brake pad material

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In automotive industries asbestos is most common material used in braking system but it is banned in many of the countries because of its carcinogenic nature. Therefore many of the scientists focus to develop new material with minimum cost which is eco-friendly. However, so many researches hopped to come up with equal efficient alterative material as asbestos and more than three thousand materials are available in market with different brand and each one have its unique properties. In this paper review of brake pad materials are discussed with their advantages and disadvantages with their properties and understand the fundamental concept regarding each material which is to prepare a best material.

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Review of brake pad material:

Review of brake pad material Presented by : Navjeevan Babasaheb Deshmukh dnavjeevan03@gmail.com BE ( Mechanical) Amrutvahini college of engineering , Sangamner

Brake pads:

Brake pads Types of brake pads Metallic brake pad Semi metallic pad Ceramic brake pad Asbestos brake pad Carbon brake pad Non asbestos organic brake pad

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NAME OF SCIENTIES YEAR WORK _ 1870 Friction experiment conduct with iron brake shoe Earlier that brake used wood and leather Herbert Frood 1897 First inventing the brake lining material Cotton base material with bitumen solution Herbert Frood 1908 Combination of asbestos, brass wire and resin for use as friction lining _ 1920 These replace with molded materials that contain crysotile asbestos fiber _ 1950 resin bounded metallic linings introduce _ 1960 Semi- metallics wear develop higher performance Hooton 1962 Silica used as a abrasive material LITERATURE SURVEY

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NAME OF SCIENTIES YEAR WORK Hooton 1969 Mineral filler used to control friction behavior Bush et al. 1972 Calculate avg. wear rate automobile brake pad material Spurr 1972 1)Cotton reinforcing for the matrix 2) Phenolic resin polymer cross linking affect behavior 3)Molybdenum disulfide Rhee, Spurr and Nicholson 1974 Asbestos Tsane et al. 1985 Conduct friction test of asbestos free material (fiber glass) K.C. Gong et al. 1985 Rubber – diene , nitrite increase wear resistance Modified compressibility Hoegenaes 1990 Friction powder consist of Fe sponge for semi metallic brake pad used heavy duty area Tatarzycki 1992 Metallic alloys of Cu, Fe, Ni aircraft brake pad matrix Wirth and whitaker 1992 Studied of the composition of transfer film were perform on brake pads of these Composition sliding on gray cast iron. Literature Survey Cont...

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NAME OF SCIENTIES YEAR WORK PQ Corporation 1993 Ceramic microsphere consist aluminum silica with minor iron and titanium oxide To reduce wear and control friction Nicholson 1995 Iron oxide as a mild abrasive, Aluminum oxide polishing agent, Antimony trisulfied added to enhance stability, Copper used as a powder control heat transport, Friction dust consist of cashew resin has ability to absorb heat, It also doing research on brass, lead oxide, metal oxide, Petroleum coke , barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, cashew nut shell oil, rubber scrap, lime, sea coal, zinc oxide. Howell and Ball 1995 Compare the friction and wear of aluminum / SiC with CI material Gudmand - Hoyer, et al. 1999 Metal sulfides effect on disk brake with and without metal fiber. Modified and stabilized friction coefficient Chapman et al. 1999 Tested against cast iron in a FAST Eriksson et al. 2000 Typical composition of a Volvo 850 brake pad material quartz(SiO 2 ) Jang et al. 2000 CI used composition of pads in series of dynamometer test of additive(Zirconium silicate) effect Literature Survey Cont...

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NAME OF SCIENTIES YEAR WORK Sai Balaji M.A., Dr. K . Kalaichelvan 2012 Optimization of a non Asbestos Semi metallic disc brakes pad formulation with respect to friction and wear S.G. Amaren , D.S. Yawas , S.Y. Aku 2013 Effect of periwinkles shell particle size on the wear behavior of asbestos free brake pad Vijay, M.Jees Janesh , M.A.Saibalaji , V.Thiyagarajan 2013 Optimization of Tribological Properties of Non Asbestos Brake pad Material by using Steel wool. U.D. Idris , V.S. Aigbodion , I.J. Abubakar , C.I. Nwoye 2013 Eco-friendly asbestos free brake-pad: Using banana peels C.M. Ruzaidi , H. Kamarudin , J.B. Shamsul , A.M. Mustafa Al Bakri , J. Liyana 2013 Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Palm Slag, Calcium Carbonate and Dolomite Filler in Brake Pad Composites Aku Shakerau Yakubu , Amaren S.G. and Yawas Danjuma Saleh 2013 Evaluation of the wear and thermal properties of asbestos free brake pad using periwinkles shell particles Literature Survey Cont...

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1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2014 Increased copper USAGE Disc Brake Pad Formulation Trend Literature Survey Cont...

Brake pad materials :

Brake pad materials BINDER FILLER RAINFORCING FIBRE LUBRICANT FRICTION ADDITIVES (ABRASIVES)

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Reinforcing fibres Glass fibre Mineral fibre Carbon fibre Ceramic fibre Wood fibre Steel fibre Asbestos fibre Potassium titanium Sepiolite aramid Polyacrylonitrile

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Phenol formaldehyde COPNA resin Epoxy resin Epoxy Modified phenolic Resin Silicon Modified phenolic resin Cyanate ester resin Thermoplastic polyimide resin Cardolite binder B inder

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Filler and additives

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Friction additive and lubricant

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Composition of material

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Recent condition Develop Eco-friendly brake pad - Low wear rate and long life High strength High coefficient of friction Low noise Thermally stable Good water and oil socking property Low brake fade Low cost Future Scope

References:

References 1. Blau , P. J (2001). Compositions, Functions and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and their Additives . Being a report by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for U.S Dept. of Energy. www.Ornl.gov/webworks/cppr/y2001/rpt/112956.pdf 2 . D Chan and G W Stachowiak (2004), Review of automotive brake friction materials, Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 3 . Aigbodion , V.S., Akaide , U., Hassan, S.B., Asuke . F. and Agunsoye J.O. 2010. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse, Tribology in Industry 32 (1): 12-18 4 . Mahmoud M., Mousa M. O., Khashaba M. and Ali W. (2007),, Effect Of Natural Fibres Reinforcing Friction Composites Faculty of Engineering , Minia University, P. N. 61111, El- Minia , Egypt. 5 . Mathur , R.B. Thiyagarajan , P. and Dhami , T.L . (2004). Controlling the hardness and Tribological Behaviour of Non-asbestos Brake lining Materials for Automobiles. Journal of Carbon Science , vol. 5, o. 1, 6-11. 6 . Mukesh Kumar, Jayashree Bijwe (2011), Non-asbestos organic (NAO) friction composites: Role of copper; its shape and amount, Wear 270, 269–280 7. Imaekhai Lawrence and Ugboya . A. Paul (2013), Standard Scientific Research and Essays Vol1 (11): 275-288

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Thank you

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