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Premium member Presentation Transcript PowerPoint Presentation: Psycho-dynamic Theories of Personality: The Neo-FreudiansWhere They Agreed with Freud:: Where They Agreed with Freud: Unconscious forces do impact our behavior and shape our personalities.Where They Agreed with Freud:: We use Defense Mechanisms to reduce anxiety Personality is shaped in childhood Where They Agreed with Freud:Where They Veered Away From Freud:: Where They Veered Away From Freud: Doubted that sex & aggression are all-consuming motivations More emphasis on the conscious mind and social relationshipsCarl Jung: Carl Jung Analytical Psychology Agreed with Freud that the unconscious exerts a powerful influence But it contains more than our repressed thoughts and feelingsCarl Jung: Carl Jung Personal unconscious That part of the unconscious mind containing an individuals repressed thoughts and feelings Collective unconscious The part of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a speciesCollective Unconscious: Collective Unconscious A common reservoir of images derived from our species’ universal experience Explains why people from different cultures share such similar myths & images Contains primitive images called archetypesJungian Archetypes: Jungian Archetypes Inherited, universal images from which the basic themes of life emerge. They serve to organize, direct, and inform human thought & behavior They are learning tools that help shape our personalityCommon Archetypes: Common Archetypes Jungian Archetypes in Modern MediaThe “Self” vs. our “Persona”: The “Self” vs. our “Persona” The “Self” A conscious , unifying force of personality that provides people with purpose & motivation An inner sense of who we are Persona Our public self The image we present to the worldAnimus & Anima: Animus & Anima Animus The feminine archetype in a man’s psyche Anima The male image in a female’s psycheJung’s Personality Types: Jung’s Personality Types Extroverts Focus on external world and social life Introverts Focus on internal thoughts and feelings Jung felt that everyone had both qualities, but one is usually dominantAlfred Adler: Alfred Adler Agreed with Freud that childhood is important Childhood social, not sexual, tensions are crucial for personality formation Much of our behavior is driven by childhood feelings of inferiorityInferiority Complex: Inferiority Complex “To be a human being means to feel oneself inferior.” The basic dynamic force between all human activity = striving from a feeling of inferiority to one of superiority.Drive for Superiority: Drive for Superiority Experienced by everyone People have innate positive motives that make them strive for personal/social perfection The desire to compensate for one’s inferiorities Feeling unattractive Doubts about belonging Doubts about abilitiesThe Creative Self: The Creative Self The conscious , self-aware aspect of personality that strives to overcome obstacles & develop one’s potential We have the freedom to shape our personalities & destinies Some may overcompensateQuestions to consider: Questions to consider To what extent is your personality shaped by an inferiority complex & drive for superiority? Do you ever attempt to overcompensate?Karen Horney: Karen Horney Viewed anxiety (reaction to real or imagined dangers) as a powerful motivating force Importance of parent-child social relationshipsBasic Hostility: Basic Hostility Felt toward a parent who neglects, rejects, or is harsh to the child. This hostility cannot be expressed (fear of retribution/loss of love) & becomes repressed. Child feels helpless & alone The breeding ground for neurosis.Basic Anxiety: Basic Anxiety Basic hostility becomes Basic anxiety Feelings of insecurity later in life Horney Introduced the notion of “feeling insecure” (lacking confidence)To counter anxiety:: To counter anxiety: We use coping mechanisms Trial & error strategies for coping with emotional problems and thus minimizing anxiety Take the Coping Mechanisms survey (#1-9)Coping Mechanisms Survey: Coping Mechanisms Survey Healthy people are flexible in how they interact with others. (Balanced on survey) Neurotics are imbalanced in their interpersonal behavior. Horney argued these neurotics could be categorized by their emphasis on moving toward people , moving against people , or moving away from people .Horney’s CAD Theory: Horney’s CAD Theory Moving toward ( C ompliance) Feels the need to give in to other and only feels safe when receiving protection and guidance. Moving against ( A ggression) Hides inner feelings of insecurity while they lash out Moving away ( D etachment) If I withdraw nothing can hurt meHave you met this person?: Have you met this person? When Jane first meets people she comes across as friendly & warm. She’s always doing things for others, quick to pass along a compliment. But soon her attention turns into demands. She can’t stand to be alone, can’t accept the idea that partners or friends would want to do anything without her. Her relationships never work out, yet she falls in love almost as soon as she meets the next man.Moving Toward People: The Compliant Person: Moving Toward People: The Compliant Person These people have overwhelming need for love from others. Emphasize their helplessness. These people become dependent on others, seeing others as superior to themselves. Paradox—while these people desperately want love, they are incapable of having a genuinely loving relationship. Instead, these folks cling to others, demanding love & affection, they can’t return.Have you met this person?: Have you met this person? Jack is disliked by almost everyone he meets. Few people escape his sarcastic, biting comments. He seems to hold everyone he encounters with contempt. He is successful in his field of business, but has done so by stepping on others to get what he wants. He’s such a narcissist that everything has to be about him or he’s unhappy and miserable.Moving Against People: The Aggressive Person: Moving Against People: The Aggressive Person These people need power over others to feel good about themselves. These folks get a fleeting sense of security from pushing others around, but have no real friendships. It is important that this person show mastery in tasks over others & humiliate others before they themselves can be humiliated.Have you met this person?: Have you met this person? Jen works as an accountant, quietly tabulating figures in her office. She rarely socializes with other people who work for the same firm; so now most of them have stopped asking her to join them. She has few friends and spends most of her evenings by herself with her cat.Moving Away from People: The Detached Person: Moving Away from People: The Detached Person These individuals withdrawal from others & strive for self-sufficiency & independence. They detach from others & seek jobs where there is little interaction with others. In general they avoid affection, love, or friendship. They are afraid that emotional attachment will lead to pain & rejection.Erik Erikson: Erik Erikson Our personality is developed based on our experiences in our social settings . The driving force for our development is social (influences & interactions).Stage I: Trust Vs. Mistrust (0-1 yr.) : Stage I: Trust Vs. Mistrust (0-1 yr.) As infants if our basic needs (food, shelter, caring) are met, we learn to trust our parents & our situation. If our needs aren’t met, we begin to mistrust the intentions of others. Some mistrust is inevitable.Stage 5: Identity Vs. [Role] Confusion (Adolescence): Stage 5: Identity Vs. [Role] Confusion (Adolescence) During this time, the adolescent needs to determine what his/her identity will be (job, family). Identity confusion occurs if the adolescent can’t develop a coherent identity. A negative identity-based on undesirable roles in society (juvenile delinquent).Carl Jung believed that people inherit a(n) ___________, which consists of universal, unconscious ideas and memories shared by all cultures. : Carl Jung believed that people inherit a(n) ___________, which consists of universal, unconscious ideas and memories shared by all cultures. temperament self archetype personal unconscious collective unconsciousAccording to Karen Horney, an overly aggressive person relies too much on the coping mechanism of _________________, while a person who has a tendency to be overly compliant with others shows the coping mechanism of _________________. : According to Karen Horney, an overly aggressive person relies too much on the coping mechanism of _________________, while a person who has a tendency to be overly compliant with others shows the coping mechanism of _________________. moving toward; moving against moving away; moving toward moving against; moving toward moving toward, moving awayAccording to Erik Erikson, trust vs. mistrust is to _________________ as identity vs. role confusion is to _________________. : According to Erik Erikson, trust vs. mistrust is to _________________ as identity vs. role confusion is to _________________. infancy; childhood childhood; adolescence infancy; adolescence adulthood; childhood adolescence; adulthoodBirth Order Questions: Birth Order Questions What are the common personality characteristics of people with the same birth order as you? In what ways does your personality support and/or conflict with the presented theories/research on birth order? Was consensus reached within your group? You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.