Breeds of Buffaloes: Breeds of Buffaloes Presented by D.N.Raj, TVM / 10-33 04-02-2011 Taxonomical Classification: Taxonomical Classification Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata Class : Mammalia Order : Artiodactyls Suborder : Ruminentia Family : Bovidae Subfamily: Bovinae Genus : Bubalis Species : B.arni ( B.bubalus ) Zoological Position of Buffaloes: Zoological Position of Buffaloes Order Family Tribe Group Sub O rder The husbandry and health of domestic buffalo by W.Ross Cockrill (FAO 1974) PowerPoint Presentation: It is customary to divide all types of domestic buffaloes into two types:- The River and Swamp types. Whether river or swamp type they are good swimmers. Buffalo Production by P.N.Bhat 2010 . Swamp Buffalo: Swamp Buffalo Are light in weight have a lower milk production capacity Mainly used for draught purpose in the paddy fields of South East Asia. Is a semiaquatic animal Have 48 chromosomes Riverine Buffalo: Riverine Buffalo Are heavier than swamp buffaloes have a higher milk production capacity As a rule shows preference for clean running water. Have 50 Chromosomes History of Domestication: History of Domestication First domesticated around 2500 BC in Indus Valley. Systematic development occurred in Indian Subcontinent. Buffaloes entered Russia(west) in 7 th Century. Buffaloes entered Europe in 13 th Century Buffalo Production by P.N.Bhat 2010 . Domestication of Buffaloes: Domestication of Buffaloes Buffaloes are easily domesticated . The African Buffalo( Syncerus caffer ) which was believed to be difficult to domesticate could be easily tamed when efforts at domestication were made. On the other hand domestic buffaloes can easily revert to semi-wild or wild state if let loose to fend themselves. Buffalo Production by P.N.Bhat 2010 . World Population and Production:
World Population and Production Total world population in 2005:-174 million India : 98 million ( 56.4 %)
:26 million (15.1 %) China : 23 million ( 13.1 %) Buffalo Production by P.N.Bhat 2010 .
World Population and Production: World Population and Production River buffaloes constitute around 65 % and account for 92 % of total milk produced. India alone contributes 42 % of the milk produced. Swamp buffaloes are found in rice growing countries of Asia. Buffalo Production by P.N.Bhat 2010 . Buffalo population in Indian States: Buffalo population in Indian States Uttar Pradesh has 22.9 million followed by Andhra Pradesh (10.6 million) and Rajasthan ( 10.4 million) Buffalo Production by P.N.Bhat 2010 . General Charecters: General Charecters Have a high tolerance to cold temperatures than domestic cattle. Best milch animals are found in areas where temperature goes as high as 40 o C (Haryana, Punjab, UP, western parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat.) Non descript buffaloes are found in areas of high rainfall and humidity. They have small body size and have heavy draught capacity for working in paddy fields. Buffalo Production by P.N.Bhat 2010 . A living tractor of the East: A living tractor of the East General Characters: General Characters Buffaloes are big boned, massive animals with body set low on strong legs with large hooves. Dewlap and hump are absent. Body frame of river buffalo (dairy cattle) and swamp buffalo ( draught breeds of zebu) Horns are generally more massive than those of cattle. They are broad, flat and almost rectangular in cross section near the base and with prominent ridges across the long axis. Buffalo Production by P.N.Bhat 2010 . General Characters: General Characters Horns are of long type and short type. Long horns are useful in balancing and forward pushing while the animal is working. Short horned buffaloes are said to be stubborn and difficult to handle. Buffalo Production by P.N.Bhat 2010 . General Characters: General Characters Some breeds show white markings in the form of stripes and some others are conspicuous in having a piebald coat. Skin color varies from jet black to light pink. Leucoderma is known to occur in buffaloes and it does not affect production in any manner. Buffalo Production by P.N.Bhat 2010 . General Characters: General Characters Buffaloes are efficient converters of feed. have slower ruminal movements, smaller rate of outflow from the rumen and have higher bacterial population in the ruminal fluid. This leads to longer exposure of feed and consequently a more complete digestion. Also has a high production of VFAs which contributes to high fat content in buffalo milk A normal buffalo could have as many as nine to ten lactations in a life time. General Characters: General Characters Birth Weight: of water buffalo is higher than that of all domestic cattle except Friesian cattle. of buffalo varies with respect to the sex of the calf and the calving sequence. BW of male calf > BW of female calf increases up to 4th calving when the dam attains full maturity. General Characters: General Characters Growth Rate: Slower in buffaloes and continues to grow up to 10th year, but the growth rate is slow after 5th year. The delayed maturity affects the age at 1 st calving . Age at 1st Calving: Varies widely. Longer in Village conditions and shorter in farm bred animals due to proper feeding and management. Why Buffaloes are Seasonal Breeders: Why Buffaloes are Seasonal Breeders Buffaloes are generally black in color. Melanin pigment gives it the black color. Traps U/V rays and protects the animal from heat. Sebaceous glands are abundant and secrets sebum. This forms a protective glossy layer on the skin prevents the solutes in the water entering the buffalo body during wallowing. The adaptation to wallowing during hot climates made the buffaloes to acquire Seasonal Productive and Reproductive Pattern. Buffalo Production by P.N.Bhat 2010 . Typical composition of buffalo milk and cow milk: Typical composition of buffalo milk and cow milk Traits Cow Buffalo Total solids (%) 13.10 16.30 Fat (%) 4.30 7.90 Protein (%) 3.60 4.20 Lactose (%) 4.80 5.00 Tocopherol (mg/g) 0.31 0.33 Cholesterol (mg/g) 3.14 0.65 Calcium (mg/100 g) 165.00 264.00 Phosphorus (mg/100 g) 213.00 268.00 Magnesium (mg/100 g) 23.00 30.00 Potassium (mg/100 mg) 185.00 107.00 Sodium (mg/100 g) 73.00 65.00 Vitamin A (incl. Carotene) IU. 30.30 33.00 Vitamin C (mg/100 g) 1.90 6.70 Buffalo Breeds: Buffalo Breeds Well Known Murrah Pandarapuri Surti LESSER KNOWN Dharwad / Gowli South Kanara Godavari Toda Kuttanad Some of the important buffalo breeds-region wise: Some of the important buffalo breeds-region wise Central India: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Goa Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes: Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes The ICAR has been in the forefront of Buffalo Development. It has established The Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes. PowerPoint Presentation: Murrah means “Curled” The colour is usually jet black with white markings sometimes found on tail T h e breeding tract : Rohtak , Hissar and Jind districts of Haryana and Nabha and Patiala districts of Punjab in India. Murrah Buffalo Local names: Dharwari in Karnataka Kali and Kundi in Delhi. PowerPoint Presentation: Massive body Neck and head are comparatively long Horns short and tightly curved. Udder is well developed Murrah PowerPoint Presentation: The hips are broad, and fore - and hindquarters drooping. The tail is long reaching up to the fetlocks. Murrah Murrah: Murrah Body weight : adult female -430 to 500 kg; adult male -530 to 575 kg Age at first calving:45-50 months in villages but in well managed herds it is 36 to 40 months. Calving Interval- 450-500 days . Lactation Yeild : 1500 to 2500 kg. Lactation Length: 300 days. Milk Fat : 7.2% The bullocks though slow are powerful. Pure Murrah available at: Andhra Pradesh Buffalo Breeding Centre, NDDB, Nekarikallu Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam Govt. Livestock Farms: Banavasi, Horesikullu, Kakinada, Karimnagar, Mamnoor, Reddipalli : Pure Murrah available at: Andhra Pradesh Buffalo Breeding Centre, NDDB, Nekarikallu Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam Govt. Livestock Farms: Banavasi , Horesikullu , Kakinada, Karimnagar , Mamnoor , Reddipalli Assam Govt of Assam: Barpeta, Berhampur, Guwahati, Jagdaur, Khanikar, Pochmile, Silchar Bihar: Govt. of Bihar: Sarakela, Sepaya Goa: Govt. of Goa, Dhat Gujarat Amul Research & Dev Association, Ode Sabarmati Ashram Gaushala, Bidaj Haryana Central Inst for Res on Buffaloes, Hisar National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal Jammu & Kashmir Central Cattle Breeding & Research Farm, Beli Charana : Assam Govt of Assam: Barpeta , Berhampur , Guwahati , Jagdaur , Khanikar , Pochmile , Silchar Bihar: Govt. of Bihar: Sarakela , Sepaya Goa: Govt. of Goa, Dh at Gujarat Amul Research & Dev Association, Ode Sabarmati Ashram Gaushala , Bidaj Haryana Central Inst for Res on Buffaloes, Hisar National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal Jammu & Kashmir Central Cattle Breeding & Research Farm, Beli Charana PowerPoint Presentation: Karnataka Govt of Karnataka: Bankapur , Hessarghatta , Koila , Kurikuppi , Torongal National Dairy Research Inst, Bangalore Kerala Govt of Kerala, Kodapanakunnu Kerala Livestock Development Board Ltd: Dhoni , Kulathupuzha , Mattupetty , Peermade Madhya Pradesh Govt of Madhya Pradesh: Anjora , Kiratpur , Ratona Maharashtra BAIF Dev Res Foundation,Uruli Kanchan PowerPoint Presentation: Punjab Govt. of Punjab, Mattewara Punjab Agril University, Ludhiana Punjab State Coop Milk Producers’ Federation Ltd, Bhattia Tamil Nadu Agril College & Res Inst, Coimbatore Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Madras Govt. of Tamil Nadu: Hosur , Ooty , Orthand , Pudukottai , Tirunelveli PowerPoint Presentation: Uttar Pradesh Govt. of Uttar Pradesh: Hastinapur , Lakhimpur , Manjhara , Neelgaon Pradeshik Coop Dairy Fed, Moradabad West Bengal Govt. of West Bengal: Haringhatta PowerPoint Presentation: The Nili refers to blue water of river Sutlej. Ravi gets its name from river Ravi. The breed is native of Sahiwal District of Pakistan and is also found in Sutlej valley in Ferozpur District of Punjab state (India). Nili -Ravi Local Names: Panchakalyani PowerPoint Presentation: The frame is medium sized . The horns are small, coiled tightly and circular in cross-section. The neck is long, thin and fine. The navel is very small. The tail is long touching the ground. The udder is well developed. Nili Ravi Nili Ravi: Nili Ravi Wall eyes(blue eyes) and white markings on forehead, face, muzzle, legs and tail switch are common. Double Chin is conspicuous The head is elongate, bulging at top and depressed between eyes . Nili Ravi: Nili Ravi Inter-calving period : 500 to 550 days. Age at 1 st Lactation: 40 months Birth Weight :Male calf and Female Calf 34&27.5 Kgs Lactation Yeild : 1500 to 2300 kg. Age at first calving : 45 to 50 months. Lactation Yield and Length: 1850 lit & 298 days. The bullocks are good for heavy trotting work. Nili Ravi is available at:: Nili Ravi is available at: Andhra Pradesh Buffalo Breeding Centre, NDDB, Nekarikallu Haryana Central Inst for Res on Buffaloes, Hisar Punja b Govt of Punjab, Mattewara Military Dairy Farm, Ferozepur Punjab Agril University, Ludhiana Punjab State Coop Milk Producers’ Federation, Bhattian Surti: Surti The colour is usually black; animals of gray and copper The body is well shaped and medium sized; the barrel is wedge shaped . Local Names: Deccani , Kaira , Nadiadi , Surati . Surti: Surti The breeding tract of this breed is Kaira and Baroda districts of Gujarat, India. The breed is famous for early maturity and efficiency of milk production. The bullocks are good for light work. The head is long and eyes prominent. The back is straight. The horns are sickle shaped, moderately long and flat. Surti: Surti The peculiarity of the breed is that there are two white collars, one round the jaw and the other at the brisket. Surti: Surti Calving Interval:430 days, Age at 1 st calving:35 months, Age of breeding males: 26 months, Birth weight: 24 kgs , Inter-calving period: 400 to 500 days. Milk yield : 1400 kg. Lactation length: 340 days, Milk Fat: 7.9 % Pure Surti available at:: Pure Surti available at: Andhra Pradesh Buffalo Breeding Centre, NDDB, Nekarikallu Goa : Govt of Goa, Dhat Gujarat : Amul Research & Dev Association, Ode Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Dhamrod Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand Kaira Dist Coop Milk Producers' Union, Anand Sabarmati Ashram Gaushala , Bidaj PowerPoint Presentation: Karnataka Buffalo Breeding Station, Tegur National Dairy Research Inst, Bangalore Univ of Agricultural Scs , Dharwad Kerala Buffalo Breeding Farm, Thiruvazhun Govt of Kerala, Kodapanakunnu Maharashtra BAIF Development Research Foundation, Uruli - Kanchan Cattle Breeding Farm, Hingoli PowerPoint Presentation: This breed has been developed from crosses Between Murrah and Surti and is present in Mehsana , Sabarjanda and Banaskanta districts of Gujarat state . Mehsana PowerPoint Presentation: The horns usually are less curved at the end ( sickle shaped ) compared to Murrah but are longer and could be of irregular shape. Local Names: Mahesani The head is longer and heavier Mehsana Mehsana: Mehsana Animals are of medium size with low set deep body. The udder is well shaped The color is usually black to gray, with white markings often on face, legs or tail-tip. Mehsana: Mehsana Calving Interval: 315 days Age at 1 st Calving: 42 months Age of breedable male: 30 months Birth weight: 29 kgs Lactation yield: 2000 lit Lactation length: 315 days Milk fat : 7.2 % The bullocks though slow are good for heavy work. Pure Mehasana available at: Andhra Pradesh Buffalo Breeding Centre, NDDB, Nekarikallu Gujarat Gujarat Agril Univ, Sardar Krishinagar : Pure Mehasana available at: Andhra Pradesh Buffalo Breeding Centre, NDDB, Nekarikallu Gujarat Gujarat Agril Univ , Sardar Krishinagar Jaffarabadi: Jaffarabadi This breed is found in Gir forests of Kathiawad and is mainly concentrated in Kutch, and Jamnagar districts of Gujarat State . Local Names : Gir,Jaffri , Bhavanagri Jaffarabadi: Jaffarabadi The forehead is very prominent. The horns are heavy, inclined to droop at each side of the neck and then turning up at points into an incomplete coil Jaffarabadi: Jaffarabadi The dewlap in females is somewhat loose and the udder is well developed. The color is usually black; animals of gray and copper color are also seen head and neck are massive. These animals are mostly maintained by traditional nomadic breeders called Maldhairs . The bullocks are heavy and used for ploughing and carting. Jaffarabadi: Jaffarabadi Calving Interval: 440 days. Age at 1 st Calving: 40 months . Age of breeding males: 30 months Birth weight: 27.5 Kgs . Lactation yield: 2336 lit Lactation length: 289 days Milk fat: 8.5% Pure Jaffabadi available at: Andhra Pradesh : Buffalo Breeding Center,NDDB, Nekarikallu Gujarat: Akshar Purushottam Mandir Gaushala, Gondal Gujarat Agril University, Junagadh Sabarmati Ashram Goushala, Bidaj Maharashtra BAIF Development Research Foundation, Uruli- Kanchan : Pure Jaffabadi available at: Andhra Pradesh : Buffalo Breeding Center,NDDB , Nekarikallu Gujarat : Akshar Purushottam Mandir Gaushala , Gondal Gujarat Agril University, Junagadh Sabarmati Ashram Goushala , Bidaj Maharashtra BAIF Development Research Foundation, Uruli - Kanchan Bhadawari: Bhadawari Breed Tract: Agra ( Bhadawari Tehsil ) and Etawah districts of Uttar Pradesh and Gwalior district of Madhya Pradesh. Bhadawari: Bhadawari Body- medium size and of wedge shape. Head –comparatively small. Legs - short and stout, the hooves black Hindquarters uniform and higher than the forequarters Bhadawari: Bhadawari The body is usually light or copper coloured which is peculiar to this breed. The udder is not well developed and teats are of medium size . Bhadawari: Bhadawari The tail is long, thin and flexible with black and white or pure white markings reaching up The bullocks are good draft animals with better heat tolerance. Bhadawari : Bhadawari Average Weight:Adult female 386 Kg Adult male 476 kg Calving Interval: 390 days, Age at 1 st Calving: 45 months Age of breedable male:27 months Lactation Yeild:800 to 1000 kg Lactation length:280 days Milk fat: 6 to 12.5 % Bhadawari : Bhadawari The pure breed is available in Uttar Pradesh Govt of Uttar Pradesh, Etawah Nagpuri: Nagpuri Local names: Berar, Ellichpuri , Gaulani,Gauli . Home tract: Vidharba region of Maharastra and adjoing areas of AP and MP. Nagpuri: Nagpuri Usually black,sometimes black with white patches on the face and legs. Horns: long,flat,curved,and carried on either sides of neck. Tail relatively short reaching below hock Nagpuri: Nagpuri Calving Interval: 350 days, Age at 1 st calving:56 months Age of breedable male: 29 months Birth weight: 28 kgs Lactation yield: 1050 lit Lactation length: 285 days Milk fat: 7 % Toda: Toda Rare breed and confined to Niligiri district of Tamil Nadu Semi-wild – highly temperamental and strong herd instinct Toda tribal responsible for improvement Local names: Deccani,Nadiadi , Surati Toda buffalo: Toda buffalo Medium sized animal with fairly long body with deep chest Produces fat rich milk and they are gregarious in nature Horns are long, wide apart,curving outward,slightly downward, and curving inside at points . Thick hair coat is found all over the body Toda buffalo: Toda buffalo Age at 1 st calving: 47 months Age of breedable male: 24 months Birth weight: 23 kgs Calving Interval: 480 days Lactation yield: 700 lit Lactation length: 250 days PowerPoint Presentation: Buffalo breed of south east Maharashtra (India ). Loacal Name: Dharwari The body colour varies from light to deep black. Pandarapuri Pandarpuri: Pandarpuri Medium sized animal having long narrow face, very prominent and straight nasal bone, comparatively narrow frontal bone and long compact body . Horns are very long, curved backward, upward and usually twisted outwards. The animals are docile in temperament Pandarpuri: Pandarpuri Udders of lactating buffalo are medium sized, compact and somewhat hidden between hind quarters. The tail is long and just reaching below hock. The switch of the tail is usually white while hooves are black in colour . Pandarpuri: Pandarpuri Age at 1 st Calving: 44.8 months Calving Interval: 465 days Lactation yield: 1400 lit Lactation length:350 days Marathwada: Marathwada Habitat : Marathwada region of Maharastra . Color is grayish black to jet black Size is light to medium and compact stature Fore head:long narrow face,white marks on head are common. Marathwada: Marathwada Horns: Medium length, parallel to neck reaching shoulders but never going beyond shoulders as in Pandarpuri . Age at 1 st calving: 56 months Calving Interval: 43.5 months Lactation yield: 1000 lit Lactation length: 300 days Sambalpuri: Sambalpuri Local Names: Kimedi , Gowdoo . Tract: Sambalpur of Orissa and found around Bilaspur in MP. Black in color with white switch on tail, Narrow and short horns,curved in a semi- circle,running backward,then forward at the tip. Sambalpuri: Sambalpuri Lactation duration: 350 days, Milk Yield: < 1200 Kg. Products : Milk, ghee, cream and meat. Tarai: Tarai Found in Tarai area of UP. Black to brown color coat, sometimes there is white blaze on the forehead,Tail switch is white. Lactation length: 250days, Milk yield : 450 kgs Milk fat: 6.6 - 8.1 % Godavari: Godavari Breed tract: Godavari deltaic areas. Godavari breed has been developed from crosses of native buffalo with Murrah bulls. The animals breed regularly and have a short calving interval compared to Murrah . They are hardy and possess good resistance to diseases . Godavari: Godavari The animals are medium sized with compact body. The colour is predominantly black with a sparse coat of coarse brown hair. The head is clean-cut with lean face, convex forehead and prominent bright eyes. The horns are short, flat, curved slightly downward, backward and then forward with a loose ring at the tip. The chest is deep with well-sprung ribs. Godavari: Godavari The barrel is massive and long with straight back and a broad level rump. The udder is medium in size. The tail is thin and extends below the hocks with or without a white switch. High fat with daily average milk yield of 5 to 8 kg Lactation yield of 1200 to 1500 kg. Parlakhemundi: Parlakhemundi Skin color is light slate grey with a reddish hue on ventral surface of the body including teats and udder. Albinism is seen in Manda and Deshi but not in Jerangi . Horns are long and Crescent shaped with transverse grooves. This Buffalo is of three subtypes , A) Manda B) Deshi C) Jerangi Parlakhemundi: Parlakhemundi Females yield about 3-4 kgs of milk per day. Jerangi: Jerangi Found in Jerangi hills in Ganjam dist of Orissa and northern parts of Vizag dist of AP. Black in color with small horns running backwards. It is a small animal and has a maximum height of just 114 cms Manda: Manda Found in parts of Orissa Body color is uniformly grey or brown. Slightly taller than Jerangi . Kalahandi: Kalahandi Also known as Peddakimedi Found in eastern hilly parts of Andhra Pradesh and adjoining areas of Orissa. The color is grey or ash grey As the animal is grey in color it tolerates sun heat better than black colored animals. South Kanara: South Kanara Found in Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts Males- powerful work animals; Females –poor milkers - yield 1 to 5 liters per day Medium sized well built animals South Kanara: South Kanara Used for agriculture operation, transport and racing – Kambala Dharwari/Gowli: Dharwari / Gowli Also known as Holesal or Mundargi buffaloes. Reared by Gowli tribe Maintained in semi-feral conditions Dharawari: Dharawari Medium in body built, dark skinned with lining of dark sparse hairy coat. Milk yield- 500 – 1500 kg/ lactation. Buffaloes in Italy: Buffaloes in Italy Italy has a special interest in Buffalo farming. In Italy a type of cheese called Mozerella Cheese is famous. Breeds of Brazil: Breeds of Brazil Two breeds have been developed in Brazil from the indian breeds viz. Murrah and Jafarbadi . Brazil Murrah from Murrah of India and Brazil Mediterraneo from Jaffarabadi