Slide1: MONITORING SOME LAND DEGRADATION PARAMETERS
IN SOILS OF BALA AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISE Şenay Özden
Çetin Arcak D.Murat Özden Slide4: GLASOD CLASSIFICATIONS (OLDEMAN, 1991)
Type of soil degradation W Water erosion
Wt Loss of topsoil
Wd Terrain deformation/mass movement
Wo Off-site effects
Wor Reservoir sedimentation
Woc Coral reef and
seaweed destruction E Wind erosion
Et Loss of topsoil
Ed Terrain deformation
Eo Over-blowing C Chemical deterioration
Cn Loss of nutrients or organic matter
Ct Acid sulphate soils
Ce Eutrification P Physical deterioration
Pc Compaction, sealing and crusting
Pa Lowering of water table
Ps Subsidence of organic soils
Po Other physical
activities such as mining and urbanisation Slide6: EROSION LEVELS IN TURKEY Slide8: -Reduce risks in decision-making -
-Improve our understanding of biophysical processes - This is required to:
Create realistic models for explanation and prediction (e.g. simulation models);
Develop sustainable systems of land-use and management; and
Provide the scientific basis for sound policies in natural resource management (e.g. establish baselines and detect significant deviations; establish cause and effect).
Slide9: A the second International Conference on land Degradation in Thailand, Eswaran et. al (2001) recommend 3 steps to address the issues and problems in land degradation what to monitor and the time interval for the monitoring. Slide10: The key to land degradation monitoring is to identify indicators that are quantitative, sensitive to small changes, easy to measure, small in number, and reasonably unambiguous .
Slide11: Overview of monitoring and natural resource information provision at various scales Mapping Modelling Monitoring Slide12: Soil-landscape units
Delineate vulnerable landscapes
Limited laboratory testing
Generalized hydrological and simplified farming system modelling
Input data from survey and limited direct measurement
Some capacity for validation from field experiments
Proxy monitoring of land-use and management.
Field verification of proxy measures
Survey monitoring feasible Programs to improve land literacy Region Slide13:
Soil map units
Most sensitive lands identified to guide location of monitoring sites
Farming system modelling at enterprise level and hydrological modelling at intermediate catchment scale
Input data from direct measurement
Validation from field experiments Simple monitoring
Network of sites for direct measurement of soil change in selected and vulnerable landscapes
Programs to improve land literacy District Slide14: Local Slide15: The study was conducted at the Bala agricultural enterprise which is located in the southeast of Bala township, 90 km to Ankara.
The annual average rainfall in Ankara is about 410mm. Almost whole of annual total rainfall is recorded in December- May period.
Monthly mean temperature ranges from -2.9 0C in January to 29.8 0C in August (DMI, 2000).
The average relative humidity changes between about 71-72% in winter to 37-41 % in summer.
The area (8442 ha) is characterized by upland hills.
Elevation changes from 750 to1000m.
Land use is predominantly cropland in a rotation management system fallow-wheat (5117.2 ha), pasture (1024.8 ha), and meadow (1041.6 ha). PROJECT AREA Slide16: In order to have some updated parameters of degradation, To this end, 1/16000 scale soil map of 1989 was digitized an d a soil database was generated. Following a series of in queries,
organic matter status were displayed in map format.
Results of sampling and analyses conducted in 2002 were incorporated into the database. Slide21: from the thematic maps of 1989,
some of the Soil series have been effected in various degrees by salinisation and alkalinization.
Lime contents of soil series are high and very high.
Amounts of organic matter are usually at low levels.
Similarly, P2O5 contents are low and very low, whereas
K2O contents are high and very high in soil series.
Depending on seasonal movement of water table in alluvial sediments,
drainage conditions show variation from poor to well. Slide23: Series Medium
İşletme Altı Serisi (IA) 0.172
Ağıl Serisi(AG) 0.173
Yaslı Serisi(YA) 0.183
Sıgırcılık Serisi(SI) 0.187
Bahçe Arkası Serisi(BA) 0.192 Series High degree
Çit Serisi(CT) 0.200
Çiftekum Serisi (CI) 0.203
Büvelek Serisi(BU) 0.224
Omohun Serisi(OM) 0.227
Purlu Serisi(PU) 0.228
Şeritler Serisi (SE) 0.234
Tavukçuluk Serisi(TA) 0.236
Uyku Tepesi Serisi(UY) 0.254
Sarı Sırtı Serisi(SA) 0.274
Evcioglu Serisi(EV) 0.280
Höyük Serisi(HO) 0.326
İşletme Serisi (IS) 0.357 Almost all of soil series seem have become more erodible in 2002. Erodibility values of 1989 ranges from 0.1 to 0.4, except 4. Pompa series. According to the findings of 2002 , most of K values changed between 0.2 and 0.4, however, K
values in four series were calculated more than 0.4
Slide29: K2O K2O Slide31: P2O5 P2O5 Slide32: Generally, an outstanding improved condition in drainage was observed in the study area in 2002. Some conversions from very poorly drainage to imperfectly and well drainage associated with the decrease in water table were observed in some parts of Mezarlık series. In addition to improved drainage conditions, alkaline properties of the series disappeared in 2002. Slide38: Thank you