INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND HAZARDS

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INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND HAZARDS Guide: Presenter: AHOK BARUPAL SIR DHRUV K. MANGUKIA MAHARISHI ARVIND INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY, JAIPUR

INTRODUCTION::

INTRODUCTION: “Awareness” Government has devised regulations like ; Factory act, Occupational safety & health act (OSHA) g overning safety and fire protection measures for buildings, equipments and processes. Includes building considerations, worker safety and other safety and endangered parameters.

BUILDING CONSIDERATIONS::

BUILDING CONSIDERATIONS: LOCATION: TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION : DESIGN & LAYOUT: STORAGE: EQUIPMENTS:

E. COLOUR CODEING::

E. COLOUR CODEING: Proper application of colour on walls, ceiling, doors, windows, sign boards, etc. Outlet and inlet pipes should be painted with different colours. Hazardous machine parts, dangerous materials can be indicated by red colour. Machines out of service or in maintainance should be indicated with yellow colour tag.

F. UTILITIES AND SERVICES::

F. UTILITIES AND SERVICES: UTILITIES: Electrical supply. Water supply. Gas supply. Air/ vaccum lines. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system. Exhaust duct. Drainage system/plumbing.

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SERVICES: Fire alarm services. Emergency communication system. Egress lighting. Emergency lighting. Fire pump/fire suppression system. Emergency smoke detection/fire suppression system. Emergency cabinet. Make-up air system. Master electrical switch. Emergency shower. Emergency eye-wash. Electrical, gas, steam, air and vaccum lines are grouped so that it can be reached easily.

2. PERSONAL SAFETY::

2. PERSONAL SAFETY: SAFETY MEASURES: Avoid running and tumbling others; eating, drinking or chewing in the laboratory. Avoid working alone, working behind locked doors, etc. Avoid entering cold room without necessary precautions. Avoid using unlabelled containers. In cold rooms, pilot light and alarm bell should be kept. Before leaving the laboratory, turn off gas, water and electricity. Only dry materials should be thrown into dust bin. Never use hammer to open valves of gas cylinder.

B). SAFETY PRECAUTIONS::

B). SAFETY PRECAUTIONS: 9/11/2009 8 CHEMICAL HAZARDS

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C). STRESS – SAFETY SOURCES OF INDUSTRIAL STRESS : Task complexity. Job security. Work load. Lack of psychological and moral support from management. Working environment. Feeling of responsibility for welfare. MEASURES TO REDUCE STRESS :

D). ‘FALL’ HAZARDS ::

D). ‘FALL’ HAZARDS : CAUSES OF FALLS: PREVENTION: MECHANICAL HAZARDS : 3.1 INTRODUCTION: 3.2 MECHANICAL INJURIES : TYPES OF INJURIES ARE: Cutting & Tearing. Breaking. Straining & spraining. Puncturing. Shearing. Crushing.

3.3 PREVENTION OF MECHANICAL HAZARDS ::

3.3 PREVENTION OF MECHANICAL HAZARDS : Prevention = safeguarding REQUIRMENTS OF SAFEGUARDS : Prevent contact. Be secure and durable. Protect from falling objects. Allow safe and timely maintenance.

TYPES OF SAFEGUARDS ::

TYPES OF SAFEGUARDS : POINT OF OPERATION GUARDS: TYPES OF POINT OF OPERATION GUARDS: Fixed guard. Interlocked. Adjustable. b) FEEDING AND EJECTION SYSTEMS : Automatic feed FEEDING SYSTEMS Semi-automatic feed EJECTION SYSYTEMS Automatic ejection Semi-automatic ejection

d). ROBOT SAFEGUARDS ::

d). ROBOT SAFEGUARDS : Main hazards associated with robots are : Entrapment of a worker b/w a robot and a solid surface. Impact with a moving robot arm. Impact with objects ejected or dropped by the robot. The best guard against these hazard is to provide with a erect physical barrier around the entire perimeter of robot’s work envelope. Another approach is to put sensitized doors or gates in the perimeter barrier that automatically shuts down the robot movement when the doors are opened.

LOCK OUT & TAG OUT SYSTEMS ::

LOCK OUT & TAG OUT SYSTEMS : Specially designed to protect against unexpected start-up of a machine. Lock usually has label that gives the name, department and telephone extension of the person who put it on. Tag- out system is exactly like the lock-out system where lock is substituted with tag. D DANGER This tag may be removed by ‘XYZ’ Maintenance dept. Ext. 591 ll LOCKED OUT TAGGED OUT

4. ELECTRIACL HAZARDS::

4. ELECTRIACL HAZARDS: Occurs when a person simultaneously comes in contact with the conductor carrying current and the round. 4.1 SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS : Short circuits. Electrostatic hazards. Arcs & spark hazards. Combustible & explosive materials. Improper wiring. Insulation failure.

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4.2 DETECTION OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS : CIRCUIT TESTER. RECEPTANCE WIRING TESTER. 4.3 PREVENTION OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS : 5). CHEMICAL HAZARDS: Handling of corrosive, flammable, oxidizer, reactive ,poisonous or radioactive materials presents special dangers in pharmaceutical industry. ACUTE. EFFECTS CHRONIC.

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Routes of entry of chemicals into the human body Organs and tissues that may be affected by particular toxic chemicals 18

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National Fire Protection Association 704 Hazard Identification System Numbers in the diamond range designate (from 4 for the greatest to 0 for the least) degree of hazard.

Hazard Class 1: Explosives:

Hazard Class 1: Explosives Background color: Orange Symbol: Exploding ball CLASSES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES A substance that produce a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas or heat when subjected to pressure, shock or high temperature. Hazard Class 2: Gases Background color: Varies Symbol: Varies

Hazard Class 3: Flammable Liquids:

Hazard Class 3: Flammable Liquids Background color: Red Symbol: Flame Hazard Class 4: Flammable Solids Background colour: Red & white candy striped Blue if reacts with water

Hazard Class 5: Oxidizers & Organic Peroxides:

Hazard Class 5: Oxidizers & Organic Peroxides Background color: Yellow. Symbol: Flaming ball. Oxidizer: Oxidizing substances can ignite flammable and combustible material or worsen existing fire and thus make fire fighting more difficult. Caution! Keep away from flammable, combustible and spontaneously combustible materials. Hazard Class 6: Poisons & Etiologic Materials INHALATION HAZARD

Hazard Class 7: Radioactive Materials:

Hazard Class 7: Radioactive Materials Hazard Class 8: Corrosives Hazard Class 9: Miscellaneous Hazardous materials not specified in other classes

5). FIRE HAZARDS::

5). FIRE HAZARDS: SOURCE: DETECTION OF FIRE HAZARDS: Thermal expansion detectors. U.V/I.R detectors. Photoelectric fire sensors. Heat sensitive insulation. PREVENTION: FUEL HEAT O 2 FIRE FUEL HEAT O 2 FIRE

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FIRE FIGHTING HYDRANT SYSTEM FIRE EXTINGUISHERS WATER FILLED WATER SPRAY FOAM AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS CO 2 MANUALLY HYDRANT DRY CHEMICAL SEMI AUTOMATIC HYDRANT HALON

6). EFFLUENT TESTING AND TREATMENT::

6). EFFLUENT TESTING AND TREATMENT: TESTING : TREATMENT: SHOULD NOT BE DISCHARGED INTO FRESH WATER SOURCES

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REFERENCES Jani, G. K. Pharmaceutical engin eering – 1(unit operations pharmaceutics – 1), Ahemdabad, L.M. College of pharmacy (3 rd edition, pg. no. 610-660, 2006-2007). Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology, Third Edition.by James Sorbick Page no:1948-60 www.sciencelab.com www.osha.com www.ilo.com

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