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Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide1: MONITORING SOME LAND DEGRADATION PARAMETERS IN SOILS OF BALA AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISE Şenay Özden Çetin Arcak D.Murat ÖzdenSlide4: GLASOD CLASSIFICATIONS (OLDEMAN, 1991) Type of soil degradation W Water erosion Wt Loss of topsoil Wd Terrain deformation/mass movement Wo Off-site effects Wor Reservoir sedimentation Wof flooding Woc Coral reef and seaweed destruction E Wind erosion Et Loss of topsoil Ed Terrain deformation Eo Over-blowing C Chemical deterioration Cn Loss of nutrients or organic matter Cs Salinisation Ca Acidification Cp Pollution Ct Acid sulphate soils Ce Eutrification P Physical deterioration Pc Compaction, sealing and crusting Pw Water-logging Pa Lowering of water table Ps Subsidence of organic soils Po Other physical activities such as mining and urbanisationSlide6: EROSION LEVELS IN TURKEY Slide8: -Reduce risks in decision-making - -Improve our understanding of biophysical processes - This is required to: Create realistic models for explanation and prediction (e.g. simulation models); Develop sustainable systems of land-use and management; and Provide the scientific basis for sound policies in natural resource management (e.g. establish baselines and detect significant deviations; establish cause and effect). Slide9: A the second International Conference on land Degradation in Thailand, Eswaran et. al (2001) recommend 3 steps to address the issues and problems in land degradation what to monitor and the time interval for the monitoring.Slide10: The key to land degradation monitoring is to identify indicators that are quantitative, sensitive to small changes, easy to measure, small in number, and reasonably unambiguous . Slide11: Overview of monitoring and natural resource information provision at various scales Mapping Modelling MonitoringSlide12: Soil-landscape units 1:100,000 scale Delineate vulnerable landscapes Limited laboratory testing Generalized hydrological and simplified farming system modelling Input data from survey and limited direct measurement Some capacity for validation from field experiments Proxy monitoring of land-use and management. Field verification of proxy measures Survey monitoring feasible Programs to improve land literacy RegionSlide13: Soil map units 1:25,000-1:100,00 scale Most sensitive lands identified to guide location of monitoring sites Farming system modelling at enterprise level and hydrological modelling at intermediate catchment scale Input data from direct measurement Validation from field experiments Simple monitoring Network of sites for direct measurement of soil change in selected and vulnerable landscapes Programs to improve land literacy DistrictSlide14: LocalSlide15: The study was conducted at the Bala agricultural enterprise which is located in the southeast of Bala township, 90 km to Ankara. The annual average rainfall in Ankara is about 410mm. Almost whole of annual total rainfall is recorded in December- May period. Monthly mean temperature ranges from -2.9 0C in January to 29.8 0C in August (DMI, 2000). The average relative humidity changes between about 71-72% in winter to 37-41 % in summer. The area (8442 ha) is characterized by upland hills. Elevation changes from 750 to1000m. Land use is predominantly cropland in a rotation management system fallow-wheat (5117.2 ha), pasture (1024.8 ha), and meadow (1041.6 ha). PROJECT AREASlide16: In order to have some updated parameters of degradation, To this end, 1/16000 scale soil map of 1989 was digitized an d a soil database was generated. Following a series of in queries, salt-alkali, drainage, boron, P2O5 and organic matter status were displayed in map format. Results of sampling and analyses conducted in 2002 were incorporated into the database.Slide21: from the thematic maps of 1989, some of the Soil series have been effected in various degrees by salinisation and alkalinization. Lime contents of soil series are high and very high. Amounts of organic matter are usually at low levels. Similarly, P2O5 contents are low and very low, whereas K2O contents are high and very high in soil series. Depending on seasonal movement of water table in alluvial sediments, drainage conditions show variation from poor to well.Slide23: Series Medium İşletme Altı Serisi (IA) 0.172 Ağıl Serisi(AG) 0.173 KumsekiSerisi(KU) 0.175 Yaslı Serisi(YA) 0.183 Sıgırcılık Serisi(SI) 0.187 Bahçe Arkası Serisi(BA) 0.192 Series High degree Çit Serisi(CT) 0.200 Çiftekum Serisi (CI) 0.203 Büvelek Serisi(BU) 0.224 Omohun Serisi(OM) 0.227 Purlu Serisi(PU) 0.228 Şeritler Serisi (SE) 0.234 Tavukçuluk Serisi(TA) 0.236 Uyku Tepesi Serisi(UY) 0.254 Sarı Sırtı Serisi(SA) 0.274 Evcioglu Serisi(EV) 0.280 Höyük Serisi(HO) 0.326 İşletme Serisi (IS) 0.357 Almost all of soil series seem have become more erodible in 2002. Erodibility values of 1989 ranges from 0.1 to 0.4, except 4. Pompa series. According to the findings of 2002 , most of K values changed between 0.2 and 0.4, however, K values in four series were calculated more than 0.4 Slide29: K2O K2OSlide31: P2O5 P2O5 Slide32: Generally, an outstanding improved condition in drainage was observed in the study area in 2002. Some conversions from very poorly drainage to imperfectly and well drainage associated with the decrease in water table were observed in some parts of Mezarlık series. In addition to improved drainage conditions, alkaline properties of the series disappeared in 2002. Slide38: Thank you You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.