PowerPoint Presentation: The Psychology of Stereotyping & Prejudice PowerPoint Presentation: EQ 10-1. How do people form, change, or react to attitudes ? Attitude : An enduring mental representation of a person, place, or thing that evokes an emotional response and related behavior. Targets:: Targets: Define stereotypes, prejudice, & discrimination. Explain the social and cognitive sources of stereotypes and prejudice. Stereotypes: Stereotypes Oversimplified generalizations of people who belong to a particular social group. Can be negative or positive Stereotypes: Most often applied to: Gender Race Ethnicity Age Occupation Physical appearance Place of residence Membership in a group or organization Can lead to prejudice Stereotypes Prejudice: Prejudice Negative feelings toward people who belong to a particular social group. A negative evaluation of the group Can lead to discrimination Ethnocentrism: Ethnocentrism A special kind of prejudice The belief that one’s culture is superior to others. Seeing one’s culture as the norm , judging other cultures that are “different” Discrimination: Discrimination Negative actions toward people who belong to a particular social group. How Prejudiced are People?: How Prejudiced are People? Over time, people have become gradually more accepting of interracial marriage. How Prejudiced are People?: How Prejudiced are People? Americans today express much less racial and gender prejudice, but prejudices still exist. PowerPoint Presentation: Prejudice works at the conscious and [more at] the unconscious level. Therefore, prejudice is more like a knee-jerk response than a conscious decision. Race: Race 9 out of 10 white respondents were slow when responding to words like “peace” or “paradise” when they saw a black individual’s photo compared to a white individual’s photo (Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003). PowerPoint Presentation: The Roots of Stereotypes and Prejudice PowerPoint Presentation: Social Roots Social (Observational) Learning: Social (Observational) Learning Stereotypes & prejudice are learned through modeling. Kids who live in environments with prejudicial parents, peers, etc. are more likely to have prejudices as well. PowerPoint Presentation: Prejudice can be learned Social Inequality: Social Inequality Prejudice develops when people have money, power, and prestige, and others do not. Social inequality increases prejudice. Scarcity of resources = fear Social Divisions (In-group vs. Out-groups): Social Divisions (In-group vs. Out-groups) In-group: People with whom one shares a common identity. Out-group: Those perceived as different from one’s in-group. In-group Bias: The tendency to favor one’s own group. Scapegoating: Scapegoating Prejudice provides an outlet for anger [emotion] by providing someone to blame . After 9/11 many people lashed out against innocent Arab-Americans. Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis: People who are frustrated in their goals may turn their anger away from the proper target toward another, less powerful target. (Scapegoat) Scapegoating: Scapegoating PowerPoint Presentation: Cognitive Roots We have a tendency to categorize & simplify Social Categorization: Social Categorization Our tendency to organize all things into categories: “Good” and “Bad” “Familiar” and “Foreign” “Us” and “Them” Gestalt Law of Similarity: Gestalt Law of Similarity The tendency to group objects together that are similar in appearance PowerPoint Presentation: The tendency to group objects together that are near one another Gestalt Law of Proximity PowerPoint Presentation: Combating Prejudice Contact Theory: Contact Theory Contact between groups will reduce animosity, but only if the groups are made to work together to achieve a goal Called a superordinate goal Sherif’s (1966) Robbers Cave Study: Sherif’s (1966) Robbers Cave Study Summer campers divided into 2 groups for competitions Negative feelings established between groups Sherif’s (1966) Robbers Cave Study: Sherif’s (1966) Robbers Cave Study Sherif staged several camp emergencies that required inter-group cooperation. The superordinate goal (solving crises) improved relations between groups.