find it interesting and obviously there is no place better than internet where they can find all the relevant information. However, the students are not aware of the contents and patterns and often end up writing down something absolutely meaningless . Can Internet search solve the problem of writing a good thesis Dr.T.V.Rao MD 14

Selecting the right topic makes a great contribution :

lot of research and hard work can make a thesis relevant and good. The topic must be something that has some importance to our society and something that can be helpful to evaluate your excellence.. Vague ideas and concepts won't work in your thesis. You need to think plenty of times about the whole thing. You must understand that people must connect with your research Selecting the right topic makes a great contribution Dr.T.V.Rao MD 15

Who are Thesis committee members:

Who are Thesis committee members Who should be on your committee? Ideally you and your supervisor will come to a mutual decision and present with consent Important, well-known researchers,unbaised teachers Dr.T.V.Rao MD 16

A good thesis reflects how much you are creative:

How you see the world and what you think about it must be reflected in your thesis. This is something where your thoughts need to be reflected. That is why choosing the topic is very crucial. If you are planning to write down a thesis on Medical or basic sciences, then you must understand even the smallest things . You need not be a master of that. You just need to be clear about the whole concept. Your enthusiasm and passion must be there. Otherwise everything will be a sheer waste of time . A good thesis reflects how much you are creative Dr.T.V.Rao MD 17

What is a thesis statement?:

What is a thesis statement? A thesis statement is a sentence used in an essay that serves as the guide for the essay and directly answers the question or task asked of you. A thesis statement express the main idea of your paper. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 18

The main sections… in Thesis:

The main sections… in Thesis Introduction Aims (in most cases ‘objectives’ = aims with specific targets to achieve) ***** A review of the relevant literature Methods Results Discussion Summary References Appendices NOTE ***** indicates topics which the dissertation committee may especially like to re-evaluate Dr.T.V.Rao MD 19

Apart from the Sections from Start to End a thesis may have::

Apart from the Sections from Start to End a thesis may have : The Title page An inscription/dedication Certificate Declaration Acknowledgments Abstract (******) The contents page (including the contents of Appendices) Introduction Aims (and Objectives ****) A review of the relevant literature NOTE ***** indicates topics which the dissertation committee may especially like to re-evaluate Dr.T.V.Rao MD 20

….continued:

…. continued Methods (or Materials, and another Section for Methods, or Materials and Methods ******) Results, including Tables, Figures Discussion Summary References Appendices – usually 2: ******* - Appendix A: Materials used in testing - Appendix B: Original Data which could also include computer printouts of waveforms, graphs… NOTE ***** indicates topics which the dissertation committee may especially like to re-evaluate Dr.T.V.Rao MD 21

Cover Page with University Logo & a Photograph of the University Office Building or as advised :

Cover Page with University Logo & a Photograph of the University Office Building or as advised The title: In upper case, Arial, Font Size 16 Name of the candidate: Sentence case, Name followed by qualifying degree, Arial, Font Size 14 Names of Guides: Names followed by degrees (standard short forms, e.g., MD Ph.D. ), Arial, Font Size 14 Name of the institution: In upper case, Arial, Font Size 16 Can covers be different colors? ***** Should covers be hard-binding and the front page pasted? ***** NOTE ***** indicates topics which the dissertation committee may especially like to re-evaluate Dr.T.V.Rao MD 22

The Title Page inside the Thesis:

The Title Page inside the Thesis Do we still need to standardize the format? **** The title: In upper case, Times NR, Font Size 16 Name of the candidate: Sentence case, Name followed by qualifying degree, Times NR, Font Size 14 Names of Guides: Names in Sentence case, followed by degrees (standard short forms, e.g., MD ( Microbiology ) Names of Dissertation Committee members in Sentence case, followed by degrees, Times NR, Font Size 14 Names of Doctoral students who assisted in Sentence case, Times NR, Font Size 12 ***** Dr.T.V.Rao MD 23

….what each section should contain…..:

…. what each section should contain ….. Inscriptions/ Dedications: This is, of course, optional and depends on the candidate. As far as possible a dedication or inscription should not be corrected or modified. However it is necessary to check that there are no obvious grammatical/spelling errors or that a quotation is not misquoted Certificate & Declaration – the format are standardized Dr.T.V.Rao MD 24

Acknowledgments….:

Acknowledgments…. It is very important to be clear who may be acknowledged when writing a thesis – as compared to compiling a manuscript… OBVIOUS INCLUSIONS: Guides, Dissertation committee members Assistance received for laboratory tests, statistical analysis, compilation, library searches Sources of funding both Institutional (to be mentioned in all cases), other funds OPTIONAL (for a thesis not a manuscript) Family and friends Dr.T.V.Rao MD 25

The main sections…..a few details:

The main sections…..a few details Each Section begins on a fresh page Section Titles should be in Times New Roman font, Font size 14, centered, bold, upper case After each Section Title the first Para of each Section should be left aligned & not be indented; subsequent pares are to be indented Dr.T.V.Rao MD 26

Review of the Relevant Literature:

Review of the Relevant Literature This Section should contain relevant references from Traditional texts (ending with a clear link to experimental research) Early publications (e.g., books, Indexed Journals ) Recent publications – preferably publications, also books Tabulate the most relevant references at the end of the Section Dr.T.V.Rao MD 27

Materials and Methods:

This Section has been called: Methods/ Materials and Methods/ Methods as one Section and Materials as another – we can use METHODS ***** The Methods Section varies according to the type of study. This presentation includes a standard description for an experimental study conducted with Human Subjects. Materials and Methods Dr.T.V.Rao MD 28

Results:

Results This main Section should be very concise It should include – what was found – mentioning the level of significance and other information considered relevant depending on the test used Mention the effect size Tables Graphs Information in Tables & Graphs should NOT duplicate each other Dr.T.V.Rao MD 29

Results, Tables:

Results, Tables Tables should be numbered in Arabic Numerals Each Table should have a comprehensive heading – this should begin on the next line after the Table No. Headings should be in Times NR (like the rest of the text), Font size 12, Bold, Sentence case Each Table should indicate significant changes with asterisks The level of significance (e.g., * = p<.05…) should be mentioned below the Table, Times NR, Font size 12, Bold Dr.T.V.Rao MD 30

Results, Figures:

Results, Figures Figures should not duplicate data given in Tables Figures should be numbered in Arabic numerals Every Figure should have a legend written below it in Times NR, font size 12, bold, sentence case The units for all numbers should be provided in SI units (e.g., length – meter (m), time – second (s), frequency – cycles per second (Hz) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 31

Discussion:

Discussion This is a very important Section! It should attempt to describe what the study found & possible reasons for the findings How the findings differ/are similar to those described earlier – and reasons for differences if any Obvious drawbacks of the study design (etc.) and how these could have influenced the outcome Implications of the findings Applications of the finding Sub-sections depending on variables studied, integrating the discussion on each at the end Dr.T.V.Rao MD 32

Summary:

Summary This Section should ideally ‘Stand Alone’ – if anyone reads it they would know why the study was done, what was done, what was found.. It should include: The Background (1-2 sentences) The Aim The Methods Results Implications Drawbacks Directions for future research Dr.T.V.Rao MD 33

Well done Thesis has a message:

Well done Thesis has a message If You’re tackling an important research problem You’ve made an original contribution to its resolution E.g. If you have attempted uncommon problem with sincerity Dr.T.V.Rao MD 34

Well written thesis ….:

Concise, yet clear (scientific writing should avoid long sentences) Attention to grammar, punctuation Attention to details (for example, terms written in a language other than English should be in italics ) Well written thesis …. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 35

Presented well…simple, yet important:

Presented well…simple, yet important Titles, sub-titles, sub-sub-titles (differences in case, font size, bold/underlined/italics, centered or indented or not-indented) Indentation, line spacing Fonts (thesis-writers should be discouraged from using fonts other than Times NR/ Arial); Font size 12, 14 Bold/Italics/Underlined Using the customary sections, using the appropriate terms (for e.g., references rather than bibliography) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 36

what is a Accurate, complete…thesis :

what is a Accurate , complete …thesis Figures should have a legend regarding the source from which they are reproduced References cited in the text & in the reference list should NOT have any discrepancies (e.g. authors’ names, year..) Material used for assessments (e.g., questionnaires, recording sheets should be provided in an Appendix) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 37

What a thesis isn’t?:

What a thesis isn’t? A brain dump of everything you’ve done You get to leave out the dead-ends But you have to fill in any obvious gaps! A thesis is should be logical reconstruction With a single coherent message Dr.T.V.Rao MD 38

An ideal thesis should…..:

Have ‘sound stuff’ Be well written Be presented well Be accurate, complete An ideal thesis should….. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 39

Be brave to Defend your thesis / dissertation:

Be brave to Defend your thesis / dissertation Don’t panic You’re probably the expert on this topic by now! Your examiners may not be experts in your area of work however you are Your examiners are human They’ve sat in your seat They will help you find what changes (if any) are needed to make this the required quality Dr.T.V.Rao MD 40

What are examiners looking for?:

What are examiners looking for? Review of literature Is the literature relevant? Is the review critical or just descriptive? Is it comprehensive? Does it link to the methodology in the thesis? Does it summarize the essential aspects? Methodology Is there a clear hypothesis? Are precautions taken against bias? Are the limitations identified? Is the data collected appropriately? Is the methodology justified ? Dr.T.V.Rao MD 41

What are examiners looking for?:

What are examiners looking for? Presentation of results Have the hypotheses in fact been tested? Are the results shown to support the hypothesis? Is the data properly analyzed? Are the results presented clearly? Are patterns identified and summarized? Discussion and Conclusions Are the limits of the research identified? Are the main points to emerge identified? Are links made to the literature? Is there theoretical development? Are the speculations well grounded? Dr.T.V.Rao MD 42

What we should do after completing thesis:

What we should do after completing thesis You’ve finished writing & defending your thesis What do you do next? Turn it into a book now possible to publish as e-book Publish some journal articles around it … Dr.T.V.Rao MD 43

Teachers should be practical:

Teachers should be practical As we pass through years of change there is change in education, students are wise learn what is useful to them which can bring them materialistic gains and academic upliftment Teachers should be creative to select futuristic topics then only our Departments flourish Dr.T.V.Rao MD 44

What to expect from your Guide / mentor :

What to expect from your Guide / mentor Intellectual support Quality assurance What standard a thesis should reach Indication of when to stop Emotional support Encouragement Constructive atmosphere Dr.T.V.Rao MD 45

Guiding too much is catastrophic :

Guiding too much is catastrophic The guides should be wise to guide the students, Too much and unnecessary guidance will expose the ignorance of guides sooner if not later. Human relations are more important as our students are colleagues tomorrow. Best dissertations and research is created when guide knows the his job well done Practice the best policy as guide 1 Speech is silver 2 Silence is gold 3 If you talk with Knowledge and wisdom it is PLATINUM. Dr.T.V.Rao MD Dr.T.V.Rao MD 46

Your dedicated thesis work has support of……….. Thank them :

Your dedicated thesis work has support of ……….. Thank them Dr.T.V.Rao MD 47

With dedication to many helped in my thesis:

With dedication to many helped in my thesis Dr.T.V.Rao MD 48 The programme is possible with unselfish dedication of my Professor and Guide Dr.B Raja Rao MD, Late Dr.Saroja Venugopal MD and all the Faculty and Non Teaching Staff members of the Microbiology Department of Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam ( A P ) India and The Director and all Scientific Community at National Institute of Enteric Diseases , ICMR Kolkata. Never to be forgotten the help of Dr.T.N Naik PhD to train me and elevate me from darkness to light with wisdom and selfless service Dr.T.V.Rao MD

Visit me for more topics of interest in Medicine and Microbiology:

Visit me for more topics of interest in Medicine and Microbiology Dr.T.V.Rao MD 49

Slide 50:

Dr.T.V.Rao MD 50 Created by Dr. T.V.Rao MD for ‘e’ learning resources for Medical Students in the Developing World Email doctortvrao@gmail.com

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