Schizophrenia

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PowerPoint Presentation:

Schizophrenia

Targets:

Targets Define schizophrenia . 2) Identify various statistics and facts about schizophrenia. 3) List and describe its symptoms . 4) Identify and explain the possible biological and psychological causes of schizophrenia .

PowerPoint Presentation:

What is schizophrenia? Where/how have you seen it depicted?

What is Schizophrenia?:

What is Schizophrenia? Means “split mind” But it is NOT split (multiple) personalities It is a psychotic disorder involving a split (break) from reality

Schizophrenia: General Info:

Schizophrenia: General Info “The cancer of psych. disorders!” A worldwide disorder: Afflicts 1% of the population worldwide (About 1 in every 100 people in U.S. = 2.5 million) Males & Females affected equally often

General Info:

General Info General onset of disorder: As young people transition into adulthood Late teens for males ( more severe for males ) Early 20s for females

General Info:

General Info A life-long disability: Can be treated but there is NO CURE! People don’t die from it, unless they commit suicide. Affects 1/3 of the homeless in U.S.

The Symptoms:

The Symptoms Disorganized Thinking Fragmented & bizarre speech Loose associations, incoherence, frequent derailment Delusions : false beliefs Examples: Delusions of persecution Delusions of grandeur

Examples of Delusions:

Examples of Delusions Persecution –These are the most common type of delusions and involve the theme of being followed, harassed, cheated, poisoned or drugged, conspired against, spied on, attacked, or obstructed in the pursuit of goals. Grandeur –An individual exaggerates his or her sense of self-importance and is convinced that he or she has special powers, talents, or abilities. Sometimes, the individual may actually believe that he or she is a famous person (for example, a rock star or Christ). More commonly, a person with this delusion believes he or she has accomplished some great achievement for which they have not received sufficient recognition.

Examples of Delusions:

Examples of Delusions Religious –Any delusion with a religious or spiritual content. Thought insertion –thoughts are being inserted into his or her mind from some outside force, person, or group of people, and these thoughts are not recognized as the person's own thoughts Reference – believes that insignificant remarks, events, or objects in one's environment have personal meaning or significance

Examples of Delusions:

Examples of Delusions Control –another person, group of people, or external force controls one's thoughts, feelings, impulses, or behavior. Somatic – Usually the false belief is that the body is somehow diseased, abnormal, or changed. An example of a somatic delusion would be a person who believes that his or her body is infested with parasites. Nihilistic – Belief that something is about the to end. You or the world

The Symptoms:

The Symptoms 2) Disturbed Perceptions Terrifying hallucinations : false sensory experiences Typically auditory (voices) – sometimes they tell the person to do harm! Less common to see, feel, taste, or smell false things

The Symptoms:

The Symptoms 3) Lack of and/or Inappropriate Emotions & Actions A) No emotions: “ Flat affect ” – “zombie-like” facial expression “ Catatonia ” – remain motionless Inappropriate emotions/actions Compulsive, senseless acts They live in a private world!

The Catatonic state:

The Catatonic state

Case Study: Gerald:

Case Study: Gerald

Types of Schizophrenia:

Types of Schizophrenia Positive symptoms Negative symptoms Subtypes Paranoid Disorganized Catatonic Undifferentiated Residual

The Causes::

The Causes: 1) Genetic Factors Odds of developing it: 10% if parent or sibling has it. 50% if identical twin has it. You can’t just “catch” it! Only develops if you are related to someone who has suffered from it.

The Causes::

The Causes: 2) Brain Abnormalities A) The Neural Level (Dopamine) Excess of dopamine receptors (6X the amount of D4 receptors) High levels = numerous, intense brain signals = hallucinations/paranoia Clozapine vs. Cocaine

The Causes::

The Causes: B) Brain Anatomy – Abnormal brain activity Frontal lobe activity Cerebral cortex Fluid-filled areas Hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus

What causes these Brain Abnormalities?:

What causes these Brain Abnormalities? Possibly genetic Prenatal Problems: Mid-pregnancy viral infections  nutritional/oxygen deprivation Low birth weight

The Causes::

The Causes: 3) Psychological Factors Gradual vs. sudden development Can it be caused by psychological factors alone? Genes predispose certain people to react to particular experiences

What are the Psychological Triggers?:

What are the Psychological Triggers? Some early warning signs: 1. Prenatal/birth problems 2. Poor peer relations 3. Disruptive or withdrawn 4. Separation from parents