Anatomy & Physiology of PHARYNX

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dear Dr Aman. Nice PPT. How can I download it

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Anatomy and physiology of pharynx:

Anatomy and physiology of pharynx

Anatomy of The pharynx Shape:

Anatomy of The pharynx Shape Irregular Fibromuscular tube lined by mucous membrane Length: 15 cm

Anatomy of the pharynx Compartments:

Anatomy of the pharynx Compartments Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx (Hypopharynx) Seen from behind

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx (Hypopharynx) Seen from lateral

nasopharynx:

nasopharynx

NASOPHARYNX:

NASOPHARYNX Extention from skull base to level of hard palate. Anteriorly communicate with nasal cavity through choana Posteriorly related to upper cervical vertebra ,prevertibral muscles and fascia. Superiorly basi sphenoid and basi occiput limited by pharyngeal tubercle posteriorly.

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Inferiorly communicate with oropharynx through nasopharyngeal isthumus. Lateral wall contain opening of eustachian tube and fossae of rosenmuller.

Eustachian tube:

Eustachian tube

EUSTACHIAN TUBE :

EUSTACHIAN TUBE Situated at 1.25 cm behind and at level of inferior turbinate Bounded posterosuperiorly by torus tubaris. It is closed at rest and open during yawning and swallowing.

FOSSA OF ROSSENMULLAR:

FOSSA OF ROSSENMULLAR Just posterior to torus tubaris there is eminence called fossa of rossen mullar SINUS OF MORGAGNI –space between skullbase andsuperior constrictor muscle of pharynx.it transmit levator and tensor veli palatini muscle along the acending pharyngeal artery.

PowerPoint Presentation:

RATHKE POUCH is an ectodermal diverticulum from whichanterior part of pitutiary gland develops .it persist as dimple above adenoids tumour called crainiopharyngeoma develops in it.

Adenoids endoscopic view:

Adenoids endoscopic view

Adenoid:

Adenoid Adenoid is a collection of lymphoid tissue . shape truncated pyramid. ciliated columnar epithelium. The surface of adenoid has furrows.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Blood supply to adenoid is by 1. Ascending pharyngeal artery 2. Ascending palatine artery 3. Pharyngeal branch of internal maxillary artery 4. Artery of pterygoid canal Venous drainage :pharyngeal plexus which in turn drain into the internal jugular vein

Nasopharyngeal bursa:

Nasopharyngeal bursa It is small median recess in mucous membrane that cover adenoids corespond to pouch of luschka which is endodermal pit drawn out by cranial end of notochord. PASSAVASANT RIDGE - mucosal elevation by palatopharyngeus isthumus become prominent during act of swallowing.

Oropharynx:

Oropharynx

Oropharynx :

Oropharynx Behind the oral cavity (in front of 2 nd &3 rd Cervical vertebra) From the soft palate superiorly to tip of epiglottis inferiorly Communicates: Anteriorly with the oral cavity Superiorly with the nasopharynx Inferiorly with the hypopharynx The paatine tonsils lie laterally between the anterior and posterior pilars

Tonsillar bed:

Tonsillar bed Capsule Loose areolar tissue Pharygobasilar fascia Superior constrictor muscle Buccopharyngeal fascia Styloid process

Blood supply of tonsils:

Blood supply of tonsils is through the external carotid artery and its branches, as follows: Superior pole Ascending pharyngeal artery ( tonsillar branches) Lesser palatine artery Inferior pole Facial artery branches Dorsal lingual artery Ascending palatine artery

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Venous drainage : Para tonsillar vein pharyngeal plexus or facial vein . Lymphatic vessels pass to the upper deep cervial group of nodes, particularly to the jugulodigastric group. Nerve supply : glossopharyngeal nerve.

HYPOPHARYNX:

HYPOPHARYNX 3P’S PYRIFORM SINUS POSTCRICOID POSTERIOR PHARYNGEAL WALL

ENDOSCOPIC VIEW OF HYPOPHARYX:

ENDOSCOPIC VIEW OF HYPOPHARYX

Pyriform sinus:

Pyriform sinus It is recess on either side Inverted pyramid in shape Extention from pharyngo epiglotic fold superiorly and apex inferiorly related to cervical oesophagus

PowerPoint Presentation:

Post cricoid region -extend from level of arytenoid cartilage and connecting folds to inferior border of cricoid cartilage thus form anterior wall if hypopharynx POSTERIOR PHARYNGEAL WALL- From level of hyoid to level of cricoid joint.

Blood supply of pharynx:

Blood supply of pharynx From the External Carotid Artery & its branches 1- Tonsillar artery (from Facial Artery) 2 -Ascending palatine artery (from Facial Artery) 3 -Ascending pharyngeal Artery (from external carotid) 4 -Descending palatine artery ( from Maxillary artery. 5 -Dorsalis lingulae artery (from Lingual artery)

Lymph Drainage of pharynx:

Lymph Drainage of pharynx Nasopharynx --- ► Retropharyngeal ---- ► UDCLN Oropharynx --- ► UDCLN Hypopharynx --- ► UDCLN

Nerve Supply of pharynx:

Nerve Supply of pharynx Motor --- ► X Except : Stylopharyngeus -- ► IX Tensor palati -- ► V Sensory -- ► Nasopharynx : V Oropharynx : IX Laryngopharynx : X Autonomic : sympathetic: SCG Parasympathetic: through VII

Anatomy of The pharynx Structure :

Anatomy of The pharynx Structure The wall is formed of 4 layers 1-Mucous membrane 2- pharyngeal aponeurosis 3-muscle layer 4-Bucco-pharyngeal fascia Stratified squamous epithelium except the nasopharynx, it is pseudo-stratified with goblet cells

Layers of pharynx:

Layers of pharynx 1-Mucous membrane -lined by pseudostraitified ciliated columnar epithelium . Oropharynx and laryngopharynx by squamous epithelium 2-pharyngeal aponeurosislies between mucosal and muscular layer.thickend in upper part called pharyngobasilar fascia 3-buccopharyngeal fascia.

PowerPoint Presentation:

muscles A-outer layer—3 constrictor muscle superior constrictor middle constrictor inferior constrictor B-inner layer –3muscles stylopharyngeus palatopharyngeus salpingopharyngeus

Function of pharynx:

Function of pharynx NASOPHARYNX 1-Conduit for humidified air to pass from nasal cavity to lower respiratory tract. 2-ventilate middle ear through eustachian tube and help to maintain middle ear pressure. 3-act as resonating chamber for voice production. 4-acts as drainage channel for mucous secreted by nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa.

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OROPHARYNX 1-conduit for food and air. 2-is involved in pharyngeal phase of deglutition pre vents food from regurgitation into naso pharynx. 3-aids in production of speech. 4-appreciation of taste through taste buds located on base of tongue and soft palate. 5-provide local immunity through constituents of waldeyers ring.

PowerPoint Presentation:

LARYNGOPHARYNX 1-common conduit for both air and food. 2-production of speech and acts as a resonance chamber. 3-involved in pharyngeal phase of deglutition.

Deglutition :

Deglutition Food in oral cavity taken to stomach It is divided into three stages- 1-oral 2 pharyngeal 3 oesophageal

Oral stage:

Oral stage It is voluntary It is preparatory and propulsive stage In preparatory stag e food is in oral cavity and oropharyngeal sphincter to be closed. In propulsive stage 1 food between tongue and palate 2 lateral margin of tongue form seal with the palate 3 base of tongue kept in firm contact with soft palate.

PowerPoint Presentation:

4 wave of contraction start at tip of tongue. 5 tongue push superiorly on to hard palate. 6 pressure develop within bolus 7 palatoglossal sphincter relaxes soft palate is pulled up base of tongue falls forward and inferiorly. In most people this stage take less than a second.

Pharyngeal stage:

Pharyngeal stage It is involuntary stage Two mechanism help in this phase 1-tongue driving force-base of tongue push bolus posteriorly and inferiorly into oesophagus. 2-hypopharyngeal suction-larynx is pulled forward and upward creating negative pressure in cervical oesophagus

Oesophageal stage:

Oesophageal stage It is involuntary stage Food passes through oesophagus by peristalitic wave and cardiac sphincter opens and food enter stomach. It last 8 to 20 seconds

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